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Thomas  Jefferson 

Volume    1 1 
i  January  to  6  August  1787 





"    "  -»         ;         *-  '" 

-*    :  1*9  55  ""     /     .-".-- 

Copyright,    1955,   by   Princeton   University   Press 
London:    Geoffrey  Cumberleg-e,  Oxford  University  Press 

X-.C.CABD  5O-7486 

Printed  in?  thtej  iJiiit<-il  Stages  of  America  by 
Prii%c<3torivUniversity  Press,  Prisxceton,  New  Jersey 































PROFESSOR  ARCHIBALD  T.  MAC  ALLISTER,  Consultant  in  Italian 
PROFESSOR  RAYMOND  S.  WILLIS,  Consultant  in  Spanish 

FRANCE  C.  RICE,  Consultant  in  French 

HOWARD  C.  RICE,  JR.,  Consultant,  Princeton  University  Library 

DOROTHY  S.  EATON,  Consultant,  The  Library  of  Congress 

LAURA  B.  STEVENS,  Assistant  Editor 



The  following  devices  are  employed  throughout  the  work  to 
clarify  the  presentation  of  the  text. 

[.  .  .],  [....]        One  or  two  words  missing  and  not  conjecturable. 

[.  .  .]%  [.  .  .  .J1  More  than  two  words  missing  and  not  conjectur- 
able; subjoined  footnote  estimates  number  of 
words  missing. 

[      ]  Number  or  part  of  a  number  missing  or  illegible. 

[roman]  Conjectural  reading  for  missing  or  illegible  mat- 

ter. A  question  mark  follows  when  the  reading 
is  doubtful. 

[italic]  Editorial  comment  inserted  in  the  text. 

(italic)  Matter  deleted  in  the  MS  but  restored  in  our  text. 

[      ]  Record  entry  for  letters  not  found. 


The  following  symbols  are  employed  throughout  the  work  to 
describe  the  various  kinds  of  manuscript  originals.  When  a  series 
of  versions  is  recorded,  the  first  to  be  recorded  is  the  version  used 
for  the  printed  text. 

Dft  draft  (usually  a  composition  or  rough  draft; 

later  drafts,  when  identifiable  as  such,  are 
designated  "2d  Dft,"  &c. ) 

Dupl         duplicate 

MS  manuscript  (arbitrarily  applied  to  most  docu- 

ments other  than  letters) 

N  note,  notes  (memoranda,  fragments,  &c.) 

PoC          polygraph  copy 

PrC          press  copy 

RC  recipient's  copy 

SC  stylograph  copy 

Tripl        triplicate 

All  manuscripts  of  the  above  types  are  assumed  to  be  in  the 
hand  of  the  author  of  the  document  to  which  the  descriptive  symbol 
pertains.  If  not,  that  fact  is  stated.  On  the  other  hand,  the  follow- 


ing  types  of  manuscripts  are  assumed  not  to  be  in  the  hand  of  the 
author,  and  exceptions  will  be  noted: 

FC  file  copy  (applied  to  all  forms  of  retained  copies, 
such  as  letter-book  copies,  clerks'  copies,  &c.) 

Tr  transcript  (  applied  to  both  contemporary  and  later 
copies;  period  of  transcription,  unless  clear  by 
implication,  will  be  given  when  known) 


The  locations  of  documents  printed  in  this  edition  from  originals 
in  private  hands,  from  originals  held  by  institutions  outside  the 
United  States,  and  from  printed  sources  are  recorded  in  self-ex- 
planatory form  in  the  descriptive  note  following  each  document. 
The  locations  of  documents  printed  from  originals  held  by  public 
institutions  in  the  United  States  are  recorded  by  means  of  the  sym- 
bols used  in  the  National  Union  Catalog  in  the  Library  of  Congress; 
an  explanation  of  how  these  symbols  are  formed  is  given  above, 
Vol.  1 :  xl.  The  list  of  symbols  appearing  in  each  volume  is  limited 
to  the  institutions  represented  by  documents  printed  or  referred  to 
in  that  and  previous  volumes. 

CLU         William     Andrews     Clark     Memorial     Library, 
University  of  California  at  Los  Angeles 

CSmH      Henry   E.    Huntington    Library,    San    Marino, 

Ct  Connecticut  State  Library,  Hartford,  Connecti- 


CtY  Yale  University  Library 

DLC         Library  of  Congress 

DNA        The  National  Archives 

G-Ar         Georgia  Department  of  Archives  and  History, 

ICHi         Chicago  Historical  Society,  Chicago 

IHi  Illinois  State  Historical  Library,  Springfield 

MB  Boston  Public  Library,  Boston 

MH          Harvard  University  Library 

MHi         Massachusetts  Historical  Society,  Boston 

MHi:AMT  Adams  Family  Papers,  deposited  by  the 
Adams  Manuscript  Trust  in  Massachusetts 
Historical  Society 

MdAA     Maryland  Hall  of  Records,  Annapolis 



MdAN     U.S.  Naval  Academy  Library 

MeHi       Maine  Historical  Society,  Portland 

MiU-C     William   L.    Clements    Library,    University    of 


MoSHi     Missouri  Historical  Society,  St.  Louis 
MWA      American  Antiquarian  Society,  Worcester 
NBu         Buffalo  Public  Library,  Buffalo,  New  York 
NcU         University  of  North  Carolina  Library 
NHi          New-York  Historical  Society,  New  York  City 
NK-Iselin        Letters  to  and  from  John  Jay  bearing  this 
symbol  are  used  by  permission  of  the  Estate 
of  Eleanor  Jay  Iselin. 

NN  New  York  Public  Library,  New  York  City 

NNC        Columbia  University  Libraries 
NNP        Pierpont  Morgan  Library,  New  York  City 
NNS         New  York  Society  Library,  New  York  City 
NcD         Duke  University  Library 
NjP          Princeton  University  Library 
PEL         Lehigh  University  Library 
PHC         Haverford  College  Library 

PHi          Historical    Society    of    Pennsylvania,    Philadel- 

PPAP      American  Philosophical  Society,  Philadelphia 
PPL-R     Library    Company    of    Philadelphia,    Ridgway 


PU  University  of  Pennsylvania  Library 

RPA         Rhode  Island  Department  of  State,  Providence 
RPB         Brown  University  Library 
Vi  Virginia  State  Library,  Richmond 

ViHi         Virginia  Historical  Society,  Richmond 
ViU          University  of  Virginia  Library 
ViW         College  of  William  and  Mary  Library 
ViWC      Colonial  Williamsburg,  Inc. 
WHi         State  Historical  Society  of  Wisconsin,  Madison 


The  following  abbreviations  are  commonly  employed  in  the  an- 
notation throughout  the  work. 

Second  Series  The  topical  series  to  be  published  at  the  end  of  this 
edition,  comprising  those  materials  which  are  best  suited  to  a 
classified  rather  than  a  chronological  arrangement  (see  Vol. 
1:  xv-xvi). 


TJ  Thomas  Jefferson 

TJ  Editorial  Files  Photoduplicates  and  other  editorial  materials 
in  the  office  of  The  Papers  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  Princeton 
University  Library 

TJ  Papers  Jefferson  Papers  (Applied  to  a  collection  of  manu- 
scripts when  the  precise  location  of  a  given  document  must 
be  furnished,  and  always  preceded  by  the  symbol  for  the 
institutional  repository;  thus  "DLC:  TJ  Papers,  4:628-9" 
represents  a  document  in  the  Library  of  Congress,  Jefferson 
Papers,  volume  4,  pages  628  and  629,) 

PCC     Papers  of  the  Continental  Congress,  in  the  National  Archives 

RG  Record  Group  (Used  in  designating  the  location  of  docu- 
ments in  the  National  Archives. ) 

SJL  Jefferson's  "Summary  Journal  of  letters"  written  and  re- 
ceived (in  DLC:  TJ  Papers) 

SJPL  "Summary  Journal  of  Public  Letters,"  an  incomplete  list 
of  letters  written  by  TJ  from  16  Apr.  1784  to  31  Dec.  1793, 
with  brief  summaries,  in  an  amanuensis7  hand  (in  DLC:  TJ 
Papers,  at  end  of  SJL). 

V     Ecu 

f      Florin 

£  Pound  sterling  or  livre,  depending  upon  context  (in  doubtful 
cases,  a  clarifying  note  will  be  given) 

s       Shilling  or  sou 

d      Penny  or  denier 

tt      Livre  Tournois 

^     Per  (occasionally  used  for  pro,  pre) 

5.    SHORT    TITLES 

The  following  list  includes  only  those  short  titles  of  works  cited 
with  great  frequency,  and  therefore  in  very  abbreviated  form, 
throughout  this  edition.  Their  expanded  forms  are  given  here  only 
in  the  degree  of  fullness  needed  for  unmistakable  identification. 
Since  it  is  impossible  to  anticipate  all  the  works  to  be  cited  in  such 
very  abbreviated  form,  the  list  is  appropriately  revised  from  volume 
to  volume. 

Atlas  of  Amer.  Hist.,  Scribner,  1943  James  Truslow  Adams 
and  R.  V.  Coleman,  Atlas  of  American  History,  N.Y.,  1943 

Barbary  Wars  Dudley  W.  Knox,  ed.,  Naval  Documents  Related 
to  the  United  States  Wars  with  the  Barbary  Powers 

Betts,  Farm  Book  Edwin  M.  Betts,  ed.,  Thomas  Jefferson's  Farm 


Betts,  Garden  Book  Edwin  M.  Betts,  ed.,  Thomas  Jefferson's 
Garden  Book 

Biog.  Dir.  Cong*      Biographical  Directory  of  Congress ,  1774-1927 

B.M.  Cat.  British  Museum,  General  Catalogue  of  Printed  Books, 
London,  1931 — .  Also,  The  British  Museum  Catalogue  of 
Printed  Books  1881-1900,  Ann  Arbor,  1946 

B.N.  Cat.  Catalogue  general  des  Irvres  imprimes  de  la  Biblio- 
theque  Nationale.  Auteurs. 

Burnett,  Letters  of  Members  Edmund  C.  Burnett,  ed.,  Letters  of 
Members  of  the  Continental  Congress 

Cal.  Franklin  Papers  Calendar  of  the  Papers  of  Benjamin  Frank- 
lin in  the  Library  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society ,  ed. 
I.  Minis  Hays 

CVSP  Calendar  of  Virginia  State  Papers  .  .  .  Preserved  in  the 
Capitol  at  Richmond 

DAB      Dictionary  of  American  Biography 

DAE      Dictionary  of  American  English 

DAH     Dictionary  of  American  History 

DNB      Dictionary  of  National  Biography 

DipL  Corr.,  1783-89  The  Diplomatic  Correspondence  of  the 
United  States  of  America,  from  the  Signing  of  the  Definitive 
Treaty  of  Peace  .  .  .  to  the  Adoption  of  the  Constitution, 
"Washington,  Blair  &  Rives,  1837,  3  vol. 

Evans      Charles  Evans,  American  Bibliography 

Ford  Paul  Leicester  Ford,  ed.,  The  Writings  of  Thomas  Jeffer- 
son, "Letterpress  Edition,"  N.Y.,  1892-1899. 

Freeman,  Washington  Douglas  Southall  Freeman,  George 

Fry-Jefferson  Map  The  Fry  &?  Jefferson  Map  of  Virginia  and 
Maryland:  A  Facsimile  of  the  First  Edition,  Princeton,  1950 

Gottschalk,  Lafayette^  1783-89  Louis  Gottschalk,  Lafayette  be- 
tween the  American  Revolution  and  the  French  Revolution 
(1783-1789),  Chicago,  1950 

Gournay  Tableau  general  du  commerce,  des  marchands,  nego- 
cians,  armateurs,  £sfc.,  .  .  .  annges  1789  &?  1790,  Paris,  n.d. 

HAW  Henry  A.  Washington,  ed.,  The  Writings  of  Thomas  Jef- 
ferson, Washington,  1853-1854 

Hening  William  W.  Hening,  The  Statutes  at  Large;  Being  a 
Collection  of  All  the  Laws  of  Virginia 

Henry,  Henry  William  Wirt  Henry,  Patrick  Henry,  Life^  Cor- 
respondence and  Speeches 


JCG  Journals  of  the  Continental  Congress,  1774-1789 ,  ed.  W.  C. 
Ford  and  others,  Washington,  1904-1937 

JHD  Journal  of  the  House  of  Delegates  of  the  Common-wealth 
of  Virginia  (cited  by  session  and  date  of  publication) 

Jefferson  Correspondence,  Bixby  Thomas  Jefferson  Correspond- 
ence Printed  from  the  Originals  in  the  Collections  of  William 
K.  Bixby,  ed.  W.  C.  Ford,  Boston,  1916 

Johnston,  "Jefferson  Bibliography"  Richard  H.  Johnston,  "A  Con- 
tribution to  a  Bibliography  of  Thomas  Jefferson,"  Writings 
of  Thomas  Jefferson,  ed.  Lipscomb  and  Bergh,  xx,  separ- 
ately paged  following  the  Index. 

L  &  B  Andrew  A.  Lipscomb  and  Albert  E.  Bergh,  eds.,  The  Writ- 
ings of  Thomas  Jefferson,  "Memorial  Edition,"  Washington, 

L.C.  Cat.  A  Catalogue  of  Books  Represented  by  Library  of  Con- 
gress Printed  Cards,  Ann  Arbor,  1942-1946;  also  Supple- 
ment,  1948. 

Library  Catalogue,  1783  Jefferson's  MS  list  of  books  owned  and 
wanted  in  1783  (original  in  Massachusetts  Historical  Society) 

Library  Catalogue,  1815  Catalogue  of  the  Library  of  the  United 
States,  Washington,  1815 

Library  Catalogue,  1829  Catalogue.  President  Jefferson's  Li- 
brary, Washington,  1829 

MVHR     Mississippi  Valley  Historical  Review 

OED  A  Netv  English  Dictionary  on  Historical  Principles,  Oxford, 

PMHB      The  Pennsylvania  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography 

Randall,  Life      Henry  S.  Randall,  The  Life  of  Thomas  Jefferson 

Randolph,  Domestic  Life  Sarah  N.  Randolph,  The  Domestic  Life 
of  Thomas  Jefferson 

Sabin  Joseph  Sabin  and  others,  Bibliotheca  Americana.  A  Dic- 
tionary of  Books  Relating  to  America 

Sowerby  Catalogue  of  the  Library  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  compiled 
with  annotations  by  E.  Millicent  Sowerby,  "Washington, 

Swem,  Index     E.  G.  Swem,  Virginia  Historical  Index 

Swem,  "Va.  Bibliog."  Earl  G.  Swem,  "A  Bibliography  of  Vir- 
ginia," Virginia  State  Library,  Bulletin,  vin,  x,  xir  (1915- 

TJR  Thomas  Jefferson  Randolph,  ed.,  Memoir,  Correspondence, 
and  Miscellanies,  from  the  Papers  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  Char- 
lottesville,  1829 



Tucker,  Life  George  Tucker,  The  Life  of  Thomas  Jefferson^ 
Philadelphia,  1837 

Tyler,  Va.  Biog.  Lyon  G.  Tyler,  Encyclopedia  of  Virginia  Biog- 

Tylers  Quart.  Tyler*s  Quarterly  Historical  and  Genealogical 

VMHB      Virginia  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography 

Wharton,  Dipl.  Corr.  Am.  Rev*  The  Revolutionary  Diplomatic 
Correspondence  of  the  United  States,  ed.  Francis  Wharton 

WMQ      William  and  Mary  Quarterly 


Guide  to  Editorial  Apparatus  vii 

Jefferson  Chronology  2 


From  Maria  Cosway,  1  January  3 

From  H.  Fizeaux  &  Cie.,  1  January  5 

From  Thomas  Boylston,  2  January  5 

From  Goltz,  2  January  6 

From  Brissot  de  Warville,  with  Enclosure,  3  January  6 

From  Etienne  Clavi&re,  3  January  9 

From  Le  Couteulx  &  Cie.,  3  January  10 

To  Alexander  McCaul,  4  January  10 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  5  January  12 

To  William  Jones,  5  January  14 

From  Chartier  de  Lotbiniere,  5  January  18 

To  Samuel  Osgood,  5  January  18 

From  Jos6  da  Maia,  5  January  20 

From  Thomas  Barclay,  6  January  20 

Thomas  Barclay  to  the  American  Commissioners,  6  January  21 

From  S.  &  J.  H.  Delap,  6  January  22 

From  Jean  Nicolas  D6meunier,  6  January  23 

From  Ferdinand  Grand,  6  January  24 

[To  Abigail  Adams,  7  January}  24 

To  Calonne,  7  January  25 

To  Colonia,  7  January  25 

To  Matthew  Boulton,  8  January  26 

From  Duler,  8  January  26 

From  R.  &  A.  Garvey,  8  January  26 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  9  January  27 

From  George  Gilrner,  9  January  27 

To  John  Jay,  9  January  29 

[To  Pierre  Louis  Lacretelle,  9  January  1  34 

From  Elizabeth  Blair  Thompson,  10  January  34 

To  John  Adams,  11  January  35 

To  John  Bondfield,  11  January  36 

To  David  S.  Franks,  11  January  36 

From  the  Abb6  Morellet  [1 1  ?  January]  37 

From  R.  &  A.  Garvey,  12  January  38 



To  Philippe-Denis  Pierres,  12  January  38 

From  Mrs.  Rider,  13  January  39 

To  Ferdinand  Grand,  14  January  39 

To  an  Agent  of  Antoine-Fglix  Wuibert,  14  January  40 

To  Harcourt,  14  January  40 

To  Louis  Guillaume  Otto,  14  January  42 

To  St.  John  de  Crevecoeur,  15  January  43 

From  Philippe-Denis  Pierres,  15  January  45 

To  Abigail  Adams  Smith,  15  January  45 

To  William  Stephens  Smith,  15  January  46 

[From  John  Bondfield,  16  January]  47 

From  Carburi,  16  January  47 

To  Edward  Carrington,  16  January  48 

From  Champagni  [17?  January]  50 

To  S.  &  J.  H.  Delap,  17  January  51 

To  Duler,  17  January  51 

To  Jean  Durival,  17  January  52 

From  Miguel  de  Lardizabel  y  Uribe,  17  January  52 

From  Segond,  17  January  53 

To  John  Adams,  19  January  54 

To  Champagni  [19  January]  54 

From  Chevallie  Fils,  19  January  55 

To  R.  &  A.  Garvey,  19  January  55 

To  Frangois  Soul6s,  19  January  56 

[To  the  Abbg  Morellet,  19  January}  56 

To  Elizabeth  Blair  Thompson,  19  January  56 

From  Charles  Burney,  20  January  58 

From  Jean  Durival,  20  January  60 

From  Uriah  Forrest,  20  January  60 

From  Madame  de  Tessg,  21  January  60 

From  William  Jones,  22  January  61 

[From  Tarbe,  22  January]  62 

From  St.  Victour  &  Bettinger,  23  January  62 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  23  January  62 

From  Madame  de  Tess€,  23  January  65 

From  John  Adams,  25  January  65 

From  R.  &  A.  Garvey,  25  January  67 

From  Le  Veillard  [before  26  January]  67 

From  John  Sullivan,  26  January  68 

From  John  Sullivan,  26  January  68 

From  Benjamin  Vaughan,  with  Enclosure,  26  January  69 

The  American  Commissioners  to  John  Jay,  27  January  77 



The  American  Commissioners  to  Taher  Fennish,  27  January  79 

To  Hilliard  d'Auberteuil,  27  January  80 

To  Gelhais,  27  January  81 

From  De  Langeac,  27  January  81 

[From  Schweighauser  &  Dobr6e,  27  January 1  82 

To  Segond,  27  January  82 

From  Edmund  Randolph,  28  January  83 

From  Edmund  Randolph,  28  January  84 

To  John  Stockdale,  28  January  85 

To  Anthony  Vieyra  [28  January]  85 

From  Abigail  Adams,  29  January  86 

From  William  Cunningham,  29  January  88 

To  R.  &  A.  Garvey,  29  January  88 

From  Thomas  Haddaway,  29  January  89 

From  Rochambeau,  29  January  89 

From  Rosaubo,  29  January  90 

From  William  Stephens  Smith,  29  January  90 

To  Zachariah  Loreilhe,  30  January  92 

To  James  Madison,  30  January  92 

From  Thomas  Silbey,  SO  January  98 

From  Andr6  Limozin,  31  January  98 

From  Partout  [January?]  98 

From  George  Wythe,  January  99 

To  Cunningham  and  Haddaway,  1  February  99 

To  John  Jay,  1  February  99 

From  Louis  Le  Pelletier,  1  February  104 

From  Puisaye,  1  February  1O5 

To  John  Stockdale,  1  February  107 

To  the  Commissioners  of  the  Treasury,  1  February  108 

To  Mary  Barclay,  2  February  108 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  2  February  109 

From  Mademoiselle  de  Lausanne,  2  February  109 

[From  Alexander  McCaul,  2  February]  109 

To  Francois  Soul6s,  2  February  110 

From  Andre  Limozin,  3  February  11O 

To  Christian  Frederick  Michaelis  and  Others,  4  February  111 

From  Henry  Champion,  5  February  112 

From  Degaseq,  with  Enclosure,  5  February  112 

From  Anthony  Garvey,  5  February  116 

From  Madame  de  Tott  [early  February]  117 

To  John  Adams,  6  February  118 

From  Mary  Barclay,  6  February  119 



To  William  Drayton,  6  February  119 

To  John  Banister,  7  February  120 

To  John  Banister,  Jr.,  with  Enclosure,  7  February  121 

To  Anne  Willing  Bingham,  7  February  122 

To  the  Governor  of  Virginia,  7  February  124 

To  James  Madison,  7  February  125 

To  David  S.  Franks,  8  February  125 

To  John  Jay,  8  February  126 

To  Andre*  Limozin,  8  February  127 

To  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  9  February  127 

From  John  Jay,  9  February  129 

[From  John  Banister,  Jr.,  10  February]  132 
Thomas  Barclay  to  the  American  Commissioners,  10  February          132 

From  Thomas  Barclay,  10  February  133 

From  David  S.  Franks,  10  February  135 

[To  Madame  de  Doradour,  11  February]  136 

From  Duler,  11  February  136 

From  David  S.  Franks,  11  February  136 

To  Andre*  Limozin,  11  February  138 

To  De  Puisaye,  11  February  139 

To  Tarb6,  11  February  139 

To  Vergennes,  11  February  140 

To  Charles  Burney,  12  February  140 

To  Borgnis  DesBordes,  FrSres,  12  February  141 

To  Schweighauser  &  Dobree,  12  February  141 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  13  February  142 

From  Andre*  Limozin,  13  February  142 

From  John  Stockdale,  13  February  143 

To  John  Adams,  14  February  143 

To  John  Jay,  14  February  144 

To  John  Jay,  14  February  144 

From  John  Jay,  14  February  145 

To  Andre"  Limozin,  14  February  145 

From  Louis  Guillaume  Otto,  14  February  146 

From  Maria  Cosway,  15  February  148 

From  L.  J.  M.  Daubenton,  15  February  151 

From  Louis  Le  Pelletier,  15  February  151 

From  James  Madison,  15  February  152 

From  John  Trumbull,  15  February  155 

To  Simon  B&rard,  16  February  156 

From  Simon  B6rard,  16  February  157 

To  Henry  Champion,  16  February  157 

r  xviii  1 


From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  16  February  158 

To  Philip  Mazzei,  16  February  159 

From  the  Commissioners  of  the  Treasury,  16  February  159 

From  Vandenyver  FrSres,  16  February  161 

From  Benjamin  Vaughan,  16  February  162 

From  FroullS,  17  February  163 

To  Thomas  Barclay,  18  February  163 

To  William  Carmichael,  18  February  164 

To  De  Corny,  18  February  165 
To  the  Prevdt  des  Marchands  et  Echevins  de  Paris,  18  February       165 

From  Andre*  Limozin,  18  February  166 

From  Anne  Blair  Banister,  19  February  166 

To  Alexander  McCaul,  19  February  167 

To  William  Stephens  Smith,  19  February  168 

To  John  Adams,  20  February  169 

From  John  Adams,  20  February  170 

From  De  Corny,  20  February  170 

From  William  Gordon,  20  February  172 

To  Barradelle,  21  February  173 

From  Henry  Champion,  2,1  February  173 

To  Abigail  Adams,  22  February  174 

To  De  Langeac,  22  February  175 

To  John  Adams,  23  February  176 

To  Mrs.  Champernoune,  23  February  178 

To  John  Jay,  23  February  179 

To  Eliza  House  Trist,  23  February  180 

To  John  Trumbull,  23  February  181 

To  Michel  Capitaine,  25  February  182 

From  D'Hancarville,  25  February  182 

[From  William  Jones,  25  February ]  182 

To  Richard  Peters,  26  February  182 

To  John  Stockdale,  27  February  183 

To  John  Adams,  28  February  184 
Jefferson's  Letter  of  Credit  from  Ferdinand  Grand 

[ca.  28  February]  184 

To  Ferdinand  Grand,  28  February  185 

From  Richard  Paul  Jodrell,  28  February  186 

To  Lafayette,  28  February  186 

To  Madame  de  Tess£,  28  February  187 

To  Madame  de  Tott,  28  February  187 

To  St.  John  de  CrSvecoeur  [ca.  February]  188 

From  John  Adams,  1  March  188 


From  Elias  Hasket  Derby,  1  March  191 

From  Alexander  Donald,  1  March  193 

From  Benjamin  Vaughan  tea.  1  March]  195 

C.  W.  F.  Dumas  to  William  Short,  2  March  195 

C.  W.  F.  Dumas  to  William  Short,  2  March  197 

From  Lavoisier,  3  March  197 

From  De  Saint-Paterne,  3  March  198 

From  Madame  de  Tott,  4  March  198 

From  Gaudenzio  Clerici,  5  March  199 

[To  Visly,  6  March}  200 

From  De  GuichSn,  7  March  200 

From  Benjamin  Hawkins,  8  March  201 

From  Martha  Jefferson,  8  February  [i.e.,  March]  203 

From  Brissot  de  Warville,  with  Enclosure,  8  March  204 

[From  Alexander  McCaul,  9  March}  206 

From  Sir  John  Sinclair,  9  March  206 

From  Madame  de  Tesse,  11  February  [i.e.,  March]  206 

From  William  Short,  12  March  207 

To  Parent,  13  March  211 

From  William  Short,  14  March  213 

[To  Adrien  Petit,  15  March}  214 

To  William  Short,  15  March  214 

[From  Adrien  Petit,  17  March}  216 

From  John  Ledyard,  19  March  216 

From  James  Madison,  19  March  219 

To  Jose*  da  Maia,  19  March  225 

To  Madame  de  Tesse,  20  March  226 

From  Richard  Gary,  21  March  228 

William  Short  to  the  Governor  of  Virginia,  21  March  230 

William  Short  to  John  Jay,  21  March  231 

From  William  Short,  22  March  232 

From  the  Governor  of  Georgia,  23  March  235 

From  William  Carmichael,  25  March  236 

From  Martha  Jefferson,  25  March  238 

From  William  Short,  26  March  239 

From  Edward  Bancroft,  27  March  242 

[From  Buffon,  27  March}  243 

To  Adrien  Petit,  27  March  243 

C.  W.  F.  Dumas  to  William  Short,  27  March  243 

To  William  Short,  27  March  246 

From  John  Blair,  28  March  248 

To  Martha  Jefferson,  28  March  250 


From  the  Rev.  James  Madison  [ca.  28  March]  252 

To  William  Short,  29  March  253 

From  John  Bondfield,  30  March  255 

From  Francis  Eppes,  30  March  255 

From  Ferdinand  Grand  [ca.  30  March]  257 

From  Madame  de  Tess6,  30  March  257 

From  Elizabeth  Wayles  Eppes  [31  March]  260 

From  Mary  Jefferson  [ca.  31  March]  260 

From  Andre*  Limozin,  31  March  261 

[From  Adrien  Petit,  31  March\  261 

To  Chastellux,  4  April  261 

From  Ralph  Izard,  4  April  262 

From  the  Papal  Nuncio,  4  April  266 

To  Philip  Mazzei,  4  April  266 

From  William  Short,  4  April  267 

[To  John  Banister,  5  April}  270 

From  Pierre  Poinsot  des  Essarts,  5  April  270 

To  Madame  de  Tott,  5  April  270 

From  William  Macarty,  6  April  273 

From  Rigoley  d'Ogny,  6  April  274 

From  William  Short,  6  April  274 

To  Martha  Jefferson,  7  April  277 

[From  Adrien  Petit,  7  April}  278 

From  David  Ramsay,  7  April  279 

To  William  Short,  7  April  280 

From  Martha  Jefferson,  9  April  281 

From  Jacques  Nicolas  Mayeux,  9  April  282 

From  A.  E.  van  Braam  Houckgeest,  10  April  283 

To  Lafayette,  11  April  283 

From  Louis  Guillaume  Otto,  11  April  285 

To  William  Short,  12  April  287 

To  the  Abbe's  Arnoux  and  Chalut,  12  April  287 

From  Francis  Hopkinson,  14  April  288 

From  Francis  Hopkinson,  14  April  290 

[From  Adrien  Petit,  14  April}  291 

From  Thomas  Mann  Randolph,  Jr.,  14  April  291 

From  David  Rittenhouse,  14  April  293 

From  Francis  Hopkinson,  15  April  294 

From  St.  John  de  CrSvecoeur,  16  April  294 

From  David  Ramsay,  16  April  295 

From  John  Sullivan,  16  April  295 

From  Thomas  Brand  Hollis,  17  April  297 



From  Philip  Mazzei,  1 7  April  297 

[From  John  Sullivan,  1 7  April]  298 

From  John  Adams,  18  April  298 

From  Peter  Carr,  18  April  299 

From  Castries,  19  April  300 

From  Benjamin  Franklin,  19  April  301 

[From  St.  Victour,  19  April}  302 

From  Bellon,  21  April  302 

From  the  Abbe's  Arnoux  and  Chalut,  23  April  303 

From  John  Banister,  Jr.,  23  April  303 

From  David  S.  Franks,  23  April  305 

From  David  Hartley,  23  April  306 

From  James  Madison,  23  April  307 

From  Edward  Carrington,  24  April  310 

From  John  Jay,  24  April  312 

From  William  Short,  24  April  315 

From  William  Hay,  26  April  318 
From  John  Sullivan,  with  Account  of  Expenses  for  Obtaining 

Moose  Skeleton,  26  April  320 

From  John  Sullivan,  27  April  321 

From  Richard  O'Bryen,  28  April  321 

From  Charles  Thomson,  28  April  323 

From  Chastellux,  29  April  324 

From  John  Sullivan,  50  April  326 

To  William  Short,  1  May  326 

From  James  Currie,  2  May  327 

From  William  Fleming,  2  May  330 

From  Peter  J.  Bergius,  3  May  331 

To  Castries,  3  May  332 

From  William  Hay,  3  May  332 

From  Martha  Jefferson,  3  May  333 

To  Rigoley  d'Ogny,  3  May  334 

From  Edmund  Randolph,  3  May  335 

From  American  Traders  in  Guadeloupe,  3  May  336 

To  Ferdinand  Grand,  4  May  337 

From  Delahais,  4  May  337 

To  John  Jay,  4  May  338 

From  Edmund  Randolph,  4  May  344 

To  William  Short,  4  May  344 

William  Short  to  John  Jay,  4  May  345 

To  Thomas  Barclay,  5  May  347 

To  Martha  Jefferson,  5  May  348 



From  Andre"  Limozin,  5  May  349 

To  William  Short,  5  May  349 

To  Edward  Bancroft,  6  May  351 

From  John  Banister,  Sr.,  and  Anne  Blair  Banister,  6  May  351 

To  Jean  Baptiste  Guide,  6  May  352 

To  Philip  Mazzei,  6  May  354 

To  St.  Victour  &  Bettinger,  6  May  355 

To  George  Wythe,  6  May  355 

From  Elizabeth  Wayles  Eppes  [7  May]  356 

From  William  Short,  8  May  356 

From  Stephen  Cathalan,  Jr.,  9  May  358 

From  John  Sullivan,  9  May  359 

From  John  Ammonet,  10  May  360 

From  G.  A.  Auckler,  11  May  360 

[From  the  Abb6  Guibert,  14  May]  361 

From  William  Short,  1 4  May  361 

From  James  Madison,  15  May  363 

John  Stockdale  to  William  Short,  15  May  364 

From  Ferdinand  Grand,  19  May  364 

From  William  Stephens  Smith,  19  May  365 

From  Madame  de  Tott,  19  May  367 

From  John  Lamb,  20  May  368 

To  Martha  Jefferson,  21  May  369 

From  James  Maury,  21  May  370 

To  William  Short,  21  May  371 

From  William  Short,  21  May  373 

From  William  Drayton,  22  May  374 

From  Andre"  Limozin,  22  May  375 

From  Robert  Montgomery,  22  May  376 

From  Ferdinand  Grand,  23  May  377 

[From  the  Abb6  Gaubert,  25  May]  377 

[From  Wilt,  Delmestre  &  Cie.,  25  May]  377 

To  John  Banister,  Jr.,  26  May  377 

To  William  Carmichael,  26  May  378 

To  Francis  Eppes,  26  May  378 

From  Robert  Montgomery,  26  May  379 

From  G.  Pin,  26  May  379 

To  William  Stephens  Smith,  26  May  380 

From  Martha  Jefferson,  27  May  380 

From  William  Short,  29  May  381 

From  John  Sullivan,  29  May  384 

From  Miguel  de  Lardiz£bel  y  Uribe,  30  May  384 

[  xxiii  ] 


From  George  Washington,  30  May  385 

From  Jeudy  de  THommande,  31  May  391 

From  Anne  Willing  Bingham,  1  June  392 

From  J.  P.  P.  Derieux,  1  June  394 

To  Martha  Jefferson,  1  June  394 

To  William  Short,  1  June  395 

From  Feger,  Gramont  &  Cie.,  2  June  396 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  5  June  397 
From  John  Churchman,  with  a  Memorial  on  Magnetic 

Declinations,  6  June  397 

From  Lafayette,  6  June  399 

From  James  Madison,  6  June  4OO 

From  Charles  Thomson,  6  June  4O3 

From  Eliza  House  Trist,  6  June  403 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  7  June  405 

From  John  Rutledge,  7  June  405 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  8  June  4O6 

From  Edward  Carrington,  9  June  407 

From  Richard  Claiborae,  with  Enclosure,  9  June  411 

From  Benjamin  Hawkins,  9  June  413 

Notes  of  a  Tour  into  the  Southern  Parts  of  France,  &c., 

3  March  to  11  June  415 

From  Dr.  Lambert,  11  June  464 

From  Thomas  Barclay,  12  June  466 

From  Thomas  Barclay,  12  June  467 

From  Motture,  12  June  468 

[To  Cassini,  13  June}  468 

[To  Champion,  13  June]  468 

From  Richard  Claiborne,  13  June  468 

[To  the  Abbe  Gaubert,  13  June]  469 

To  William  Carmichael,  14  June  469 

To  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  14  June  471 

To  Martha  Jefferson,  14  June  472 

To  Parent,  14  June  472 

From  Joel  Barlow,  15  June  473 

From  Wilt,  Delmestre  &  Cie.,  15  June  474 

To  the  Commissioners  of  the  Treasury,  1 7  June  474 

To  Du  Pin  d' Assarts,  18  June  476 

To  John  Banister,  Jr.,  19  June  476 

To  Thomas  Barclay,  19  June  477 

To  Feger,  Gramont  &  Cie.,  19  June  479 

From  the  Abbe's  Arnoux  and  Chalut,  20  June  479 

t  xxiv  } 


To  William  Macarty,  20  June  479 

To  James  Madison,  20  June  480 

From  Parent,  20  June  484 

From  Richard  Claiborne,  21  June  485 

To  George  Rogers  Clark,  21  June  487 

To  John  Jay,  21  June  487 

To  Barrois,  22  June  500 

From  John  and  Lucy  Ludwell  Paradise,  22  June  501 

To  R.  &  A.  Garvey,  24  June  501 

From  Abigail  Adams,  26  June  501 

From  Abigail  Adams,  27  June  502 

To  Martha  Jefferson,  28  June  503 

From  Thomas  Barclay,  29  June  504 

From  R.  &  A.  Garvey,  29  June  506 

From  Pierre  Bon,  30  June  506 

From  Stephen  Cathalan,  Sr.,  30  June  507 

To  Madame  de  Corny,  30  June  509 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  SO  June  510 

From  Feger,  Gramont  &  Cie.,  30  June  510 

From  William  Stephens  Smith,  30  June  511 

From  Vernes,  SO  June  513 

To  Abigail  Adams,  1  July  514 

To  John  Adams,  1  July  515 

To  Matthew  Boulton,  1  July  518 

To  Richard  Claiborne,  1  July  518 

To  Maria  Cosway,  1  July  519 

To  Anne  Cleland  Kinloch,  1  July  520 

To  John  Stockdale,  with  Orders  for  Books,  1  July  521 

To  John  Bondfield,  2  July  524 

To  Francis  Eppes,  2  July  524 

To  William  Gordon,  2  July  525 

To  David  Hartley,  2  July  525 

To  Thomas  Brand  Hollis,  2  July  527 

To  Richard  Paul  Jodrell,  2  July  527 

From  Lormerie,  2  July  528 

To  James  Maury,  2  July  528 

To  the  Abbg  Morellet,  2  July  529 

Jefferson's  Instructions  to  Adrien  Petit  [ca.  2  July]  531 

To  Sir  John  Sinclair,  2  July  532 

To  Benjamin  Vaughan,  2  July  532 

From  Villedeuil,  2  July  533 

To  Wilt,  Delmestre  &  Cie.,  2  July  534 



From  Thomas  Barclay  [ca.  3  July]  534 

From  John  Bondfield,  3  July  538 
Jefferson's  Observations  on  Calonne's  Letter  Concerning 

American  Trade  [ca.  3  July}  539 

From  the  Abb6  Morellet  [3  July]  542 

From  Andre  Pepin,  3  July  543 

To  Andre"  Pepin,  3  July  543 

To  Thomas  Barclay,  4  July  544 

[From  Clesle,  4  July]  545 

To  Feger,  Gramont  &  Cie.,  4  July  545 

From  Lanchon  Fr&res  &  Cie.,  4  July  546 

To  Andre*  Limozin,  4  July  546 

[From  Parent,  4  July}  546 

To  Herault,  5  July  547 

John  Jay  to  William  Short,  5  July  549 

To  Villedeuil,  5  July  550 

From  Abigail  Adams,  6  July  550 

From  Thomas  Barclay,  6  July  552 

To  Dr.  Lambert,  3  July  552 

To  Miguel  de  Lardiz£bel  y  Uribe,  with  Enclosure,  6  July  553 

To  Lormerie,  6  July  554 

To  Robert  Montgomery,  6  July  555 

To  G.  Pin,  6  July  555 

From  Andrew  Ramsay,  6  July  556 

To  Thomas  Mann  Randolph,  Jr.,  6  July  556 

To  G.  A.  Auckler,  7  July  559 

[To  Guillaume  Delahaye,  7  July  I  559 

To  Pierre  Poinsot  des  Essarts,  7  July  559 

From  Thomas  Barclay,  8  July  560 

From  Francis  Hopkinson,  8  July  561 

From  William  Macarty,  8  July  563 

To  Abbe*  d'Arnal,  9  July  563 

From  William  Carmichael,  9  July  565 

From  Maria  Cosway,  9  July  567 

From  Madame  de  Corny,  9  July  569 

To  Jan  Ingenhousz,  9  July  570 

To  Lanchon  Freres  &  Cie.,  9  July  571 

From  Wilt,  Delmestre  &  Cie.,  9  July  571 

To  Abigail  Adams,  10  July  572 
From  Abigail  Adams,  with  List  of  Purchases  for  Mary 

Jefferson,  10  July  572 

From  John  Adams,  10  July  575 

C  xxvi  } 


From  Blumendorf,  10  July  575 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  1O  July  576 

From  John  Stockdale,  10  July  576 

From  John  Trumbull,  10  July  578 

From  Nathaniel  Barrett,  11  July  578 

From  Richard  Claiborne,  11  July  579 

From  Abigail  Adams  Smith,  11  July  580 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas,  12  July  581 

From  Ladevese,  12  July  582 

Thomas  Barclay  to  the  American  Commissioners,  13  July  582 

[From  John  Stockdale,  13  July]  584 

From  Thomas  Barclay  [14  July]  584. 

From  Gaudenzio  Clerici,  14  July  585 

From  Feger,  Gramont  &  Cie.,  14  July  587 

To  Edward  Rutledge,  14  July  587 

From  Frederick  Softer,  14  July  589 

To  Wilt,  Delmestre  &  Cie.,  14  July  589 
Notes  on  the  Rice  Trade  Supplied  by  Jean  Jacques  Be"rard 

&  Cie.  590 

To  Abigail  Adams,  16  July  592 

From  Thomas  Barclay,  16  July  593 

From  Joseph  Fenwick,  16  July  594 

To  John  Trumbull,  16  July  594 

To  John  Adams,  17  July  595 

From  John  Bondfield,  17  July  596 

To  La  Boullaye,  1 7  July  596 

From  Dr.  Lambert,  1 7  July  596 

To  Andre  Limozin,  17  July  597 

To  John  Stockdale,  17  July  597 

To  John  Trumbull,  17  July  598 

To  Adam  Walker,  1 7  July  599 

To  La  Boullaye,  IS  July  599 

From  James  Madison,  18  July  600 

From  Burrill  Carnes,  19  July  601 

From  Guillaume  Delahaye,  20  July  603 
From  Langlade,  20  July  604 

From  Andre"  Limozin,  20  July  604 

To  Stephen  Cathalan,  Jr.,  21  July  605 

To  Joseph  Fenwick,  21  July  606 

From  R.  &  A.  Garvey,  21  July  607 

From  Ferdinand  Grand,  21  July  607 

To  William  Macarty,  21  July  608 

{  xxvii  ) 


To  Parent,  21  July  608 

To  Ferdinand  Grand,  22  July  609 

To  the  Rhode  Island  Delegates  in  Congress,  22  July  609 

To  John  Adams,  23  July  610 

To  Mary  Jefferson  Boiling,  23  July  612 

To  H.  Fizeaux  &  Cie.,  23  July  613 

To  Ladevese,  23  July  613 

To  Montmorin,  23  July  614 

To  Abigail  Adams  Smith,  23  July  618 

From  John  Jay,  24  July  618 

From  Robert  Montgomery,  24  July  620 

To  Moustier,  24  July  621 

From  Moustier,  24  July  622 

From  the  Abbe  de  Raymond  de  St.  Maurice,  24  July  622 

To  Martha  Jefferson  Carr,  25  July  623 

From  Mantel  Duchoqueltz,  25  July  624 

To  John  Stockdale,  25  July  624 

To  Nathaniel  Barrett,  26  July  625 

[From  John  Sandford  Dart,  26  July}  625 

From  Thomas  Barclay,  27  July  625 

From  John  Jay,  with  Enclosure,  27  July  627 

From  John  Jay,  27  July  629 

From  Andr6  Limozin,  27  July  629 

From  James  Monroe,  27  July  630 

To  John  Adams,  28  July  632 

To  Alexander  Donald,  28  July  632 

To  Elizabeth  Wayles  Eppes,  28  July  634 

To  John  Wayles  Eppes,  28  July  635 

To  Henry  Skipwith,  28  July  635 

To  La  Boullaye,  29  July  637 

From  John  Ledyard,  29  July  637 

To  Nicholas  Lewis,  29  July  639 

To  Andr6  Limozin,  29  July  642 

[From  St.  Victour,  29  July}  643 

From  Thomas  Barclay,  30  July  643 

To  William  Drayton,  30  July  644 

To  Francis  Eppes,  30  July  650 

From  Parent,  30  July  654 

From  Mainville,  [ca.  July]  655 

From  Madame  Oster  [July]  655 

To  Francis  Hopkinson,  with  Enclosure,  1  August  655 

To  Ralph  Izard,  1  August  659 

[  xxviii  } 


From  Andr6  Limozin,  1  August  66O 

From  Abbe*  Morellet,  1  August  661 

[From  Thomas  Barclay,  2  August]  662 

To  James  Madison,  with  Enclosure,  2  August  662 

To  Thomas  Barclay,  with  Enclosure,  3  August  669 

To  Thomas  Barclay,  3  August  671 

From  Zachariah  Loreilhe  [3]  August  671 

To  Edmund  Randolph,  5  August  672 

To  the  Governor  of  Virginia,  3  August  673 

From  William  Stephens  Smith,  5  August  674 

From  Stael  de  Holstein,  3  August  675 

From  John  Stockdale,  3  August  676 

From  Wilt,  Delmestre  &  Cie.,  3  August  677 

To  Edward  Carrington,  4  August  678 

From  Madame  de  Corny,  4  August  680 

To  James  Currie,  4  August  681 

To  Benjamin  Hawkins,  4  August  683 

To  William  Hay,  4  August  685 

To  David  Ramsay,  4  August  686 

To  James  Monroe,  5  August  687 

To  the  Commissioners  of  the  Treasury,  5  August  689 

To  Anne  Blair  Banister,  6  August  691 

To  John  Banister,  Sr.,  6  August  691 

To  St.  John  de  CrSvecoeur,  6  August  692 

To  Benjamin  Franklin,  6  August  693 

To  John  Hannum  Gibbons,  6*  August  693 

To  John  Jay,  6  August  693 

To  Andre"  Limozin,  6  August  70O 

To  John  Rutledge,  6  August  7OO 

£  xxix  3 


,,"  1786 

A  specimen  of  the  experimental  French  crown,  in  silver, 
executed  by  Jean  Pierre  Droz  in  1786.  On  7  Jan.  1787, 
Jefferson  made  the  following  entry  in  his  Account  Book: 
"pd  for  one  Drost's  coins  9f";  this  was  probably  one  of  the 
two  coins  which  Jefferson  sent  to  Congress  by  David  S. 
Franks,  in  the  hope  that  Congress  would  negotiate  with 
Droz  for  removing  to  America  and  undertaking  coinage 
there.  The  economy  of  the  process  by  which  the  two  faces 
and  the  edge  of  the  coin  were  struck  at  one  time,  together 
with  the  perfection  of  the  result,  excited  the  interest  of 
Jefferson,  Boulton,  and  others  in  the  new  machine  in- 
vented by  Droz.  Jay  did  not  acknowledge  receipt  of  the 
coins  that  Jefferson  sent;  they  have  not  been  found  among 
the  objects  connected  with  the  Papers  of  the  Continental 
Congress;  and  evidently  they  have  not  survived.  See  TJ 
to  John  Jay,  9  Jan.  and  1  Feb.  1787.  (Courtesy  of  the 
Bibliothdque  Nationale,  Cabinet  des  M6dailles,  through 
Howard  C.  Rice,  Jr.) 


Jefferson  was  deeply  moved  by  this  painting  of  Jean 
Germain  Drouais  (1763-1788),  son  and  student  of  Fran- 
§ois  Hubert  Drouais,  who  joined  the  school  of  Louis  David 
and  accompanied  David  to  Rome  in  1785.  While  in  Rome 
Drouais  sent  several  paintings  to  Paris,  among  them  the 
picture  of  Marius.  He  died  of  a  fever  in  Rome  in  1788. 
Though  Jefferson  was  perceptive  enough  to  choose  Hou- 
don  to  do  the  statue  of  Washington  and  to  have  it  executed 
in  modern  dress;  though  he  associated  with  the  Cosways, 
Trumbull,  Peale,  and  other  artists;  and  though  he 
was  a  diligent  student  of  the  fine  arts,  he  was  led  by  pop- 
ular enthusiasm  into  an  extravagant  estimate  of  Drouais' 
painting  and  then  forced  to  retreat  from  an  unfamiliar 
and  not  wholly  congenial  ground  when  Madame  de  Tort 
advanced  a  contrary  opinion.  For  this  revealing  incident, 
compare  the  reproduction  of  Drouais'  "Marius  at  Min- 
turnes"  with  TJ  to  Mme.  de  Tort,  28  Feb.;  Mme.  de  Tott 
to  TJ,  4  Mch.;  TJ  to  Mme.  de  Tott,  5  Apr.  1787.  (Cour- 
tesy of  The  Louvre,  and  Archives  Photographiques, 
through  U.S.  Information  Service,  Paris. ) 

PARIS  IN  1787 

A  detail  of  a  map  of  Paris,  entitled,  "Nouveau  Plan  Routier 
de  la  Ville  et  Faubourgs  de  Paris,  avec  ses  Principaux 
Edifices  par  M.  Pichon,"  engraved  by  Glot  and  published  by 

Cxxxi  } 



Esnauts  and  Rapilly,  Paris,  1787.  The  HStel  de  Langeac 
(not  shown  in  this  section)  is  located  west  of  the  Champs 
Elys6es  (center,  left).  North  of  the  Rue  Saint-Honore  is 
the  Place  de  Louis  le  Grand  or  Place  Vendome,  a  residen- 
tial section  much  favored  by  the  bankers  and  farmers-gen- 
eral; toward  the  right  is  the  Palais  Royal,  the  fashionable 
center  of  Paris;  still  farther  right,  the  circular  "Halle  au 
Bled.1"  The  Pont  Royal  (center,  right)  was  the^main  link 
between  the  Faubourg  Saint  Honore*  on  the  Right  Bank 
and  the  Faubourg  Saint  Germain  on  the  Left  Bank.  Along 
the  Left  Bank  of  the  Seine,  to  the  west  of  the  Pont  Royal, 
the  site  of  the  H6tel  de  Salm  is  indicated  by  the  word 
"chantiers,"  i.e.  construction  (see  TJ  to  Mme.  de  Tesse", 
2O  Mch.  1787).  Also  to  the  west  of  the  Pont  Royal,  on 
the  Rue  de  Grenelle,  is  the  Abbaye  Royale  de  Pentemont, 
the  school  attended  by  Martha  and  Mary  Jefferson.  Below 
this,  in  the  Rue  de  Varenne,  near  the  corner  of  the  Rue  de 
Bourgogne,  and  next  door  to  the  H6tel  de  Castries,  is  the 
H6tel  de  Tess6,  the  town  residence  of  Lafayette's  aunt  and 
Jefferson's  friend,  the  Comtesse  de  Tesse".  On  the  Left 
Bank,  at  the  extreme  right-hand  edge  of  the  map,  near  the 
tip  of  the  lie  de  la  Cite,  is  the  H6tel  de  la  Monnaie,  where 
Condorcet,  as  director  of  the  Mint,  resided.  Slightly  to  the 
west  of  this,  between  the  Rue  de  Seine  and  the  Rue  des 
Petits  Augustins,  is  the  H6tel  de  La  Rochefoucauld,  where 
Jefferson  was  a  frequent  visitor.  It  was  in  the  Rue  des 
Petits  Augustins,  at  the  H6tel  d'  Orleans,  that  Jefferson 
spent  several  weeks  in  the  autumn  of  1784,  shortly  after 
his  arrival  in  Paris.  (Photo  by  Rigal,  courtesy  of  the 
BibliothSque  Historique  de  la  Ville  de  Paris,  through 
Howard  C.  Rice,  Jr. ) 


Jefferson's  daily  memoranda  for  the  first  part  of  his  jour- 
ney through  southern  France.  These  notes,  together  with 
similar  notes  for  the  latter  part  of  his  journey  and  copies 
of  his  letters  during  his  absence  from  Paris,  were  later 
incorporated  in  his  fair  copy  of  "Memorandums  taken  on 
a  journey  from  Paris  into  the  Southern  parts  of  France 
and  Northern  of  Italy,  in  the  year  1787,"  q.v.  under  1O 
June  1787.  (Courtesy  of  the  Massachusetts  Historical 
Society. ) 

The  following  six  illustrations  of  places  visited  by  Jefferson  on 
his  tour  into  the  southern  parts  of  France  have  all  been  re- 
produced from  plates  in  the  Voyage  Pittoresque  de  la  France^ 
compiled  by  Laborde,  Guettard,  and  BSguillet,  Paris,  1784- 
1802.  The  plans  for  this  voluminous  work  were  laid  in  178O 

[  xxxii  } 



by  Jean-Benjamin  de  Laborde  and  the  first  portfolios  were  pub- 
lished in  1784.  The  work  was  interrupted  by  the  French  Revo- 
lution and  the  final  volumes  were  not  published  until  1802.  The 
engravings  reproduced  here  were  all  made  by  Frangois  Denis 
N6e  or  under  his  supervision.  The  drawings  from  which  the 
engravings  were  taken  were  executed  in  the  1780's  and  there- 
fore represent  the  scenes  essentially  as  Jefferson  saw  them.  For 
a  full  bibliographical  description  of  this  work,  see  Andrg  Mon- 
gland,  La  France  Revolutionnaire  et  Impgriale,  Grenoble,  v 
(1938),  921-69.  (Courtesy  of  The  Boston  Athenaeum.) 


From  a  drawing  by  Lallemand,  Plate  No.  53,  Bourgogne. 
See  Notes  of  a  Tour,  3  Mch.  (p.  415) 


From  a  drawing  by  Lallemand,  Plate  No.  64,  Bourgogne. 
See  Notes  of  a  Tour,  7-8  Mch.  (p.  416-18). 


From  a  drawing  by  Lallemand,  Plate  No.  35,  Bourgogne. 
See  Notes  of  a  Tour,  9  Mch.  (p.  418). 


From  a  drawing  by  Genillion,  Plate  No.  69,  Provence. 
See  Notes  of  a  Tour,  19-23  Mch.  (p.  424). 


From  a  drawing  by  Meunier,  Plate  No.  2,  Depart,  des 
Bouches  du  Rh6ne.  See  Notes  of  a  Tour,  25-28  Mch. 
(p.  426-7). 


From  a  drawing  by  Genillion,  Plate  No.  76,  Provence. 
See  Notes  of  a  Tour,  8  May  (p.  443). 


This  map,  printed  at  Paris  by  Dezauche  in  1787,  was  en- 
closed in  Jefferson's  letter  to  George  "Washington,  2  May 
1788,  together  with  the  relevant  extracts  of  the  memo- 
randa of  his  tour.  The  Canal  of  Languedoc  was  one  of  the 
primary  objectives  of  his  journey  and  the  detailed  memo- 
randa he  accumulated  on  the  construction  and  navigation 
of  the  canal  comprise  a  large  portion  of  the  Notes  of  a 
Tour  (p.  446-54) .  (Courtesy  of  the  Library  of  Congress.) 

C» . .  «, 
XXXlll  } 


1743  •  1826 

1743.  Born  at  Shadwell. 

1772.  Married  Martha  Wayles  Skelton. 

1775-76.  In  Continental  Congress. 

1776-79.  In  Virginia  House  of  Delegates. 

1779-81.  Governor  of  Virginia. 

1782.  His  wife  died. 

1783-84.  In  Continental  Congress. 

1784-89.  In  France  as  commissioner  and  mi 

1790-93.  U.S.  Secretary  of  State. 

1797-1801.  Vice  President  of  the  United  States 

1801-09.  President  of  the  United  States. 

1826.  Died  at  Monticello. 

VOLUME   11 

1  January  to  6  August  1787 

9  January.  Recommended  Droz's  new  method 
age  to  Jay. 

27  January.  With  Adams,  reported  to  Congress 

success  of  Barclay's  negotiations  with  More 

28  February.  Departed  on  journey  to  southern 

and  northern  Italy. 
15  March,  At  Lyons, 
20  March.  At  Nlmes. 

29  March.  Went  from  Aix  to  Marseilles. 
11  April.  At  Nice. 

20  April.  At  Milan. 

23  April  At  Rozzano. 
25  April.  At  Genoa. 

4  May.  At  Marseilles.  Reported  to  Jay  on  Ita 
and  possibility  of  Brazilian  revolt  against  1 
15-21  May.  On  the  Canal  of  Languedoc. 

24  May.  At  Bordeaux. 
1  June.  At  Nantes. 

10  June.  Returned  to  Paris. 

June.  Mary  Jefferson  arrived  in  London  and  sta1 

Mrs.  John  Adams. 
July.  Mary  Jefferson  brought  to  Paris  by  Petit 



From  Maria  Cosway 

[STIM]AT.MO:  AMICO  Londra  1  Gennaio  1787 

Ho  aspettato  con  infinita  ansieta  la  lunga  lettera  che  m'annunzid 
ma  non  so  per  qua!  delitto  devo  provar  la  penitenza  di  Tantalo,  L 
credo  ogni  giorno  vicina,  ma  quel  giorno  non  arriva  mai;  nella  suj 
ultima  lettera  d'un  secolo  passato  mi  dice  aver  ricevuta  una  mi; 
lettera,  ne  o  scritte  fino  tre,  che  mi  ricordi,  tutte  dirette  all'  Ban 
chiere  secondo  1'indirizzo  che  mi  dette  Mr.  Trumbull.  La  perdit; 
e  mia,  perche  mi  priva  di  quei  momenti  che  sacrifica  in  legger« 
le  mie  lettere,  mi  richiamo  per  qualche  instante  alia  sua  memoria 
e  mi  giustifica  nel  desiderio  che  o  di  f  arli  i  miei  complimenti  e  d 
presentarli  quelle  attenzioni  che  lei  tanto  si  merita  per  la  sua  coir 
piacenza,  ed  amicizia  per  me;  e  quel  che  mi  preme  ancor  di  piu  no 
mi  dice  come  sta,  se  il  suo  braccio  e  guarito,  se  a  ricevuto  un  libr 
di  musica  che  gli  mandai,  tempo  fa,  *  *  *  Eccoli  soggetti  bastanl 
da  impiegare  due  linee,  che  la  conseguenza  non  &  interessante  ch 
a  me  e  che  puo  scrivere  per  f  armi  piacere. 

Sono  la  peggio  persona  del  mondo  per  mandar  No-vitd,  sicchd  no 
entrerd  mai  in  quel  soggetto;  sono  sensibile  alia  severita  dell 
stagione;  a  quest'ingrato  clima,  e  alia  malinconia  del  Paese;  fors 
mi  par  piu  severo  adesso,  doppo  i  mesi  allegri  che  passai  in  Paris 
ove  tutto  £  allegro,  sono  suscettibile  e  tutto  quel  che  mi  sta  attorn 
a  gran  potere  a  magnetisarmi.  Se  tengo  piu  dalla  Natura  d'u 
senso,  e  quello  di  malinconia,  secondo  gli  oggetti  che  mi  stanr 
attorno,  si  puo  dissipare  o  accrescere.  Tale  e  1'influenza  sopra 
suscettibilita.  Sono  circondata  da  amabili  Persone,  Amici,  e  tuti 
quel  che  6  lusinghevole,  ma  passo  piu  tempo  in  casa  e  posso  d 
che  i  piaceri  vengono  in  traccia  a  me,  perche  non  gli  vado  cercanc 
altrove.  Tutto  il  giorno  dipingo,  ed  esercito  la  mia  fantasia  a  tut 
quel  che  indica,  e  tale  e  il  piacere  nella  Pittura  quando  si  a 
liberta  di  seguire  solo  quando  il  desiderio  c'inspira;  la  sera  la  pasi 
generalmente  in  esercitarmi  alia  musica,  e  una  amabile  socie 
rende  Parmonia  perfetta,  ed  ambi  si  uniscono  a  produrre  il  ve 

1    JANUARY    1787 

passatempo.  Non  son  stata  all'  Opera,  ma  sento  che  e  cattiva,  non 
vado  mai  all  Teatro,  ed  o  piu  piacere  in  ricusare  ogni  altro  diverti- 
mento e  impegni,  che  di  accettarli.  Ma  cos  a  serve  tutto  questo 
preambolo,  quando  cominciai  avevo  intenzione  di  dir  solo  due 
parole,  per  confessar  la  verit&  voglio  tenermi  alP  suo  esempio; 
non  voglio  scancellare  quel  che  o  scritto  perche  sono  riconoscente 
all'  piacere  che  mi  a  procurato  in  conversar  con  lei,  ma  voglio 
esser  crudele  a  me  stessa  e  mortificarmi  privandomi  di  continuar 
di  pid  e  finir  con  assicurarla  che  sono  sempre  con  Tistessa  stima 
ed  affezione,  Sua  serva  e  vera  arnica,  M.C. 

RC    (MHi).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  re- 
ceived  8  Jan.   1787. 

Translations  [Esteemed]  friend,  I 
have  awaited  with  infinite  anxiety  the 
long  letter  which  you  announced  to 
me,  but  I  do  not  know  for  what  crime 
I  must  experience  the  punishment  of 
Tantalus,  every  day  I  believe  it  near, 
but  that  day  never  comes;  in  your  last 
letter  of  a  century  ago  you  tell  me  you 
have  received  one  letter  of  mine,  I 
have  written  as  many  as  three  of  them, 
as  I  recall,  all  directed  to  the  banker 
according  to  the  address  which  Mr. 
Trumbull  gave  me.  The  loss  is  mine, 
because  it  deprives  me  of  those  moments 
which  you  sacrifice  in  reading  my  let- 
ters, I  recall  myself  for  a  few  instants  to 
your  memory,  and  it  justifies  me  in 
the  desire  which  I  have  to  pay  you 
my  compliments  and  to  offer  you  those 
attentions  which  you  so  well  deserve 
through  your  kindness  and  friendship 
for  me;  and  what  concerns  me  still 
more  you  do  not  tell  me  how  you  are, 
whether  your  arm  is  cured,  whether 
you  have  received  a  book  of  music 
•which  I  sent  you  some  time  ago  *  *  * 
Here  are  subjects  enough  for  you  to 
fill  two  lines,  whose  import  is  of  in- 
terest only  to  me  and  which  you  may 
write  to  please  me.— I  am  the  worst 
person  in  the  world  for  sending  ne-ws 
since  I  never  enter  upon  that  subject; 
I  arn  sensitive  to  the  severity  of  the 
season;  to  this  unpleasant  climate,  and 
to  the  melancholy  of  this  country;  per- 
haps it  seems  more  severe  now,  after 
the  gay  months  I  spent  in  Paris  where 

everything  is  gay,  I  am  susceptible 
and  everything  that  surrounds  me  has 
great  power  to  magnetize  me.  If  I  am 
more  endowed  by  nature  with  any  one 
sense,  it  is  that  of  melancholy,  accord- 
ing to  the  objects  which  surround  me, 
it  may  be  dissipated  or  increased.  Such 
is  the  influence  upon  susceptibility.  I 
am  surrounded  by  amiable  persons, 
friends,  and  everything  that  is  flatter- 
ing, I  spend  more  time  at  home  and 
I  may  say  that  pleasures  come  in  search 
of  me,  because  I  do  not  go  hunting 
for  them  elsewhere.  All  day  I  paint,  and 
exercise  my  fancy  on  anything  which 
it  points  out,  and  such  is  the  pleasure 
in  painting  when  one  is  free  to  follow 
only  when  desire  inspires  us;  the  eve- 
ning I  generally  spend  in  practicing 
music,  and  a  charming  society  makes 
the  harmony  perfect,  and  both  unite 
to  produce  the  true  pastime.  I  have 
not  been  to  the  opera,  but  I  hear  that 
it  is  bad,  I  never  go  to  the  theater, 
and  I  take  more  pleasure  in  declining 
every  other  pastime  and  eng-agements, 
than  in  accepting  them.  But  for  what 
does  all  this  preamble  serve,  when  I 
began  I  intended  to  say  only  two  words, 
to  confess  the  truth  I  wish  to  hold  my- 
self to  your  example;  I  do  not  wish  to 
erase  what  I  have  written  because  I 
am  grateful  for  the  pleasure  which  it 
has  brought  me  in  conversing  with 
you,  but  I  wish  to  be  cruel  to  myself 
and  mortify  myself  by  depriving  myself 
of  continuing  further  and  finish  by  as- 
suring you  that  I  am  always  with  the 
same  esteem  and  affection  your  most 
humble  servant  and  true  friend. 

From  H.  Fizeaux  8c  Cie. 

MONSR.  Amsterdam  le  1.  Janr.   1787 

Nous  avons  ITionneur  de  vous  prgvenir,  qu'en  remboursement 

des  interets  £chus  d\m  emprunt  de  /51000.  a  5  p%  pour  les  Etats 

unis  de  1'Amerique  Septentrionale,  nous  fournissons  ce  jour  sur 
M.  Grand  a  Paris,  notre  traite  de  V.  1893.1.6  a  3  usances, 

faisant  au  change  de  52^-  Bo./2475.14.8 

ce  qui  balance  cet  objet  suivant  la  Notte  que  nous  joignons  ici; 

Nous  vous  prions  Monsieur  de  vouloir  bien  autoriser  ce  Banquier 

a  1'acceuil  de  n6tre  traite,  et  pour  qu'il  en  soit  passg  gcriture  de 

nStre  conformitg. 

Nous  saisissons  au  mgme  terns  cette  occasion  pour  vous  pr6venir 

que  le  remboursement  de  cet  emprunt  echeoit  le  le.  Janvr.  1788; 

afin   que  vous   presices,   dans  Hntervale,   les  m£sures   qui  vous 

paraitront  necessaires  pour  nous  x  des   fonds   qu'exige   ce 


Nous  avons  ITionneur  d'etre  avec  la  plus  parfaite  consideration 

Monsieur  &c.,  H.  FIZEAUX  &  Co. 

Tr  (DNA:  PCC,  No.  107,  i).  Record-  called  Cassa)  or  bank  money,  commonly 

ed  in  SJL  as  received  11  Jan.  1787.  En-  referred  to  as  Banco  (or  abbreviated  as 

closure  (DLC):  "la  Notte"  included  an  Bo.   as  in  the   above  instance).  Banco 

item   as   follows:    "Agio   a  3   p%    ,   .   .  was    preferred    and    therefore    bore    a 

"74.5.8"   which   balanced   the   total   of  premium  called  Agio   (Kelly,  Universal 

/S550,  being  the  whole  of  the  interest  Cambist,  London,  1811,  I,  13). 
at  5%  on  fS  1,000.  This  item  is  explained 

by  the  fact  that  accounts  were  usually  1  Blank   in   MS;    **f ournir"    probably 

kept  in  either  current  money  (sometimes  intended. 

From  Thomas  Boylston 

SR.  London  Jany.  2.  1787 

I  am  favor'd  with  a  Letter,  adviseing  me  of  your  success  in  the 
reduction  of  the  duties  on  Whale  Spermacoeti  Oil,  which  was  the 
Object  of  my  pursuit  last  Winter  at  Paris,  and  left  undetermined, 
under  your  care  and  vigilance  to  perfect  and  carry  to  the  happy 
issue,  its  now  arrived  at.  Mr.  Garvey  who  favors  me  with  this  in- 
teligence,  does  not  say,  whether  the  Oil  I  had  in  the  Diana,  and 
paid  this  duty,  receives  the  benefit  of  this  reduction  or  not.  I  pre- 
sume and  don't  doubt  it  does;  it  was  on  that  Oils  Account  the  appli- 
cation was  first  made,  and  rested  with  the  Minister  to  deside  upon. 
I  must  beg  the  favor  of  your  attention  to  any  necessary  steps, 
to  secure  the  repayment  of  it  to  me,  and  leave  no  room  for  Objec- 


2    JANUARY    1787 

tions  arising  to  any  lapse  of  time  on  Account  of  my  absence,  or  want 
of  a  Seasonable  application  made  in  my  behalf.  An  Order  from 
Court  or  the  Minister  to  the  Collector  of  the  Customs  who  received 
it,  to  refund  the  Money,  seems  to  me  a  ready,  and  direct  method 
to  be  taken  in  this  case.  However  you  are  undoubtedly  the  best 
judge  of  the  necessary  steps  to  be  taken,  and  beg  the  favor  of 
your  kind  aid  and  assistance  in  it. 

I  propose  being  in  Paris  as  soon  as  possible  and  presume  it  will 
be  some  time  in  Feby.  In  the  mean  while  the  honor  of  a  line  from 
you  on  this  business  will  be  most  gratefully  acknowledge  by  Sr, 
Your  most  Obliged  hume.  Serv.,  THO  BOYLSTON 

RC   (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  8  Jan.   1787. 

From  Goltz 

Le  2.  Janvier 

Le  Cte.  de  Goltz  regoit  tout  a  Pheure  les  exemplaires  de  TActe 
de  La  Virginie,  que  Monsieur  Jefferson  a  La  bont6  de  lui  envoyer 
et  s'empresse  de  Lui  en  f  aire  tous  ses  remerciemens  et  de  renouveler 
les  assurances  de  Sa  consideration  distingu^e  pour  Lui. 

RC  (MHi);  without  indication  of  the  year,  but  presumably  1787,  since  TJ 
was  at  this  time  still  distributing  copies  of  the  Virginia  Act  for  Establishing  Re- 
ligious Freedom.  Not  recorded  in  SJL,.  Baron  de  Goltz  was  envoy  extraordinary 
from  Prussia  in  1786-1788  (Almanack  Royal). 

From  Brissot  de  Warville,  with  Enclosure 

MONSIEUR  Chancellerie  d'orleans  ce  3  Janvier  Ian  1787. 

J'ai  L'honneur  de  Vous  adresser  ci  Joint  Les  questions  sur  les 
fonds  publics  des  Etats  unis  dont  je  Vous  ai  parle.  Vous  m'av6s 
fait  esperer,  ainsi  que  M.  decrevecoeur,  que  Vous  pourri^s  en  Vous 
adressant  au  treasury  Board  du  CongrSs  nous  procurer  une  reponse 
complete  et  exacte  sur  tous  Les  points. 

Cette  reponse  est  singulierement  importante  pour  fonder  le 
credit  des  Etats  unis,  et  Je  ne  doute  point  que  mon  digne  ami 
Claviere  avec  son  ami  d' Amsterdam  ne  parviennent  a  Leur  etablir 
un  grand  credit,  quand  une  fois,  ils  auront  des  Lumieres  sufisantes 
sur  leur  situation. 

Vous  Voudr6s  done  bien,  Monsieur,  Mettre  ces  questions  au 
Nombre  de  Vos  depeches  prochaines  et  me  faire  parvenir  ou  & 
M.  Claviere  La  reponse  aussitot  qu'elle  sera  dans  vos  mains.1 


3    JANUARY    1787 

J'ai  Communiqu6  £  M.  Le  Marquis  du  Crest  Le  resultat  de  La 
derniere  conversation  que  J'ai  eu  1'honneur  d'avoir  avec  Vous.  La 

reponse  de  M.  de  V ne  L'effraie  point,  et  II  est  Convenu 

qu'apr&s  avoir  eu  L'honneur  de  Vous  faire  une  Visite  ainsi  qu'a 
Monsr.  Le  Marquis  De  la  fayette,  il  concerteroit  un  rend£s  vous, 
avec  vous  et  avec  lui,  pour  determiner  La  Marche  £  prendre.  En 
atendant  ce  moment  je  m'ocupe  du  memoire  a.  presenter  aux 

Puisque  Je  viens  de  Nommer  M.  Le  Mis.  de  la  fayette,  Voul6s 
Vous  bien  me  permettre  de  me  feliciter  avec  vous  et  avec  tous  Les 
amis  du  bien  public  de  sa  Nomination  pour  L'assembl6e  prochaine. 
Je  ne  sais  pas  &  qui  elle  fait  plus  dlionneur,  ou  aux  ministres  ou 
si  Lui;  mais  Je  sais  a  qui  ce  choix  fera  du  bien.  C'est  au  peuple. 

Aussitdt  que  J'aurai  un  Moment  de  Libre,  Je  m'empresserai  de 
vous  porter  Les  plans  que  Je  vous  ai  promis. 

Je  suis  avec  respect  Monsieur  Votre  trds  humble  et  tres  obeissant 
serviteur,  BRISSOT  DE  WARVILLE 


Questions  Sur  Les  fonds  Publics  des  Etats  unis 

On  Suppose  que  le  CongrSs  des  Etats  unis  d'Amerique  met  quelqu'im- 
portance  a  leur  6tablir  un  bon  Credit  en  Europe.  Us  ne  peuvent  y 
trouver  que  de  grands  avantages.  La  grande  affaire  des  Americains  est 
sans  contredit  les  d€ffrichemens,  et  ces  deffrichemens  demandent  tou- 
jours  plus  de  Numeraire  parce  qu'ils  le  r6pandent  sur  une  plus  grande 
6tendue  de  Pais.  II  sera  done  avantageux  aux  Americains  de  donner  £l 
leurs  papier s  un  tel  credit  qu'il  puisse  se  placer  dans  les  Etats  de 
1'Europe,  ou  1'argent  est  tres  abondant,  et  dans  ceux  ou  le  Commerce 
peut  les  admettre;  car  ces  papier  s  pourroient  venir  chercher  1'argent 
Europ6en  de  plusieurs  manieres,  soit  directement  et  par  voye  d'emprunt, 
soit  indirectement,  et  en  retour  de  fournitures  Europeennes  lorsque  les 
productions  Americaines  ne  suffiroient  pas  au  moment  m£me  pour  les 

La  constitution  Republicaine  est,  de  toutes,  celle  qui  favor ise  le  mieux 
un  Credit  public;  et  sous  ce  point  de  vue  les  Etats  unis  ont  droit  au 
Credit  le  plus  Stendu  puisqu'il  s'apuie  sur  un  sol  immense  fertilis6  par 
la  Iibert6. 

Mais  dans  ce  moment,  soit  par  la  malice  de  leurs  ennemis,  soit  par 
les  difiicultes  qui  s'6l£vent  entr'eux  sur  leurs  dettes  et  leurs  regulations 
intgrieures,  on  ne  peut  pas  encore  faire  naltre  en  Europe  en  faveur  des 
Americains  une  confiance  gen6rale.  Une  infmit6  de  faits,  vrais  ou  faux, 
ou  mal  representes,  donnent  des  ombrages  perp&tuels,  et  font  croire 
&  beaucoup  de  gens  que  les  Americains  eux  memes  ne  sont  pas  encore 
persuades  de  1'importance  de  leur  credit  au  dehors,  ou  ne  connoissent 
pas  toute  Fetendue  des  egards  dus  aux  maximes  que  fondent  et  maintien- 
nent  le  Credit  public. 


3    JANUARY     1787 

II  seroit  done  trds  n6cessaire  d'avoir,  tant  de  la  part  du  congrfcs  que 
de  la  chambre  de  la  Tr£sorerie,  toutes  les  instructions  necessaires  pour 
se  former  des  Idees  justes  sur  Fetat  present  des  dettes  Americaines 
interieures  et  exterieures;  sur  la  maniere  dont  elles  sont  considerees  en 
g6n6ral  et  en  particulier,  par  la  reunion  des  Etats,  et  par  chacun  d'eux 
individuellement,  et  pour  juger  s'il  y  a  des  dettes  dont  le  remboursement 
soit  conside*re~  sous  des  degre*s  differens  de  certitude. 

Les  fonds  (Stocks)  Americains  se  divisent  en  effets  continentaux, 
et  effets  particuliers  a  chaque  Etat. 

On  desire  Sur  les  premiers  d'avoir 

Leur  Liste. 

Leur  Origine. 

Le  Capital. 

La  forme. 

Le  terme  de  remboursement  s'il  y  en  a. 

Par  qui  il  est  paye". 

Quand,  Comment,  ou? 

Quels  sont  ceux  qui  ont  cours  dans  le  Commerce? 

S'il  y  en  a  qui  soyent  regus  aux  payemens  des  taxes,  ou  qui  servent 
a  ce  payement? 

Est-il  du  des  arrerages  et  en  quelle  quantite? 

Sur  quel  Objet  chaque  emprunt  ou  fond  continental  est-il  hypotheque"? 

Les  mSmes  questions  sont  &  repondre  sur  les  fonds  particuliers  a 
chaque  etat;  et  s'il  y  en  a  de  ceux  ci  qui  soient  regus  dans  tous  les  Etats, 
on  desire  d'en  avoir  la  liste;  comme  aussi  de  connoitre  ceux  qui  n'y  sont 
pas  re$us  et  qu'elle  en  est  la  raison? 

On  desireroit  aussi  d'avoir  la  liste  des  prix  auxquels  tous  les  differens 
effets  Americains  se  n6gocient  actuellement,  et  la  distinction  de  ceux 
dont  le  rembours  prochain  est  le  plus  probable. 

Enfin,  cette  question  regarde  plus  particulierement  le  CongrSs. 

On  demande  quel  interest  le  Congrds  accorderoit  a  des  particuliers 
qui  lui  preteroient  de  Pargent,  a  la  condition  de  n'en  pouvoir  §tre 
rembourse"  qu'en  fonds  de  terres  appartenantes  au  Congres,  et  dans  le 
cours  d'un  certain  nombre  d'ann^es,  que  le  Congrds  designeroit,  et 
qui  ne  devroit  pas  £tre  trop  court. 

Si  de  pareils  emprunts  pouvoient  avoir  lieu,  ils  exigeroient  la  de- 
termination d'une  certaine  etendue  de  terres  avantageusement  situe"es 
pour  le  commerce  et  la  culture,  lesquelles  seroient  reservees  pour 
acquitter  ces  emprunts,  en  determinant  d'avance  la  maniere  dont  les 
porteurs  de  ces  effets  pourroient  en  prendre  possession. 

Si  une  telle  idee  peut  s'apliquer  a  un  Plan  quelconque,  d'une  execution 
sure  et  facile,  et  qu'il  soit  possible  de  lui  donner  une  forme  s6duisante 
pour  ceux  qui  cherchent  a  varier  1'employ  de  leur  argent,  il  ne  seroit 
pas  impossible  que  cette  maniere  d'emprunter  ne  reussit  en  Europe, 
surtout  si  le  produit  de  tels  emprunts  servoit  a  aquitter  des  parties  de 
dettes  etrangdres,  parce  qu'alors  ils  donneroient  lieu  £  des  traites  entre 
des  particuliers  et  les  Etats  mSme  a  qui  le  CongrSs  a  des  avances  a 

Mais  il  faudroit  que  les  Plans  de  tels  Emprunts  arrivassent  en  Europe 
avec  des  pleins  pouvoirs  aux  Ambassadeurs  du  Congres  de  traiter,  et 

3    JANUARY    1787 

meme  de  pouvoir  admettre  certaines  modifications,  et  y  engager  le 
Congres,  s'il  s'en  presentoit  de  convenables  aux  preteurs,  sans  etre 
nuisibles  aux  interest  des  Etats  unis. 

RC     (DLC);    endorsed.    Tr    (DLC);  tions   Sur   les   fonds   Publics   des   Etats 

extract  in  the  hand  of  William  Short.  unis."  Tr  (DL.C);  in  Short's  hand,  also 

Recorded    in    SJL    as    received    4    Jan.  'without  date. 
1787.  Enclosure  (MoSHi);  undated  and 
at  head  of  text  in  Brissot's  hand;  "Ques-  1  Text  of  Tr  ends   at  this  point. 

From  £tienne  Claviere 

MONSIEUR  L'AMBASSADEUR  Paris  Le  3.  J.  1787. 

J'ay  Phonneur  de  vous  envoyer  un  petit  me*moire5  que  Monsieur 
de  Warville  m'a  dit  que  vous  voudriez  bien  faire  passer  en 
Am£rique.  Je  crois  une  reponse  a  ce  m6moire  utile  a  vos  Etats  si 
elle  est  bien  Cir  constancies. 

Je  ne  puis  voir  sans  douleur,  comnae  sans  gtonnement,  qu'en 
Am6rique,  ou  il  y  a  taut  de  lumidres,  on  s'6carte  encore  des  vrais 
principes  sur  le  papier  monoye.  Toute  contrainte  est  diametralement 
opos6e  a  son  credit  et  sans  credit  c'est  une  peste  qui  fait  des 
ravages  affreux  sur  les  propri6te"s  et  sur  les  mceurs.  II  introduit 
un  esprit  d'agiotage  qui  devient  bientot  une  cruelle  usure.  Comment 
ne  voit-on  pas  que  Les  monoye  d'or  et  d'argent  ne  tirent  leur  credit 
que  de  1'usage  qu'on  peut  en  faire  partout?  Et  le  papier  monoye  a-t-il 
cet  avantage?  Quand  la  liberte*  de  le  refuse[r]  ne  peut  pas  L'ac- 
cr^diter,  il  n'en  faut  point  faire,  car  toute  situation,  dans  la  paix, 
est  pr£fferable  a  celle  ou  Ton  ordonne  la  circulation  force6  du 

Pardonnes  ces  reflexions  a  un  pauvre  r6publicain  d6pays6  qui 
ne  cessera  d'aimer  et  d'adorer  la  Iibert6  dont  il  ne  peut  plus  jou'ir, 
et  qui  6prouve  une  cruelle  douleur  lorsqu'il  voit  qu'elle  se  calomnie 
par  ignorance. 

Agrees  mes  voeux  pour  votre  bonheur  et  votre  Contentement 
dans  cette  nouvelle  anne"e  et  les  suivantes. 

Je  suis  avec  respect  Monsieur  1'Ambassadeur  Votre  tr£s  humble 
&  tr^s  obe'issant  serviteur,  E  CLAVIERE 

RC  (MoSHi);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  4  Jan.  1787. 

The  PETTT  MEMOERE  enclosed  by  Claviere  has  not  been  identified.  It  may  have 
been  his  Lettre  &  Vauteur  du  Mercure  politique  par  les  auteurs  du  trait€  intitule: 
De  la  France  et  des  Etats-Unis^  1787. 

From  Le  Couteulx  Sc  Cie. 

SIR  Paris  3  Jany.  1787 

By  the  inclosed  from  Mr.  Barrett,  your  Excellency  will  observe 
that  no  order  has  been  as  yet  officially  given  to  the  farmers  people 
at  Ruan,  relative  to  the  Relaxation  of  the  Duties,  which  they  have 
perceived  upon  an  American  Oil  Spermaceti  Cargoe,  much  less 
have  they  had  the  necessary  Orders  relative  to  the  entire  taking 
off  of  them  in  those,  that  come  for  Account  of  Mr.  Barrett's  Con- 
tract. It  would  be  then  Sir,  of  a  very  urging  Moment  to  have  your 
Excellency  interfere  in  this  Affair  and  write  to  Mr.  de  Calonne  that 
he  should  order  the  farmers  to  give  at  Ruan  the  necessary  Orders 
in  favor  of  Mr.  Barrett's  Contract,  as  he  has  promised  it  already 
in  the  printed  Letter  written  by  him  to  your  Excellency  and  that 
he  should  give  your  Excellency  at  the  same  time  an  Answer  by 
writing  that  could  in  the  mean  Time  serve  Mr.  Barrett  as  a  Title 
to  refuse  himself  to  the  Payment  of  the  Duties,  without  running  the 
Risks  of  being  prosecuted  by  the  Agents  of  the  farm. 

I  profit  of  this  Occasion  to  repeat  myself  at  the  Obedience  of 
your  Excellency  &  subscribe  myself  Your  most  obedt.  hble.  Servt., 


RC  (DLC).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  5  Jan.  1787.  Enclosure:  Barrett  to 
TJ,  25  Dec.  1786. 

To  Alexander  McCaul 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Jan.  4.   1787. 

In  the  letter  which  I  had  the  honor  of  addressing  you  from 
London  on  the  19th.  of  April  1786  I  informed  you  that  I  had  left 
my  estate  in  the  hands  of  a  Mr.  Eppes  and  a  Mr.  Lewis,  who  were  first 
to  clear  off  some  debts  which  had  been  necessarily  contracted  dur- 
ing the  war,  and  afterwards  to  apply  the  whole  profits  to  the  paiment 
of  my  debt  to  you  (by  which  I  mean  that  to  the  several  firms  with 
which  you  were  connected)  and  of  my  part  of  a  debt  due  from  Mr. 
Wayles's  estate  to  Farrell  &  Jones  of  Bristol.  Being  anxious  to 
begin  the  paiment  of  these  two  debts,  and  finding  that  it  would  be 
too  long  postponed  if  the  residuary  ones  were  to  be  paid  merely 
from  the  annual  profits  of  the  estate,  a  number  of  slaves  have  been 
sold,  and  I  have  lately  received  information  from  Messrs.  Eppes 
and  Lewis  that  the  proceeds  of  that  sale  with  the  profits  of  the 
estate  to  the  end  of  1786  would  pay  off  the  whole  of  the  residuary 


4    JANUARY    1787 

debts.  As  we  are  now  therefore  clear  of  embarrassments  to  pursue 
our  principal  object,  I  am  desirous  of  arranging  with  you  such, 
just  and  practicable  conditions  as  will  ascertain  to  you  the  receipt 
of  your  debt,  and  give  me  the  satisfaction  of  knowing  that  you  are 
contented.  What  the  laws  of  Virginia  are,  or  may  be,  will  in  no 
wise  influence  my  conduct.  Substantial  justice  is  my  object,  as 
decided  by  reason,  and  not  by  authority  or  compulsion. 

The  article  of  interest  may  make  a  difficulty.  I  had  the  honour 
of  observing  to  you,  in  my  former  letter,  that  I  thought  it  just  I 
should  pay  it  for  all  the  time  preceding  the  war,  and  all  the  time 
subsequent  to  it.  But  that  for  the  time  during  the  war  I  did  not 
consider  myself  as  bound  in  justice  to  pay.  This  includes  the  period 
from  the  commencement  of  hostilities  Apr.  19.  1775.  to  their 
cessation  Apr.  19.  1783,  being  exactly  eight  years.  To  the  reasons 
against  this  paiment  which  apply  in  favor  of  the  whole  mass  of 
American  debtors,  I  added  the  peculiar  circumstance  of  having 
already  lost  the  debt,  principal  and  interest,  by  endeavoring  to  pay 
it  by  the  sale  of  lands  and  by  the  depreciation  of  their  price: 
and  also  a  second  loss  of  an  equal  sum  by  Ld.  Cornwallis's  bar- 
barous and  useless  depredations.  I  will  therefore  refer  you  to  that 
letter,  to  save  the  repetition  here  of  those  reasons  which  absolve 
me  in  justice  from  the  paiment  of  this  portion  of  interest.  In  law, 
our  courts  have  uniformly  decided  that  the  treaty  of  peace  stipulates 
the  paiment  of  the  principal  only  and  not  of  any  interest  whatever. 

This  article  being  once  settled,  I  would  propose  to  divide  the 
clear  proceeds  of  my  estate  (in  which  there  are  from  80.  to  100. 
labouring  slaves)  between  yourself  and  Farrell  &  Jones,  one  third 
to  you  and  two  thirds  to  them:  and  that  the  crop  of  this  present 
year  1787.  shall  constitute  the  first  paiment.  That  crop  you  know 
cannot  be  got  to  the  warehouse  completely  till  May  of  the  next 
year,  and  I  presume  that  three  months  more  will  be  little  enough 
to  send  it  to  Europe,  or  to  sell  it  in  Virginia  and  remit  the  money. 
So  that  I  could  not  safely  answer  for  placing  the  proceeds  in  your 
hands  till  the  month  of  August,  and  so  annually  every  August  after- 
wards till  the  debt  shall  be  paid.  It  will  always  be  both  my  interest 
and  my  wish  to  get  it  to  you  as  much  sooner  as  possible,  and 
probably  a  part  of  it  may  always  be  paid  some  months  sooner.  If 
the  assigning  the  profits  in  general  terms  may  seem  to  you  too 
vague,  I  am  willing  to  fix  the  annual  paiment  at  a  sum  certain. 
But  that  I  may  not  fall  short  of  my  engagement,  I  shall  name  it 
somewhat  less  than  I  suppose  may  be  counted  on.  I  shall  fix  your 
part  at  two  hundred  pounds  sterling  annually:  and  as  you  know  our 


5    JANUARY     1787 

crops  of  tobacco  to  be  incertain,  I  should  reserve  a  right,  if  they 
should  fall  short  one  year,  to  make  it  up  the  ensuing  one,  without 
being  supposed  to  have  failed  in  my  engagement.  But  I  would  be 
obliged  every  second  year  to  pay  any  arrearages  of  the  preceding 
one  together  with  the  full  sum  for  the  current  year:  so  that  once  in 
every  two  years  the  annual  paiment  should  be  fully  paid  up. 

I  do  not  know  what  the  balance  is;  having  for  a  long  time  before 
the  war  had  no  settlement,  yet  there  can  be  no  difficulty  in  making 
that  settlement,  and  in  the  mean  while  the  paiments  may  proceed 
without  affecting  the  right  of  either  party  to  have  a  just  settlement. 

If  you  think  proper  to  accede  to  these  propositions,  be  so  good 
as  to  say  so  at  the  foot  of  a  copy  of  this  letter.  On  my  receipt  of 
that,  I  will  send  you  an  acknolegement  of  it,  which  shall  render 
this  present  letter  obligatory  on  me  for  the  paiment  of  the  debt 
before  mentioned,  and  interest,  at  the  epochs  and  in  the  proportions 
beforementioned,  excepting  always  the  interest  during  the  war. 
This  done,  you  may  count  on  my  faithful  execution  of  it. 

I  avail  myself  of  this,  as  of  every  other  occasion  of  recalling 
myself  to  your  friendly  recollection,  and  of  assuring  you  of  the 
sentiments  of  perfect  esteem  and  attachment  with  which  I  am  Dear 
Sir  your  most  obedt.  &  most  humble  servant, 


PrC  ( DLC ) ;  endorsed.  BE  so  GOOD  AS  TO  SAY  so  AT  THE  FOOT  OF  A  COPY 

OF  TBDCS  LETTER:  This  means  that  TJ  enclosed  a  second  PrC,  but  it  has  not  been 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas 

MONSIEUR  Lahaie  5e.  Janv.  1786  [i.e.,  1787] 

Je  suis  affect6  de  Taccident  qui,  faisant  souffrir  votre  Excel- 
lence, m'avoit  priv6  de  Phonneur  de  sa  correspondance.  JPespere 
qu'une  main  si  pr^cieuse  a  PAmerique,  a  vos  Amis,  a  FHumanitg, 
se  remettra  tout-^-fait,  et  apprendrai  avec  joie  que  Votre  Excellence 
est  hors  de  souff ranee. 

tFai  v6rifi6  et  trouv6  conformes  les  dates  de  mes  Lettres  jusqu'au 
ler.  Dec.  inclus,  ou  6toit  No.  13  pour  Mr.  Jay. — V.  E.  doit  avoir 
regu  depuis,  No.  14,  du  2  au  6.  Dec.  au  meme.  No.  15  du  22  Dec. 
au  mSme.  et  puis  une  du  29  Dec.  a.  V.  E. 

J'attends  r6ponse  de  Mr.  De  la  Fayette  a  celles  qu'il  doit  avoir 
regues  de  moi  en  date  du  8,  du  9  et  du  22  Dec:  etant  surtout  en 
peine  de  celle  du  9. 

5    JANUARY    1787 

J'ai  6crit  £  Mr.  Luzac  ce  qif  il  f alloit  pour  donner  au  public  une 
id6e  juste  dans  son  papier  des  petits  mouvemens  qui  ont  eu  lieu 
en  Am6rique.  Je  1'ai  prig  aussi  confidemment,  de  supprimer  la 
Piece  falsifi£e,  si  elle  lui  parvient. 

Quant  a  la  question  que  V.  E.  me  propose,  son  importance 
m'impose  la  n6cessit6  de  demander  au  moins  une  quinzaine  de 
jours  pour  en  donner  mon  opinion.  Je  ferai  dans  cet  intervalle  un 
voyage  expr£s  pour  cela  a  Amsterdam,  afin  de  m'y  aboucher  la- 
dessus  avec  une  personne  de  confiance,  de  la  discretion  de  laquelle, 
ainsi  que  de  ses  dispositions  pour  les  Etats-Unis,  je  suis  stir,  et  je 
sonderai  ce  terrain  avec  toute  la  prudence  et  la  d6licatesse  requise. 
J'ignore  si  maintenant  tous  les  Etats  se  sont  mis  entierement  en 
regie  quant  au  Revenu  qu'il  f  aut  au  CongrSs  pour  payer  les  Int£r6ts 
de  la  Dette  commune  tant  interne  qu'externe.  Si  cela  est,  cela 
donnera  certainement  le  plus  grand  poids  et  relief  si  la  proposition. 
En  attendant  que  je  puisses  la  meurir  et  en  parler  avec  plus  de 
connoissance  de  cause,  il  est  bon  que  cela  reste  secret  entre  V.  E.  et 
moi;  tout  comme,  lorsque  le  projet  auroit  pris  quelque  consistence, 
il  n'en  seroit  que  mieux  que  son  ex€cution  ne  passant  par  d'autres 
mains  que  celles  de  V.  E.  et  les  miennes.  J'ai  de  fortes  raisons  pour 
dire  cela  et  suis  avec  grand  respect  De  V.  E.  le  tres  humble  &  tr£s 
obeisst.  serviteur,  C  W  F  DUMAS 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  FC  (Rijksar- 
chief,  The  Hague,  Dumas  Papers; 
photostats  in  DLC);  date  corrected  to 
"1787"  by  overwriting.  Entry  in  SJL 
of  its  receipt  on  11  Jan.  1787  reads: 
"Dumas.  Haie.  Jan.  5.  (1786  for 
1787)."  There  is  no  mention  of  an  en- 
closure, but  Dumas  must  have  sent 
with  this  letter  his  "No.  16"  for  Con- 
gress which  he  had  told  TJ  (Dumas 
to  TJ,  29  Dec.  1786)  he  did  not  wish 
to  send  by  post.  This  was  Dumas*  let- 
ter to  Jay  of  1  Jan.  1787,  containing 
his  "Divinatio  quarto"  in  which  he  in- 
serted a  "Pro-Memoria"  that  had  been 
drawn  up  the  23rd  of  December,  trans- 
lated the  24th,  and  transmitted  to  the 
same  person  who  received  the  first 
memoir,  a  copy  of  which  was  in  Du- 
mas* despatch  No.  14  of  Dec.  2nd;  and 
stating  that  the  negotiations  started  by 
Rayneval  and  Goertz  had  fallen  through; 
that  the  States  General,  suspended  dur- 
ing the  holidays,  would  reassemble  on 
the  16th;  that  a  crisis  is  at  hand,  and 
Rayneval  probably  only  awaits  the  last 
courier  sent  to  Versailles  in  order  to 
return,  thoroughly  put  out  at  the  stub- 
bornness of  the  prince;  that  there  are 

to  be  no  more  diplomatic  conversations, 
but  categorical  measures  will  be  taken; 
that  Dumas  was  obliged  at  the  end  of 
December  to  draw  on  WHlink,  Nicolas 
and  Jacob  Van  Staphorst  for  part  of 
the  arrears  due  him  according  to  the 
act  of  Congress  of  Oct.  14th,  1785; 
that  his  situation  is  miserable:  "Me 
laissera-t-on  succomber  et  perir  lente- 
ment?";  and  that  Goertz  has  returned 
from  Nijmegen  6CVeritablement  et  au 
pied  de  la  lettre  rebus  infectis."  This 
letter  is  among  those  listed  as  missing 
in  Dipl.  Corr.,  1783-89,  m,  541;  al- 
though dated  1  Jan.  it  includes  a  con- 
tinuation of  events  in  Holland  up 
through  6  Jan.  1787. 

LA  PIECE  FALSIFIES:  That  is,  the 
letter  from  TJ  to  Jay,  27  May  1786, 
which  TJ  claimed  was  **mutilated"  in 
its  publication  in  American  newspapers. 
Dumas  may  have  spoken  to  Luzac  about 
suppressing  the  piece  if  it  should  come 
to  him,  as  TJ  had  requested,  for 
there  is  no  letter  recorded  in  Dumas' 
letter  book  covering  this  subject,  and 
none  has  been  found  in  the  Luzac  Pa- 
pers at  the  University  of  Leiden.  The 
present  letter  was  enclosed  in  one  to 


5    JANUARY    1787 

Brantzen,    ambassador    of    the     States  (indiscrete)]  a  etre  ouvertes  en  chemin. 

General  at  Versailles,  to  whom  Dumas  Je    prends    la    Liberte"    de    commencer 

wrote  on  4  Jan.  1787  asking-  permission  par   1'incluse   sous   le   couvert  de   V.E., 

to  continue  the   practice  for  the  time  esp&rant   que    V.E.    me    la   pardonnera 

being:    "J'ai   besoin    d'ecrire    quelques  et  me  permettra  de  la  continuer"   (FC, 

Lettres  &  Mr.  Jefferson  et  de  les  sous-  Rijksarchief,    The    Hague,    Dumas   Pa- 

traire   pendant   quelques    temps    [.    .    .  pers;  photostats  in  DLC). 

To  William  Jones 

SIR  Paris  Jan.  5.  1787. 

When  I  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you  in  London,  I  mentioned 
to  you  that  the  affairs  of  Mr.  Wayles's  estate  were  left  to  be 
ultimately  settled  by  Mr.  Eppes,  the  only  acting  executor;  that  I 
had  left  in  his  hands  also  and  in  those  of  a  Mr.  Lewis  the  part  of 
Mr.  Wayles's  estate  which  came  to  me,  together  with  my  own: 
that  they  were  first  to  clear  off  some  debts  which  had  been  neces- 
sarily contracted  during  the  war,  and  would  after  that  apply  the 
whole  profits  to  the  paiment  of  my  part  of  Mr.  Wayles^s  debt  to 
you,  and  to  a  debt  of  mine  to  Kippen  &  co.  of  Glasgow.  Being 
anxious  to  begin  the  paiment  of  these  two  debts,  and  finding  that 
it  would  be  too  long  postponed  if  the  residuary  ones  were  to  be 
paid  merely  from  the  annual  profits  of  the  estate,  a  number  of 
slaves  have  been  sold,  and  I  have  lately  received  information  from 
Messrs.  Eppes  and  Lewis  that  the  proceeds  of  that  sale,  with  the 
profits  of  the  estate  to  the  end  of  178 1.1  would  pay  off  the  whole 
of  the  residuary  debts.  As  we  are  now  therefore  clear  of  embarass- 
ment  to  pursue  our  principal  object,  I  am  desirous  of  arranging 
with  you,  such  just  and  practicable  conditions  as  will  ascertain 
to  you  the  terms  at  which  you  will  receive  my  part  of  your  debt, 
and  give  me  the  satisfaction  of  knowing  that  you  are  contented. 
What  the  laws  of  Virginia  are,  or  may  be,  will  in  no  wise  influence 
my  conduct.  Substantial  justice  is  my  object,  as  decided  by  reason, 
and  not  by  authority  or  compulsion. 

The  first  question  which  arises  is  as  to  the  article  of  interest. 
For  all  the  time  preceding  the  war,  and  all  subsequent  to  it,  I  think 
it  reasonable  that  interest  should  be  paid;  but  equally  unreasonable 
during  the  war.  Interest  is  a  compensation  for  the  use  of  money. 
Your  money  in  my  hands  is  in  the  form  of  lands  and  negroes.  From 
these,  during  the  war,  no  use,  no  profits  could  be  derived.  Tobacco 
is  the  article  they  produce.  That  can  only  be  turned  into  money  at 
a  foreign  market.  But  the  moment  it  went  out  of  our  ports  for  that 
purpose,  it  was  captured  either  by  the  king's  ships  or  by  those  of 


5    JANUARY    1787 

individuals.  The  consequence  was  that  tobacco,  worth  from  twenty 
to  thirty  shillings  the  hundred,  sold  generally  in  Virginia  during 
the  war  for  five  shillings.  This  price  it  is  known  will  not  maintain 
the  labourer  and  pay  his  taxes.  There  was  no  surplus  of  profit 
then  to  pay  an  interest.  In  the  mean  while  we  stood  insurers  of  the 
lives  of  the  labourers  and  of  the  ultimate  issue  of  the  war.  He  who 
attempted  during  the  war  to  remit  either  his  principal  or  interest, 
must  have  expected  to  remit  three  times  to  make  one  paiment; 
because  it  is  supposed  that  two  out  of  three  parts  of  the  shipments 
were  taken.  It  was  not  possible  then  for  the  debtor  to  derive  any 
profit  from  the  money  which  might  enable  him  to  pay  an  interest, 
nor  yet  to  get  rid  of  the  principal  by  remitting  it  to  his  creditor. 
With  respect  to  the  Creditors  in  Great  Britain  they  mostly  turned 
their  attention  to  privateering,  and,  arming  the  vessels  they  had 
before  emploied  in  trading  with  us,  they  captured  on  the  seas,  not 
only  the  produce  of  the  farms  of  their  debtors,  but  of  those  of  the 
whole  state.  They  thus  paid  themselves  by  capture  more  than  their 
annual  interest  and  we  lost  more.  Some  merchants  indeed  did  not 
engage  in  privateering.  These  lost  their  interest  but  we  did  not 
gain  it.  It  fell  into  the  hands  of  their  countrymen.  It  cannot  there- 
fore be  demanded  of  us.  As  between  these  merchants  and  their 
debtors  it  is  the  case  where,  a  loss  being  incurred,  each  party  may 
justifiably  endeavor  to  shift  it  from  himself.  Each  has  an  equal 
right  to  avoid  it.  One  party  can  never  expect  the  other  to  yeild  a 
thing  to  which  he  has  as  good  a  right  as  the  demander.  We  even 
think  he  has  a  better  right  than  the  demander  in  the  present  in- 
stance. This  loss  has  been  occasioned  by  the  fault  of  the  nation 
which  was  creditor.  Our  right  to  avoid  it  then  stands  on  less 
exceptionable  ground  than  theirs.  But  it  will  be  said  that  each 
party  thought  the  other  the  aggressor.  In  these  disputes  there  is  but 
one  umpire,  and  that  has  decided  the  question  where  the  world 
in  general  thought  the  right  laid. 

Besides  these  reasons  in  favor  of  the  general  mass  of  debtors, 
I  have  some  peculiar  to  my  own  case.  In  the  year  1776.  before  a 
shilling  of  paper  money  was  issued,  I  sold  lands  to  the  amount  of 
£4200  in  order  to  pay  these  two  debts.  I  offered  the  bonds  of  the 
purchasers  to  your  agent  Mr.  Evans,  if  he  would  acquit  me,  and 
accept  of  the  purchasers  as  debtors,  in  my  place.  They  were  as 
sure  as  myself.  Had  he  done  it,  these  debts,  being  turned  over  to 
you,  would  have  been  saved  to  you  by  the  treaty  of  peace.  But  he 
declined  it.  Great  sums  of  paper  money  were  afterwards  issued. 
This  depreciated,  and  paiment  was  made  me  in  this  money  when 


5    JANUARY     1787 

months  more  will  be  little  enough  to  send  it  to  Europe,  or  to  sell 
it  in  Virginia  and  remit  the  money.  So  that  I  could  not  safely  answer 
for  placing  the  proceeds  in  your  hands  till  the  month  of  August, 
and  so  annually  every  August  afterwards  till  the  debt  shall  be 
paid.  It  will  always  be  both  my  interest  and  my  wish  to  get  it  to  you 
as  much  sooner  as  possible,  and  probably  a  part  of  it  may  always 
be  paid  some  months  sooner.  If  the  assigning  the  profits  in  general 
terms  may  seem  to  you  too  vague,  I  am  willing  to  fix  the  annual 
paiment  at  a  sum  certain.  But  that  I  may  not  fall  short  of  my  en- 
gagement, I  shall  name  it  somewhat  less  than  I  suppose  may  be 
counted  on.  I  shall  fix  your  part  at  four  hundred  pounds  sterling 
annually.  And  as  you  know  our  crops  of  tobacco  to  be  incertain, 
I  should  reserve  a  right  if  they  fall  short  one  year,  to  make  it  up 
the  ensuing  one,  without  being  supposed  to  have  failed  in  my  en- 
gagement. But  every  other  year  at  least  all  arrearages  shall  be 
fully  paid  up. 

My  part  of  this  debt  of  Mr.  Wayles's  estate  being  one  third,  I 
should  require  that  in  proportion  as  I  pay  my  third,  I  shall  stand 
discharged  as  to  the  other  two  thirds,  so  that  the  painient  of  every 
hundred  pounds  shall  discharge  me  as  to  three  hundred  pounds 
of  the  undivided  debt.  The  other  gentlemen  have  equal  means 
of  paying,  equal  desires,  and  more  skill  in  affairs.  Their  parts  of 
the  debt  therefore  are  at  least  as  sure  as  mine:  and  my  great  object 
is,  in  case  of  any  accident  to  myself,  to  leave  my  family  uninvolved 
with  any  matters  whatever. 

I  do  not  know  what  the  balance  of  this  debt  is.  The  last  account 
current  I  saw  was  before  the  war,  making  the  whole  balance, 
principal  and  interest  somewhere  about  nine  thousand  pounds:  and 
after  this  there  were  upwards  of  four  hundred  hogsheads  of  tobacco 
and  some  paiments  in  money  to  be  credited.  However  this  settle- 
ment can  admit  of  no  difficulty:  and  in  the  mean  time  the  paiments 
may  proceed  without  affecting  the  right  of  either  party  to  have  a 
just  settlement. 

Upon  the  whole  then  I  propose  that  on  your  part  you  relinquish 
the  claim  to  interest  during  the  war,  say  from  the  commencement 
of  hostilities  April  19.  1775.  to  their  cessation  April  19.  1783. 
being  exactly  eight  years:  and  that  in  proportion  as  I  pay  my  third 
I  shall  be  acquitted  as  to  the  other  two  thirds.  On  my  part  I  take 
on  myself  the  loss  of  the  paper  money  deposited  in  the  treasury,  I 
agree  to  pay  interest  previous  and  subsequent  to  the  war,  and 
oblige  myself  to  remit  to  you  for  that  and  the  principal  four  hun- 
dred pounds  sterling  annually,  till  my  third  of  the  whole  debt 


5    JANUARY    1787 

shall  be  fully  paid;  and  I  will  begin  these  paiments  in  August  of 
the  next  year. 

If  you  think  proper  to  accede  to  these  propositions,  be  so  good 
as  to  say  so  at  the  foot  of  a  copy  of  this  letter.  On  my  receipt  of 
that,  I  will  send  you  an  acknowlegement  of  it,  which  shall  render 
this  present  letter  obligatory  on  me.  In  which  case  you  may  count 
on  my  faithful  execution  of  this  undertaking. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  great  respect  Sir  Your  most  obedient 
&  most  humble  servant,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

RC  (NN);  endorsed.  PrC  (DLC). 
Entry  in  SJL  reads:  "[Jan.]  5.  Jones 
Wm.  (Bristol),"  to  distinguish  him 
from  William  Jones  of  London.  TJ  en- 
closed a  second  PrC  OF  THIS  LETTER  as 
he  did  in  his  to  McCaul  of  4  Jan.  1787, 
but  it  has  not  been  found. 

When  the  question  of  TJ's  debts  to 
British  merchants  (and  those  that  de- 
volved upon  him  in  the  Wayles  estate) 

became  political  matters  at  a  later  date, 
this  letter  was  "produced  in  court  by 
Jones's  agent,  and  afterwards  published 
in  the  Aurora,"  whence  it  was  also 
published  by  John  Wood,  History  of 
the  Administration  of  John  Adams, 
New  York,  1802,  p. 

i  Thus   in   MS;    1786   was   intended; 
see  TJ  to  McCaul,  4  Jan.   1787. 

From  Chartier  de  Lotbiniere 

Paris,  rue  de  Bourgogne  No.  75,  au  Coin  de  la  rue  de  Varenne, 
5  Jan.  1787.  Asks  TJ  for  an  appointment  during  the  next  week  to 
confer  about  a  letter  he  had  received  from  John  Jay,  dated  15  Aug. 

within  any  of  the  states  had  to  be 
determined  by  its  laws  and  that  Con- 
gress could  not  with  propriety  inter- 
fere in  such  matters;  he  promised  to 
give  his  "friendly  attentions"  to  Lot- 
bini&re's  son,  but  added:  "In  this  Coun- 
try protection  and  personal  Influence, 
whether  more  or  less,  are  no  avail  in 
our  judicial  proceedings  and  decisions, 
which  are  entirely  directed  and  gov- 
erned by  the  Laws  of  the  Land"  ( copies 
of  this  exchange  were  sent  by  Lot- 
biniere to  Vergennes,  and  are  to  be 
found  in  Arch.  Aft*.  Etr.,  Corr.  Pol., 
E.-U.,  xxxi;  Tr  in  DLC). 

RC  (DLC);  2  p.;  in  French;  endorsed. 
Not  recorded  in  SJL. 

Jay's  letter  was  in  response  to  one 
from  LotbiniSre  of  11  Mch.  1786  con- 
cerning his  claim  to  the  seigniories  of 
Alainville  and  Hocquart  on  Lake  Cham- 
plain,  a  subject,  he  reminded  Jay,  that 
Vergennes  took  a  great  interest  in  and 
had  more  than  once  recommended  to 
the  attention  of  the  United  States. 
LotbiniSre  had  also  urged  Jay  to  give 
the  benefit  of  his  protection  to  his  son 
who  was  coming  to  America  to  claim 
lands  in  Massachusetts.  Jay  replied  that 
all  titles  and  claims  to  lands  lying 

To  Samuel  Osgood 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Jan.  5.  1787. 

I  am  desired  to  forward  to  you  the  inclosed  queries,  and  to  ask 
the  favor  of  you  to  give  such  an  answer  to  them  as  may  not  give 
you  too  much  trouble.  Those  which  stand  foremost  on  the  paper 
can  be  addressed  only  to  your  complaisance;  but  the  last  may 

t  18} 

5    JANUARY    1787 

possibly  be   interesting  to  your  department,  and  to  the  United 
states:  I  mean  those  which  suggest  the  possibility  of  borrowing 
money  in  Europe,  the  principal  of  which  shall  be  ultimately  paiable 
in  land,  and  in  the  mean  time  a  good  interest.  You  know  best 
whether  the  suggestion  can  be  turned  to  any  profit,  and  whether  it 
will  be  worth  while  to  introduce   any  proposition  to   Congress 
thereon.  Among  the  possible  shapes  into  which  a  matter  of  this 
kind  may  be  formed,  the  following  is  one.  Let  us  suppose  the  public 
lands  to  be  worth  a  dollar,  hard  money,  the  acre.  If  we  should 
ask  of  a  monied  man  the  loan  of  100  dollars,  paiable  with  100 
acres  of  land  at  the  end  of  10.  years,  and  in  the  mean  time  an 
interest  of  5.  per  cent,  this  would  be  more  disadvantageous  to  the 
lender  than  a  common  loan  paiable  ultimately  in  cash.  But  if  we 
should  say  we  will  deliver  you  the  100  acres  of  land  immediately, 
which  is  in  fact  an  immediate  paiment  of  the  principal,  and  will 
nevertheless  pay  your  interest  of  5.  per  cent  for  10.  years,  this 
offers  a  superior  advantage,  and  might  tempt  money  holders.  But 
what  should  we  in  fact  receive  in  this  way  for  our  lands?  37J  dollars 
being  left  in  Europe  on  an  interest  of  5.  per  cent  would  pay  an- 
nually the  interest  of  the  100  for  10^.  years.  There  would  remain 
then  only  62f  dollars  for  the  100  acres  of  land,  that  is  to  say  about 
two  thirds  of  it's  price.  Congress  can  best  determine  whether  any 
circumstances  in  our  situation  should  induce  us  to  get  rid  of  any 
of  our  debts  in  that  way.  I  beg  you  to  understand  that  I  have 
named  rates  of  interest,  term  of  paiment  and  price  of  land  merely 
to  state  the  case,  and  without  the  least  knowlege  that  a  loan  could 
be  obtained  on  these  terms.  It  remains  to  inform  you  from  whom 
this  suggestion  comes.  The  person  from  whom  I  receive  them  is 
a  Monsr.  Claviere,  connected  with  the  monied  men  of  Amsterdam. 
He  is,  on  behalf  of  a  company  there,  actually  treating  with  the 
Comptroller  general  here  for  the  purchase  of  our  debt  to  this  coun- 
try at  a  considerable  discount.  Whether  he  has  in  idea  any  thing 
like  a  loan  to  us  on  terms  such  as  I  have  above  spoken  of  I  know 
not;  nor  do  I  know  that  he  is  authorised  to  make  the  suggestion  he 
has  made.  If  the  thing  should  be  deemed  worthy  the  attention  of 
Congress,  they  can  only  consider  it  as  a  possibility  and  take  meas- 
ures to  avail  themselves  of  it  if  the  possibility  turns  out  in  their 
favor,  and  not  to  be  disappointed  if  it  does  not.  Clavier e's  proposi- 
tion not  being  formal  enough  for  me  to  make  an  official  communica- 
tion of  it,  you  will  make  what  use  of  it  you  see  best.  I  am  with  very 
sincere  esteem  &  attachment,  Dear  Sir,  your  most  obedient  &  most 
humble  servant,  TH:  JEFFERSON 


5    JANUARY    1787 

PrC    (DLC).  Enclosure:    Queries  concerning:  the   public   funds   of  the  United 
States,  printed  above  as  enclosure  to  Brissot  de  Warville  to  TJt  4  Jan.  1787. 

From  Jose  da  Maia 

MONSEGNEUR  &  Montpellier  5  de  Janvier  1787 

La  nouvelle,  que  je  viens  d'avoir  ITtioneur  de  recevoir  de  Votre 
voyage  dans  cette  partie  de  France,  m'a  fait  un  tres  grand  plaisir, 
et  je  m'en  felicite;  puisque  je  voyols,  qu'il  m'etoit  tres  essential 
d'avoir  Fhoneur  de  Vous  parler,  et  1'etat  de  ma  santfi  ne  me  per- 
mettoit  pas  de  faire  le  voyage  de  Paris*  Si  je  pouvois  savoir  le  jour 
de  Votre  arriv6e  a.  Nismes,  et  votre  logement,  je  ne  manquerois 
pas  d'avoir  Phoneur  d'y  aller  Vous  rencontrer,  ce  que  je  suis  pret 
&  faire  dans  quelque  autre,  oft  il  Vous  fair  a  plaisir:  et  pour  cela 
je  n'attends  que  Vos  commandemens.  En  attendant  je  me  flate 
d'etre  avec  le  plus  grand  respect  Monsegneur  Votre  tres  humble 
et  obeissant  serviteur,  VENDER 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Entry  in  SJL,  noting  its  receipt  on  15  Jan.  1787,  reads: 
"Vendek  (Maya  Barbalho  Dr)  Monpelier  Jan.  5."  See  TJ  to  Jose"  da  Maia,  26 
Dec.  1786. 

From  Thomas  Barclay 

DEAR  SIR  Alicante  6th.  Janry.  1787. 

The  inclos'd  letter  to  you  and  Mr.  Adams  of  this  date  contains 
every  thing  that  occurs  relative  to  my  business  here,  and  the  Day 
after  tomorrow  I  shall  leave  it  and  remain  at  Madrid  untill  I  can 
decide  on  the  necessity  of  going  to  Coruila.  The  objects  there  are 
the  Effects  belonging  to  the  United  States  left  by  Mr.  Guillon 
and  the  proceeds  of  some  prizes  carried  in  by  Capt.  Cunyingham. 
It  is  three  years  since  attempts  have  been  made  to  settle  these 
matters  by  correspondence  and  from  appearances  at  present  Noth- 
ing but  an  application  to  this  Government  will  extort  it.  After 
consulting  Mr.  Carmichael  I  will  abide  by  his  opinion.  I  have 
been  for  some  time  a  little  uneasy  respecting  your  state  of  health, 
but  as  Col:  Franks  has  written  ine  a  few  lines  I  think  it  probable 
if  you  had  been  indisposed  he  wouM  have  mentioned  it.  I  sincerely 
wish  you  many  returns  of  the  year  attended  with  Health  and  Hap- 
piness. When  Col:  Franks  left  Spain  for  Paris  I  paid  him  1266 
livres  for  which  he  promised  to  account  with  you.  After  deducting 
his  Expences  the  balance  will  not  be  great  but  you  will  have  the 

6    JANUARY    1787 

Goodness  to  receive  it,  or  to  save  you  trouble  he  may  pay  it  to  Mrs. 
Barclay.  He  also  promis'd  to  place  in  your  hands  as  soon  as  he 
wou'd  get  to  Paris  an  account  of  his  last  voyage  from  America.  But 
as  he  does  not  mention  either  of  these  Settlements  I  take  it  for 
granted  they  are  neither  of  them  Made.  Inclosed  is  a  letter  for 
him  which  please  to  send  and  if  agreeable,  you  will  have  the 
Goodness  to  tell  him  there  is  a  necessity  for  his  furnishing  the 
account  of  his  voyage  to  Europe. 

It  will  give  me  great  pleasure  to  receive  a  line  from  you  under 
cover  to  Mr.  CarmichaeL  Mean  time  I  am  Dr.  Sir  Your  most  obedt. 
hble.  Servant,  THOS  BARCLAY 

RC  (DLC);  in  an  unidentified  Hand,  signed  by  Barclay;  endorsed.  Recorded  in 
SJL  as  received  27  Jan.  1787.  Enclosures:  (1)  Barclay  to  the  Commissioners, 
6  Jan.  1787.  (2)  A  letter  to  Franks,  presumably  from  Barclay,  not  found. 

Thomas  Barclay  to  the  American 

GENTLEMEN  Alicante  6  Jany.  1787 

I  Have  Not  had  the  pleasure  of  addressing  You  since  My  ar- 
rival at  this  place,  being  hitherto  without  any  thing  to  say  worth 
Your  Attention.  Mr.  Lamb  was  Embarked  for  Minorca  before  I 
got  here,  but  as  he  is  in  Correspondance  with  Mr.  Montgomery, 
I  was  in  hopes  of  learning  through  that  Channel,  the  possibility 
of  our  Meeting  before  I  shou'd  return  to  France,  a  Matter  that 
I  am  of  opinion  might  have  been  attended  with  some  Advantages. 
But  the  Letters  which  he  has  lately  written  Hold  out  Nothing,  and 
therefore  I  Contented  My  self  with  writing  to  him  the  Motives 
which  Induced  me  to  Come  here,  and  am  without  any  Expectation 
of  seeing  him.  As  the  Spanish  Portugueze  and  Neapolitan  Ministers 
were  preparing  to  Embark  from  Carthagena,  I  went  and  passed 
one  Day  at  that  place  in  hopes  of  learning  something  that  Might 
be  useful,  and  I  took  that  opportunity  of  Impressing  on  the 
Mind  of  the  Count  D'Espilly,  some  Matters  that  had  before  been 
talked  over  at  Madrid  and  the  Escurial,  and  I  left  him  seemingly  in 
the  Best  Disposition  towards  our  People  at  Algiers,  and  very 
Ready  to  obey  the  Instructions  Concerning  us  which  the  Count 
de  Florida  Blanca  had  given  him.  Since  my  Return  from  Carthagena 
I  have  Received  letters  from  thence  informing  me  that  the  Count 
DTEspilly  has  Orders  from  Court  not  to  proceed  to  Algiers  without 
Further  Instructions,  as  the  Plague  is  at  Constantina  within  Fifty 


6    JANUARY    1  787 

leagues  of  that  place.  But  as  it  was  lately  reported  that  the  Dey, 
who  is  very  far  advanced  in  Years  was  much  Indisposed,  it  is 
no  ways  Improbable  that  this  Circumstance  may  have  had  its 
weight,  for  the  Knowledge  of  the  Plague  being  at  Constantina  is 
Not  New.  It  was  Even  beleived  before  I  left  Africa  that  the  City 
of  Bona  was  Depopulated  with  that  Distemper.  However  this  May 
Be,  I  most  Sincerely  wish  the  Negociations  respecting  our  Country 
Cou'd  go  Hand  in  Hand  with  those  of  the  European  Powers,  For 
there  is  no  Doubt  that  when  the  Barbary  States  have  made  peace 
with  them,  they  will  Turn  all  their  Views  towards  Us,  and  If 
another  Capture  or  Two  be  made,  the  Terms  of  Peace  will  be 
Risen  most  Extravagantly.  I  shall  make  no  appology  to  you  Gentle- 
men for  Communicating  whatever  has  occurM  to  me  on  this  Sub- 
ject, and  as  it  is  probable  I  shall  not  have  occasion  again  to  Resume 
it,  I  will  now  add  that  I  know  No  American  subject  in  Spain  or 
France — Mr.  Jefferson  is  out  of  the  Question — So  adequate  to  the 
Task  of  negociating  at  Algiers,  as  is  Mr.  Carmichael.  I  am  Per- 
fectly Convinced  that  when  it  is  Renewed  He  ought  if  Possible  to 
undertake  it  and  I  Beg  leave  to  Recommend  this  Hint  to  Your 
serious  Consideration.  I  am  sure  Mr.  Carmichael  has  No  objects 
under  his  Care  half  so  Interesting,  and  if  His  situation  will  permit, 
he  ought  Not  to  Hestitate. 

I  wish  much  to  Know  your  sentiments  of  the  Treaty  with 
Morocco.  Though  it  is  Not  Quite  as  Good  as  I  Desire,  It  is  as  much 
so  as  I  Cou'd  make  it.  I  Beg  you  will  Favor  me  with  Your  Opinion 
when  you  are  at  Leisure.  The  answer  from  Coruna  is  what  I  Feared 
it  wou'd  be—No  ways  Decisive.  It  is  Two  or  Three  Years  since 
Mr.  Carmichael  Endeavord  to  Procure  a  Settlement,  and  I  much 
Fear  I  shall  be  obliged  to  Go  and  Force  one. 

I  am  with  Great  Respect  and  Esteem  Gentlemen  Your  Most 
obed.  and  Very  Huml.  Servant,  THOS  BARCLAY 

RC  (DLC);  addressed:  "Their  Excellencies  John  Adams  and  Thomas  Jef- 
ferson Esqrs.  Paris";  endorsed  by  TJ.  Tr  (DNA:  PCC,  No.  107,  i).  Recorded 
in  SJL  as  received  27  Jan.  1787. 

From  S.  8c  J.  H.  Delap 

SIR  Bordeaux  6  January  1787 

In  the  month  of  March  1785,  Thomas  Barclay  Esquire  ap- 
pointed by  the  Honorable  Congress  of  the  United  States  of  Amer- 
ica to  Audit  the  accounts  of  the  different  particulars  who  trans- 
acted business  for  that  honorable  body,  called  upon  us  for  our 


6    JANUARY    1787 

accounts,  which  we  furnished  him  to  transmit  them,  and  on  which 
there  is  a  balance  due  us  of  £79945.  4.  Tournois;  we  have  since 
been  Deprived  of  any  answer,  'tho  he  gave  us  every  reason  to  ex- 
pect we  should  be  immediately  paid.  We  have  therefore  to  request 
your  letting  us  know,  if  you  have  received  any  orders  relative  to 
the  payment  of  our  account,  or  to  whom  we  are  to  apply  for  same. 
Our  present  situation  is  such,  that  it  absolutely  requires  our  tak- 
ing some  active  measures  to  extricate  ourselves  from  the  Em- 
barras,  into  which  we  were  plunged  by  the  great  advances  we 
entered  into,  for  Numbers  of  Gentlemen  on  your  Continent,  who 
since  our  misfortunes  have  never  deigned  to  remit  us  a  Sous  or  even 
answer  our  letters.  There  is  due  us  by  private  persons  in  America 
upwards  of  Four  hundred  Thousand  livers  Tournois,  exclusive  of 
what  the  Congress  owes  us,  payable  in  France,  and  about  Three 
hundred  Thousand  Dollars  that  we  are  possessed  of  in  Loan  Of- 
fice certificates  &c.  We  should  esteem  it  a  particular  favor  when 
you  do  us  the  honor  of  answering  us,  to  let  us  know  if  there  is 
any  prospect  of  this  paper  ever  being  paid,  and  on  what  footing. 
For  your  Government  we  hand  you  inclosed  Copy  of  the  account 
settled  with  Thomas  Barclay  Esqr.  to  whom  we  exhibited  the 
different  orders  of  Congress  in  vertue  of  which  we  made  these 

We  have  the  honor  to  be  with  great  respect  Sir,  Your  most 
obedient  Humble  Servants,  S  &  J.  H.  DELAP 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  17  Jan.  1787.  Enclosure: 
Account  of  S.  &  J.  H.  Delap  with  the  U.S.  to  7  Mch.  1785  (DLC),  showing: 
balance  due  of  79,945  livres  tournois. 

From  Jean  Nicolas  Derneunier 

Rue  Ste  Anne  no.  87  Le  6  Janvier 

Les  abonnes  au  Sallon  des  Echecs  ont  regu  une  Lettre  pareille  & 
Celle  qu'a  regu  Monsieur  Jefferson.  On  est  Le  Maitre  de  ne  pas 
renouveller  Son  abonnement,  et  M.  D6meunier  dira  que  Les  affaires 
et  L'eloignement  de  Monsieur  Jefferson  ne  Lui  permettent  pas  de 
renouveller  Le  Sien. 

On  Sera  Fach£  de  perdre  L'esperance  de  voir  Monsieur  Jef- 
ferson, Mais  c'est  une  chose  toute  simple,  dent  il  ne  doit  pas 
s'occuper  davantage.  M.  D&meunier  Le  prie  d'agr£er  mille  Tendres 
et  respectueux  Complimens.  II  desire  toujours  LTiistoire  du  nouvel 
hampshire  et  M.  Massei  qui  L'a  emprunt6  devroit  bien  L'envoygr 


6    JANUARY     1787 

Rue  Ste  aime  no.  87  ou  Faire  dire,  quel  Jour,  et  en  quel  endroit,  on 
pourroit  L'envoyer  chercher. 

ES.  M.  D£meunier  en  rendant  Justice  a  La  Constitution  du 
nouvel  hampshire  qui  Lui  paroit  tr£s  belle,  et  d'une  precision  et 
d\me  nettete  remarquables,  S'est  permis  de  demander,  Si  elle  a 
Form£  Le  Conseil  executif  de  La  Maniere  La  plus  avantageuse? 
Pour  Separer  davantage  Les  individus  qui  exercent  La  puissance 
Legislative,  Judiciaire,  ou  executrice,  il  est  Tent£  de  croire,  qtfon 
Auroit  du  choisir  pour  Les  Membres  du  Conseil  executif  des 
hommes  qui  ne  Fussent  ni  dans  Le  Senat,  ni  dans  La  chambre  des 
repr£sentans;  il  voit  bien  Les  raisons  qui  ont  determine  Le  nouvel 
hampshire,  et  Les  Autres  provinces,  mais  il  voit  aussi  beaucoup  de 
raisons  en  Faveur  de  L'opinion  Contraire,  et  il  voit  surtout  une 
petite  Contradiction,  avec  Les  articles  de  declarations  des  droits, 
qui  ordonnent  expressement  de  separer  Les  trois  pouvoirs,  et  de 
Les  separer  Le  plus  qu'il  est  possible. 

M.  D6meunier  Soumet  cette  id£e  aux  Lumieres  de  Monsieur 
Jefferson;  il  seroit  bien  Aise  de  Savoir,  Si  on  ri'y  a  pas  Song6;  ou 
Si  on  y  a  Song6,  pourquoi  on  ne  L'a  pas  adopt6. 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed;  undated.  Not  under  date  of  6  Feb.  1786)  and  it 
recorded  in  SJL.  The  date  is  established  was  on  6  Jan.  1786  that  Dfimeunier 
by  internal  evidence;  e.g.,  TJ  was  not  first  wrote  him;  the  letter  that  TJ  re- 
admitted to  the  SALLON  DES  ECiiECS  ceived  in  common  with  other  ABONNES 
until  Feb.  1786  (see  Account  Book  has  not  been  found. 

From  Ferdinand  Grand 

MONSIEUR  Paris  le  6.  Janvier   1787. 

J'ai  Phonneur  de  vous  informer  que  Mrs.  Hy.  Fizeaux  &  Cie.  se 
sont  prgvalus  sur  moi  le  ler.  de  ce  mois  pour  le  11  avril  de 
£5679.1.6.  qu'ils  m'avisent  etre  pour  compte  des  Etats  unis. 
Veuillez  me  faire  savoir,  Monsieur,  si  je  dois  acceuillir  cette  traitte 
et  en  d6biter  les  £tats. 

JTai  Thonneur  d'etre  avec  une  parfaite  consideration  Monsieur 
Votre  tres  humble  &  tres  ob€issant  Serviteur,  GRAND 

RC   (DLC);  endorsed.  Not  recorded  in  SJL. 

To  Abigail  Adams 

{Paris,  7  Jan.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  under  this  date.  Not  found; 
but  see  Mrs.  Adams'  reply,  29  Jan.  1787.] 


To  Calonne 

[SiR]  Paris  Jan.  7.  1787. 

I  had  the  honour  on  the  2cL  of  November  last  to  acknowlege  the 
receipt  of  your  Excellency's  letter  of  October  the  22d.  wherein  you 
were  so  good  as  to  communicate  to  me  the  arrangements  which  the 
king  had  been  pleased  to  make  for  the  encouragement  of  the  com- 
merce of  the  United  states  of  America  with  his  subjects.  I  im- 
mediately made  known  the  same  to  the  Agents  of  the  United  States 
in  the  several  seaports  of  this  kingdom,  that  they  might  give 
information  thereof  to  the  persons  concerned  in  that  commerce. 
Unacquainted  with  the  forms  in  which  his  Majesty  usually  declares 
his  will  in  cases  of  this  kind,  and  the  manner  in  which  it  is  com- 
municated to  the  Officers  of  the  customs  at  the  seaports,  I  am 
unable  to  answer  those  agents  who  inform  me  that  the  officers  of 
the  customs  and  fauns  do  not  as  yet  consider  themselves  bound 
to  conform  to  the  new  regulations.  I  take  the  liberty  therefore  of  sol- 
liciting  your  Excellency's  interposition  for  the  issuing  such  orders 
as  may  be  necessary  for  carrying  into  effect  the  gracious  intentions 
of  the  king,  and  of  repeating  the  assurance  of  those  sentiments  of 
perfect  respect  and  esteem  with  which  I  have  the  honour  to  be  your 
Excellency's  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servant, 


PrC  (DLC).  menting  Calonne's  regulations  of  22 

Oct.  1786,  see  Short  to  TJ,  4  Apr. 

THOSE  AGENTS  WHO  INFORM:  ME:  See,  1787;  Short  to  Jay,  4  May  1787;  TJ 
among-  others,  Boylston  to  TJ,  2  Jan.  to  Jay,  21  June  1787;  Villedeuil  to 
1787  and  Le  Couteulx  to  TJ,  3  Jan.  TJ,  2  July  1787;  Barrett  to  TJ,  11 
1787.  On  the  whole  problem  of  imple-  July  1787. 

To  Colonia 

7me.  Janvier  1787. 

Monsieur  Jefferson  avoit  Phonneur,  il  y  a  quelques  jours  de  f  aire 
passer  a  Monsieur  de  Colonia  un  passeport  pour  Pexpedition  des 
armes  k  1'etat  de  Virginie,  sign6  par  sa  majeste"  le  roi,  mais  man- 
quant  la  signature  de  son  excellence  Monsieur  le  Comtrolleur 
general:  et  il  prenoit  la  liberte*  de  supplier  Monsieur  de  Colonia  de 
lui  procurer  la  signature  de  ce  Ministre.  Peut  il  oser  de  le  prier, 
quand  cette  f  ormalite*  sera  suppl6e,  de  vouloir  bien  lui  f  aire  repasser 
le  passeport  par  le  moyen  de  la  petite  poste?  II  a  1'honneur  de  lui 
renouveller  les  assurances  de  sa  consideration  distingu6e  pour  lui. 

PrC    (DLC);  endorsed. 


To  Matthew  Boulton 

Paris  Jan.  8.  1787. 

Mr.  Jefferson's  compliments  to  Mr.  Boulton  and  will  beg  the 
favor  of  him,  when  he  shall  be  arrived  in  England,  to  have  an 
estimate  made  of  the  cost  of  the  underwritten  articles,  plated  in 
the  best  manner,  with  a  plain  bead,  and  to  send  him  the  estimate  to 
Paris.  If  Mr.  Jefferson  should  on  the  estimate  decide  to  buy  them, 
he  will  take  the  liberty  of  addressing  a  letter  to  Mr.  Boulton  for 

2.  Soup-terreens  middlesized,  say  11.  Inches  long. 
2.  dishes  for  the  terreens  to  stand  in, 
10.  dishes,  round,  of  10  J  Inches  diameter. 
2.  dishes,  oval,  16  I.  long,  10J  I.  wide. 
4.  dishes,  oval,  12  I.  long,  9  I.  wide. 

PrC  (MHi)j  endorsed. 

From  Duler 

Rouen,  8  Jan.  1787.  TJ's  letter  has  emboldened  him  to  state  that  he 
did  not  expect  aid  in  securing  a  position  in  "any  Bureau  at  Paris";  hopes 
he  can  secure  a  position  in  England  or  France  "in  some  of  the  American 
affairs"  or  possibly  "a  place  of  Consul  for  the  french  nation  in  some  of 
the  American  Ports";  sends  testimonial  as  to  character  from  D'Anmours 
of  Baltimore,  which,  though  in  French,  he  thinks  TJ  may  "perfectly 
understand"  and  which  he  asks  to  have  returned;  can  supply  other  testi- 
monials respecting  "my  morals  and  Capacity  in  the  line  of  trade  and 
sea  affairs." 

RC  (DLC);  2  p.;  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  10  Jan.  1787.  En- 
closure not  found. 

From  R.  8c  A.  Garvey 

SIR  Rouen  8  January  1787 

We  are  desired  by  Mr.  Thorns.  Boylston  to  apply  to  your  Excel- 
lency, and  to  beg  the  favour  of  you,  to  take  such  Measures  as  may 
be  necessary,  to  secure  him  the  repayment  of  the  duties  which  he 
paid  last  year  on  his  oil,  which  is  an  object  of  £9252:  its  in 
Consequence  of  the  letter  M.  de  Callonne  wrote  your  Excellency 
the  22d.  of  last  October,  which  you  forwarded  me  the  29th.  same 
Month,  that  Mr.  Boylston  thinks  himself  entitled  to  call  for  said 
restitution;  we  cant  say  in  what  light  his  demand  May  be  seen, 


9    JANUARY    1787 

but  we  think  that  its  possible  he  May  recover  the  Money  under 
the  Patronage  and  protection  of  your  Excellency.  We  have  the 
Honour  to  be  Sir  Your  Excellencys  most  humble  &  most  obedient 
Servants,  ROBT.  &  ANT.  GARVEY 

RC  (MHi);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  11  Jan.  1787. 

From  Q  W.  F.  Dumas 

MONSIEUR  Lahaie  9e.  Janv.  1787 

En  consequence  de  ma  derniere,  qui  doit  Stre  parvenue  a  V.E, 

par  Mr.  Brantsen,  sous  le  couvert  de  qui  je  L'ai  mise,  je  me  propose 

d'aller  111  oft  j'ai  dit,  sonder  le  terrain  discretement,  dans  5  ou  6 

jours  d'ici. 

Dds  que  Votre  Excellence  saura  quelque  chose  de  positif  sur 

1'accession  finale  et  complete  de  PEtat  de  N.  York,  aux  mesures  des 

autres,  il  sera  bon  et  il  importe  qu'Elle  Veuille  bien  m'en  donner 

connoissance  d'abord. 

Je  suis  toujours  avec  grand  respect,  De  Votre  Excellence  Le 

tr£s-humble  &  tres-obeissant  Serviteur,  C  W  F  DUMAS 

RC  (DLC).  FC  (Rijksarchief,  The  Hague,  Dumas  Papers;  photostats  in  DLC). 
Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  14  Jan.  1787.  Evidently  this  also  was  enclosed  in 
one  to  MR.  BRANTSEN  (see  note  to  Dumas  to  TJ,  5  Jan.  1787). 

From  George  Gilmer 

DEAR  SIR  Pen  Park  9th.  January  1787 

Your  kind  attention  to  me  in  sending  the  Vegitable  system  gave 
me  great  pleasure;  and  could  only  have  been  increased  by  a  line 
from  you.  This  may  be  a  reproof  for  my  inattention  that  you  may 
have  thought  me  guilty  of,  in  not  writing  to  you.  Believe  I  have 
often  wrote,  'and  should  more  frequent  could  my  sheding  ink 
furnish  you  one  moments  satisfaction,  but  too  late  have  I  discovered 
the  misfortune  of  not  laying  up  a  large  stock  of  contemplative 
treasure,  the  true  foundation  of  all  sublunary  satisfaction.  A  large 
purchass  of  this  fund,  might  have  given  me  powers  that  would 
have  merited  your  friendship,  but  as  I  can  have  no  claim  from  the 
head,  let  a  warm  and  affectionate  heart,  beg  the  continuance  of 
your  esteem,  which  reluctates  your  distance,  and  augures  from 
your  sweet  little  olive  branch  intending  for  Paris  must  lament  a 
long  absence.  This  Idea  is  the  more  distressing  at  this  period 

9    JANUARY     1787 

a  title  to  the  said  estate  then  I  direct  the  same  to  be  conveyed  to 
my  sister  Hannah  Lambert  if  she  in  her  lifetime  can  acquire  prop- 
erty in  this  country. 

But  if  the  said  John  Harmer,  John  Lambert  and  Hannah  Lam- 
bert should  all  die  before  they  can  acquire  any  property  legally 
in  this  country  then  I  desire  that  my  trustees  aforesaid  may  cause 
the  said  Estate  of  every  kind  to  be  sold  and  the  money  arising  from 
each  sale  together  with  intermediate  profits  of  the  said  estate  shall 
be  by  them  remitted  to  the  Mayor  and  Corporation  of  the  City 
of  Bristol  in  England  to  be  by  them  distributed  according  to  the 
laws  of  England  to  the  right  Heirs  of  my  said  Sister  Hannah 
Lambert  to  whom  I  hereby  give  all  such  excepting  the  sum  of  one 
hundred  pounds  lawful  money  to  each  of  the  aforementioned 
trustees,  which  shall  be  paid  out  of  the  first  money  arising  from 
the  sales  aforementioned  or  from  the  profits  arising  to  my  heirs, 
in  witness  whereof  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  affixed  my 
seal  this  twenty  fifth  day  of  June  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and 
eighty  two. 

RC  (DLC);  unsigned;  endorsed:  and  now  for  the  first  time  discover 

**Gilmer  George."  Recorded  in  SJL  as  marks  of  it's  being  yours."  There  is 

received  11  June  1787.  no  endorsement  or  deleted  endorsement 

Despite  the  abrupt  ending  of  this  on  the  letter  save  that  indicated  above, 

letter  and  the  absence  of  a  signature  or  but  TJ's  first  and  erroneous  endorse- 

a  complementary  close,  it  is  clear  that  ment  was  probably  made  on  the  ad- 

this  is  the  whole  of  the  text  as  TJ  re-  dress  leaf  which-— as  was  the  case  with 

ceived  it.  For,  in  his  reply  of  12  Aug.  so  many  of  the  address  leaves  of  letters 

1787,  TJ  described  it  as  unsigned  and  written  to  TJ— was  later  detached  and 

said  that  for  this  and  other  reasons  he  used  for  scrap  paper.  The  SWEET  LIT- 

had  ascribed  the  letter  to  John  Harmer  TLE  OLIVE  BRANCH  was  Mary  Jeffer- 

and  had  so  endorsed  it.  He  added:  "I  son,  who  was,  however  reluctantly,  IN- 

sat  down  to  answer  it  to  John  Harmer,  TENDING  FOR  PARIS. 

To  John  Jay 

SIR  Paris  Jan.  9.  1787. 

My  last  of  Dec.  31.  acknowleged  the  receipt  of  yours  of  Oct.  12. 
as  the  present  does  those  of  Oct.  3d.  9th.  and  27th.  together  with 
the  resolution  of  Congress  of  Octob.  16.  on  the  claim  of  Shweig- 
hauser.  I  will  proceed  in  this  business  on  the  return  of  Mr.  Barclay, 
who  being  fully  acquainted  with  all  the  circumstances,  will  be 
enabled  to  give  me  that  information  the  want  of  which  might 
lead  me  to  do  wrong  on  the  one  side  or  the  other. 

Information  of  the  signature  of  the  treaty  with  Marocco  has 
been  long  on  it's  passage  to  you.  I  will  beg  leave  to  recur  to  dates, 
that  you  may  see  that  no  part  of  it  has  been  derived  from  me.  The 


9    JANUARY     1787 

first  notice  I  had  of  it  was  in  a  letter  from  Mr.  Barclay  dated  Daral- 
beyda  August  llth.  I  received  this  on  the  13th.  of  September.  No 
secure  conveyance  offered  till  the  26th.  of  the  same  month,  being 
13.  days  after  my  receipt  of  it.  In  my  letter  of  that  date,  which  went 
by  the  way  of  London,  I  had  the  honour  to  inclose  you  a  copy  of 
Mr.  Barclay's  letter.  The  conveyance  of  the  treaty  itself  is  suffering 
a  delay  here  at  present,  which  all  my  anxiety  cannot  prevent.  Colo. 
Franks's  baggage,  which  came  by  water  from  Cadiz  to  Rouen,  has 
been  long  and  hourly  expected.  The  moment  it  arrives  he  will  set 
out  to  London  to  have  duplicates  of  the  treaty  signed  by  Mr,  Adams, 
and  from  thence  he  will  proceed  to  New-York.  The 

Chevalier  del  Pinto,  who  treated  with  us  on  behalf  of  Portugal, 
being  resident  at  London,  I  have  presumed  that  the  causes  of  the 
delay  of  that  treaty  had  been  made  known  to  Mr.  Adams,  and  by 
him  communicated  to  you.  I  will  write  to  him  by  Colo.  Franks  in 
order  that  you  may  be  answered  on  that  subject. 

The  publication  of  the  inclosed  extract  from  my  letter  of  May 
27.  1786.  will,  I  fear,  have  very  mischeivous  effects.  It  will  tend 
to  draw  on  the  Count  de  Vergennes  the  formidable  phalanx  of  the 
Farms:  to  prevent  his  committing  himself  to  ine  in  any  conversation 
which  he  does  not  mean  for  the  publick  papers:  to  inspire  the  same 
diffidence  into  all  other  ministers  with  whom  I  might  have  to 
transact  business:  to  defeat  the  little  hope,  if  any  hope  existed,  of 
getting  rid  of  the  farm  on  the  article  of  tobacco;  and  to  damp  that 
freedom  of  communication  which  the  resolution  of  Congress  of 
May  3.  1784.  was  intended  to  reestablish. 

Observing  by  the  proceedings  of  Congress  that  they  are  about 
to  establish  a  coinage,  I  think  it  my  duty  to  inform  them,  that  a 
Swiss,  of  the  name  of  Drost,  established  here,  has  invented  a 
method  of  striking  the  two  faces  and  the  edge  of  a  coin  at  one 
stroke.  By  this  and  other  simplifications  of  the  process  of  coinage 
he  is  enabled  to  coin  from  25000  to  30000  peices  a  day,  with  the 
assistance  of  only  two  persons,  the  peices  of  metal  being  first  pre- 
pared. I  send  you  by  Colo.  Franks  three  coins  of  gold,  silver  and 
copper,  which  you  will  percieve  to  be  perfect  medals:  and  I  can 
assure  you  from  having  seen  him  coin  many,  that  every  peice 
is  as  perfect  as  these.  There  has  certainly  never  yet  been  seen  any 
coin,  in  any  country,  comparable  to  this.  The  best  workmen  in  this 
way  acknolege  that  his  is  like  a  new  art.  Coin  should  always  be 
made  in  the  highest  perfection  possible  because  it  is  a  great  guard 
against  the  danger  of  false  coinage.  This  man  would  be  willing 
to  furnish  his  implements  to  Congress,  and  if  they  please,  he  will 


9    JANUARY    1787 

go  over  and  instruct  a  person  to  carry  on  the  work:  nor  do  I  beleive 
he  would  ask  any  thing  unreasonable.  It  would  be  very  desireable 
that  in  the  institution  of  a  new  coinage,  we  could  set  out  on  so 
perfect  a  plan  as  this,  and  the  more  so,  as  while  the  work  is  so 
exquisitely  done,  it  is  done  cheaper. 

I  will  certainly  do  the  best  I  can  for  the  reformation  of  the 
Consular  Convention,  being  persuaded  that  our  states  would  be  very 
unwilling  to  conform  their  laws  either  to  the  Convention,  or  to 
the  Scheme.  But  it  is  too  difficult,  and  too  delicate  to  form  sanguine 
hopes.  However  that  there  may  be  room  to  reduce  the  convention  as 
much  as  circumstances  will  admit,  will  it  not  be  expedient  for 
Congress  to  give  me  powers,  in  which  there  shall  be  no  reference 
to  the  scheme?  The  powers  sent  me,  oblige  me  to  produce  that 
scheme,  and  certainly  the  moment  it  is  produced,  they  will  not 
abate  a  tittle  from  it.  If  they  recollect  the  scheme  and  insist  on  it, 
we  can  but  conclude  it:  but  if  they  have  forgotten  it  (which  may  be) 
and  are  willing  to  reconsider  the  whole  subject,  perhaps  we  may 
get  rid  of  something  the  more  of  it.  As  the  delay  is  not  injurious  to 
us,  because  the  Convention  whenever  and  however  made  is  to  put 
us  in  a  worse  state  than  we  are  in  now,  I  shall  venture  to  defer  say- 
ing a  word  on  the  subject  till  I  can  hear  from  you  in  answer  to 
this.  The  full  powers  may  be  sufficiently  guarded  by  private  instruc- 
tions to  me  not  to  go  beyond  the  former  scheme.  This  delay  may  be 
well  enough  ascribed  (whenever  I  shall  have  received  new  powers) 
to  a  journey  I  had  before  apprised  the  minister  that  I  should  be 
obliged  to  take  to  some  mineral  waters  in  the  South  of  France,  to 
see  if  by  their  aid  I  may  recover  the  use  of  my  right  hand,  of  which 
a  dislocation  about  4.  months  ago  threatens  to  deprive  me  in  a 
great  measure.  The  Surgeons  have  long  insisted  on  this  measure. 
I  shall  return  by  Bourdeaux,  Nantes  and  Lorient  to  get  the  neces- 
sary information  for  finishing  our  commercial  regulations  here. 
Permit  me  however  to  ask  as  immediately  as  possible  an  answer 
either  affirmative  or  negative  as  Congress  shall  think  best,  and  to 
ascribe  the  delay  on  which  I  venture  to  my  desire  to  do  what  is 
for  the  best. 

I  send  you  a  copy  of  the  late  Marine  regulations  of  this  country. 
There  are  things  in  it  which  may  become  interesting  to  us.  Par- 
ticularly what  relates  to  the  establishment  of  a  marine  militia,  and 
their  classification. 

You  will  have  seen  in  the  publick  papers  that  the  king  has 
called  an  Assembly  of  the  Notables  of  his  country.  This  has  not 
been  done  for  160  years  past.  Of  course  it  calls  up  all  the  attention 


9    JANUARY     1787 

of  the  people.  The  objects  of  this  assembly  are  not  named.  Several 
are  conjectured.  The  tolerating  the  Protestant  religion;  removing 
all  the  internal  custom  houses  to  the  frontier;  equalising  the  gabels 
on  salt  thro'  the  kingdom;  the  sale  of  the  king's  domains  to  raise 
money;  or  finally  the  effecting  this  necessary  end  by  some  other 
means,  are  talked  of.  But  in  truth  nothing  is  known  about  it.  This 
government  practises  secrecy  so  systematically  that  it  never  pub- 
lishes it's  purposes  or  it's  proceedings  sooner  or  more  extensively 
than  necessary.  I  send  you  a  pamphlet  which  giving  an  account  of 
the  last  Assemble  des  notables,  may  give  an  idea  of  what  the  pres- 
ent will  be. 

A  great  desire  prevails  here  of  encouraging  manufactures.  The 
famous  Boulton  &  Watts,  who  are  at  the  head  of  the  plated  manu- 
factures of  Birmingham,  the  steam  mills  of  London,  Copying 
presses  and  other  mechanical  works,  have  been  here.  It  is  said 
also  that  Wedgwood  has  been  here,  who  is  famous  for  his  steel 
manufactories  and  an  earthen  ware  in  the  antique  stile:  but  as  to 
this  last  person  I  am  not  certain.  It  cannot,  I  believe,  be  doubted, 
but  that  they  came  at  the  request  of  government,  and  that  they 
will  be  induced  to  establish  similar  manufactures  here.  The  trans- 
ferring hither  those  manufactures  which  contribute  so  much  to 
draw  our  commerce  to  England,  will  have  a  great  tendency  to 
strengthen  our  connections  with  this  country,  and  loosen  them  with 

The  enfranchising  the  port  of  Honfleur  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Seine,  for  multiplying  the  connections  with  us,  is  at  present  an 
object.  It  meets  with  opposition  in  the  ministry;  but  I  am  in  hopes 
it  will  prevail.  If  natural  causes  operate,  uninfluenced  by  accidental 
circumstances,  Bourdeaux  and  Honfleur  or  Havre  must  ultimately 
take  the  greatest  part  of  our  commerce.  The  former  by  the  Garonne 
and  canal  of  Languedoc  opens  the  Southern  provinces  to  us,  the 
latter  the  Northern  ones  and  Paris.  Honfleur  will  be  peculiarly 
advantageous  for  our  rice,  and  whale  oil,  of  which  the  principal 
consumption  is  at  Paris.  Being  free,  they  can  be  re-exported  when 
the  market  here  shall  happen  to  be  overstocked. 

The  labours  of  the  ensuing  summer  will  close  the  Eastern  half 
of  the  harbour  of  Cherbourg,  which  will  contain  and  protect  forty 
sail  of  the  line.  It  has  from  50  to  35  feet  water  next  to  the  cones, 
shallowing  gradually  to  the  shore.  Between  this  and  Dunkirk  the 
navigation  of  the  channel  will  be  rendered  much  safer  in  the  event 
of  a  war  with  England,  and  invasions  on  that  country  become  more 


9    JANUARY    1787 

The  gazettes  of  France  and  Leyden  to  the  present  date  accom- 
pany this.  I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  sentiments  of  the  most 
perfect  esteem  &  respect,  Sir,  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble 
servant,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

mer  and  fall  of  1834,  lie  arranged, 
bound  (mounted),  and  prepared  *a 
summary  descriptive  list7  of  the  Papers 
of  the  Continental  Congress.  The  Jef- 
ferson despatches  for  1787  are  not 
mounted  with  others  received  from  Jef- 
ferson (PCC,  No.  87).  Weaver's  sum- 
mary descriptive  list  of  the  papers, 
printed  by  Blair  in  1835  under  the  title, 
Catalogue  of  Manuscript  Books,  states 
moreover,  under  PCC,  No.  87,  that 
'most  of  the  correspondence  of  1787  is 
missing.'  (Information  from  Dorothy 
Eaton,  Library  of  Congress.)  It  would 
have  been  more  accurate  to  say  that  all 
of  the  despatches  of  1787  from  the 
United  States  Legation  in  Paris  are 
missing-  except  three  from  William 
Short.  Did  "Weaver  make  a  point  of 
calling  attention  to  the  missing  Jeffer- 
son despatches  because  they  had  disap- 
peared so  recently?  We  do  not  know  the 
answer.  John  Laurens'  original  des- 
patches, January  3— September  6,  1781 
also  are  missing,  yet  Weaver  fails  to 
note  the  fact." 

TJ  did  not  send  THREE  COINS  OF 
GOLD,  SILVER  AND  COPPER  by  Franks, 
but  only  those  of  gold  and  silver  (for 
notes  on  the  experimental  "e*cu  de 
Calonne"  struck  by  J.-P.  Droz,  see  TJ 
to  Jay,  1  Feb.  1787).  To  the  various 

VERY     MISCKCEIVOT7S     EFFECTS     that     TJ 

feared  as  a  result  of  the  indiscreet  and 
unauthorized  publication  of  his  letter 
to  Jay  might  possibly  be  added  the 
very  dilatory  and  reluctant  implemen- 
tation of  the  trade  regulations  as  set 
forth  in  Calonne's  letter  to  TJ  of  22 
Oct.  1786.  TJ  himself  was  the  author 

Of     the     RESOLUTION     OF     CONGRESS     OF 

MAY  3.  1784.  which  placed  all  letters 
of  ministers  at  all  times  under  an  in- 
junction of  secrecy  "except  as  to  such 
parts  of  them  as  Congress  shall  by  spe- 
cial permission  allow  to  be  published 
or  communicated"  and  Congress  had 
on  7  Aug.  1786  taken  off  "The  in- 
junction of  Secresy  .  .  .  from  this  letter 
of  May  27  from  Mr.  Jefferson  and 
the  papers  accompanying  it  as  far  as 
relates  to  the  tobacco  Contract"  (Vol. 
7:  207;  JCC,  XXXI,  488).  YOURS  OF 
OCT.  .  .  .  9TH  was  Jay's  to  the  president 
of  Congress,  not  to  TJ. 

PrC  (DLC).  Tr  (DNA:  PCC,  No. 
1O7,  l).  Enclosures:  (1)  Extract  from 
an  unidentified  American  newspaper 
containing  TJ's  letter  to  Jay,  27  May 
1786  (see  notes  there).  (2)  The  "late 
Marine  regulations"  that  TJ  enclosed 
may  have  been  a  copy  of  Ordonnances 
et  RSglemens  concernant  la  Marine , 
Paris,  1786  (Sowerby,  No.  2222)  and 
that  relating  "to  the  establishment  of 
a  marine  militia"  may  have  been  the 
arrgt  of  5  Sep.  1782  for  the  "creation 
d'une  milice  maritime"  (Recueil  Gin- 
eral  des  Anciennes  Lois  Frangaises, 
Paris,  1827,  xxvn,  p.  224,  No.  1692). 
(3)  The  "pamphlet  .  .  .  giving  an  ac- 
count of  the  last  AssemblSe  des  nota- 
bles" has  not  been  identified.  (4)  Vari- 
ous unidentified  "gazettes  of  France  and 

The  recipient's  copies  of  TJ's  des- 
patches to  Jay  from  France  are  missing 
for  the  year  1787$  only  those  from  Short 
to  Jay  of  21  Mch.,  4  May,  and  19  Sep. 
1787  are  present  hi  DNA:  PCC,  No.  87. 
In  the  Daily  Journals  or  Despatch  Books 
of  the  Office  of  Foreign  Affairs,  1784- 
1790  (DNA:  PCC,  No.  127),  there  are 
entries  showing  that  Jay  received  eight- 
een despatches  from  TJ  during  the  year. 
These  were  dated  9  Jan.;  1,  8,  14  (bis), 
and  23  Feb.;  4  May;  21  June;  6  and  15 
Aug.;  19,  22  (bis),  and  24  Sep.;  3  and 
7  Nov.;  and  21  and  31  Dec.  1787.  The 
following  communication  to  the  editors 
from  Dr.  Carl  L.  Lokke,  Chief  of  the 
Foreign  Affairs  Division,  the  National 
Archives,  of  29  Oct.  1954,  is  of  interest: 
<eWhen  did  the  original  despatches  of 
1787  disappear?  It  is  possible  to  pin- 
point the  time  within  a  year  or  two. 
William  A.  Weaver  obviously  had  the 
despatches  at  hand  (either  originals  or 
copies)  when  he  compiled  the  Diplo- 
matic Correspondence  of  the  United 
States  of  America*  1783-89  (7  vols., 
Washington,  1833-34;  new  edition,  3 
vols.,  printed  1837,  published  1855), 
as  all  of  them  are  included  in  this  pub- 
lication except  those  dated  November  7 
and  December  21,  1787.  (He  may  have 
had  all  of  them  in  1833  and  merely  de- 
cided not  to  include  these  two  in  the 
publication.)  But  he  did  not  have  the 
original  despatches  when,  in  the  sum- 


To  Pierre  Louis  Lacretelle 

[Paris,  9  Jan.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL.  Not  found;  it  may  possibly 
have  related  to  Lacretelle's  Discours  sur  le  prejugg  des  peines  infa- 
mantes,  couronnes  d  PAcademie  de  Metz,  Paris,  1784,  of  which  TJ 
possessed  a  copy  (Sowerby,  No.  2362).] 

From  Elizabeth  Blair  Thompson 

Titchfield  the  10  of  Janry.  87 

Two  years  last  summer  I  experienced  a  sever  mortification;  that 
of  not  seeing  my  old  friend,  and  acquaintence  Mr:  Jefferson,  when 
he  did  me  the  favor  of  calling:  my  stuped  servant  ought  to  have 
told  you  that  I  was  confined  up  stairs  with  a  little  one,   (I  had 
just  lost,)  instead  of  saying  I  was  not  at  home:  that  Captn.  and 
Miss  Thompson  was  not  is  true;  but  had  I  known  you  was  in  the 
house,  I  should  not  have  denyed  my  self  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you, 
and  should  certainly  have  interduced  you  into  my  Bed  Chamber. 
Captn.  T.  set  out  the  next  day  in  hopes  of  meeting  of  you,  but  had 
the  mortification  of  hearing  you  were  gone:  I  dont  know  that  I  was 
ever  more  vexed,  for  believe  me  I  should  have  rejoyced  much  to 
see  you;  and  I  flatter  my  self  if  ever  you  come  to  this  country 
again,  you  will  do  us  the  favor  of  spending  some  time  with  us; 
where  you  will  always  find  a  sincere  welcome.  I  have  not  very 
lately  heard  from,  our  friends  in  America,  but  my  last  letters  was 
from  my  sister  Gary:  her  Son,  and  his  Amiable  Lady  were  then  her 
visitors;  and  in  pretty  good  health,  tho  the  little  Boy  had  bad  Eyes: 
but  its  most  probable  you  have  heard  since  that  account.  I  wish 
they  lived  in  a  more  healthy  situation  then  Richneck,  where  I  fear 
they  will  seldom  enjoy  health  for   any  time  together.   You  will 
excuse  I  hope  the  trouble  I  am  about  to  give  you;  which  is  to  beg 
of  you   (if  you  can,)   to  give  us  some  information  of  Mr.  John 
Banister;  who  we  have  not  heard  of  for  some  time:   in  his  last, 
which  I  think  was  dated  at  Nantes,  but  I  am  not  quite  sure,  for 
we  were  involved  at  the  time  in  great  distress,  on  account  of  Miss 
Thompson's  last  illness;  one  of  the  most  amiable  creatures  that 
ever  Parent  was  blesst  with:  she  had  long  been  in  a  decline,  and 
she  was  released  the  day  after  Xmas  from  a  \Vorld,  where  she  had 
known  little  else  then  pain.  In  our  distress,  we  have  laid  his  letter, 
where  we  cannot  find  it;  but  I  think  he  does  not  say  where  we  shall 
find  him,  and  we  are  very  uneasy  about  him,  as  he  tells  us  he  had 
then  another  severe  attack;  and  as  it  is  some  time  since,  we  fear 


1  1    JANUARY    1787 

he  may  still  be  too  ill  to  write.  If  you  can  inform  us  where  he  is, 
and  what  state  of  health  he  is  in;  you  will  greatly  oblige  us. 

I  have  never  heard  what  family  you  have,  or  if  any  part  of  them 
are  with  you;  but  I  sincerely  hope  if  you  have  any,  they  may  be 
all  comforts  to  you.  Mine  is  greatly  increased,  I  have  two  Sons  and 
four  Daughters  living;  beside  two  I  lost  in  their  in[fancy.]  My 
eldest  Son,  almost  begins  to  write  man;  and  is  ente[ring]  our  Navy; 
which  I  hope  he  will  be  a  credit  to.  Captn.  Thompson,  tho  he  has 
not  the  pleasure  of  being  known  to  you,  begs  to  unite  with  me  in 
respectfull  good  wishes,  and  believe  me:  I  shall  always  be  happy 
to  hear  of  your  welfare,  and  I  am  with  great  sincerity  your  obliged, 
Friend  &  Humble  St:,  ELIZA:  THOMPSON 

RC  (DL.C);  slightly  mutilated.  Re-  WRITE  MAN:  The  allusion  is  to  an  ex- 
corded  in  SJL  as  received  17  Jan.  1787.  pression  in  Samuel  Richardson,  The 

"MX  SISTER  GARY:  Sarah  Blair  (1738-  History  of  Sir  Charles  Grandison,  Lon- 

1804),  sister  of  Elizabeth  Blair  Thomp-  don,  1762,  4th  ed.,  n,  Letter  iv,  p.  48: 

son,  was  the  wife  of  Wilson  Miles  Gary.  "I  never  feared  man,  since  I  could  write 

MY    ELDEST     SON,     ALMOST    BEGINS     TO        man." 

To  John  Adams 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Jan.  11.  1787 

Mr.  Jay,  in  his  last  letter  to  me,  observes  that  they  hear  nothing 
further  of  the  treaty  with  Portugal.  I  have  taken  the  liberty  of 
telling  him  that  I  will  write  to  you  on  the  subject,  and  that  he  may 
expect  to  hear  from  you  on  it  by  the  present  conveyance.  The 
Chevalier  del  Pinto  being  at  London,  I  presume  he  has,  or  can 
inform  you  why  it  is  delayed  on  their  part.  I  will  thank  you  also 
for  the  information  he  shall  give  you. 

There  is  here  an  order  of  priests  called  the  Mathurins,  the 
object  of  whose  institution  is  the  begging  of  alms  for  the  redemp- 
tion of  captives.  About  18.  months  ago  they  redeemed  300,  which 
cost  them  about  1500  livres  a  peice.  They  have  agents  residing  in 
the  Barbary  states,  who  are  constantly  employed  in  searching  and 
contracting  for  the  captives  of  their  nation,  and  they  redeem  at 
a  lower  price  than  any  other  people  can.  It  occurred  to  me  that  their 
agency  might  be  engaged  for  our  prisoners  at  Algiers.  I  have  had 
interviews  with  them,  and  the  last  night  a  long  one  with  the 
General  of  the  order.  They  offer  their  services  with  all  the  benignity 
and  cordiality  possible.  The  General  told  me  he  could  not  expect 
to  redeem  our  prisoners  as  cheap  as  their  own,  but  that  he  would 
use  all  the  means  in  his  power  to  do  it  on  the  best  terms  possible, 
which  will  be  the  better  as  there  shall  be  the  less  suspicion  that 


11    JANUARY     1787 

he  acts  for  our  public.  I  told  him  I  would  write  to  you  on  the 
subject,  and  speak  to  him  again.  "What  do  you  think  of  employing 
them,  limiting  them  to  a  certain  price,  as  300  dollars  for  instance, 
or  any  other  sum  you  think  proper?  He  will  write  immediately  to 
his  instruments  there,  and  in  two  or  three  months  we  can  know  the 
event.  He  will  deliver  them  at  Marseilles,  Cadiz,  or  where  we 
please,  at  our  expence.  The  money  remaining  of  the  fund  destined 
to  the  Barbary  business  may  I  suppose  be  drawn  on  for  this 
object.  Write  me  your  opinion  if  you  please,  on  this  subject,  finally, 
fully,  and  immediately,  that,  if  you  approve  the  proposition,  I  may 
enter  into  arrangements  with  the  General  before  my  departure  for 
the  waters  of  Aix,  which  will  be  about  the  beginning  of  February. 
I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  very  sincere  esteem  and  respect 
Dear  Sir  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servt., 


RC    (MHi:   AMT);  endorsed  in  part;    "ansd.  Jan.   25."  PrC    (DLC). 

To  John  Bondfield 

SIR  Paris  Jan.   11,  1787. 

In  the  moment  of  receiving  your  letter  inclosing  the  passport, 
which  wanted  the  Comptroller's  signature,  I  inclosed  it  to  his 
bureau  to  obtain  that  ceremony.  It  is  but  this  instant  returned  to 
me,  and  in  the  same  I  take  the  liberty  of  inclosing  it  to  you  and 
of  assuring  you  of  the  esteem  &  respect  with  which  I  have  the 
honour  to  be  Sir  Your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servt., 


PrC    (DLC).  See   TJ   to   Calonne,    20    Dec.    1786    and    7    Jan.    1787.  If 

Calonne  sent  the  passport  under  a  covering:  letter,  it  has  not  been  found. 

To  David  S.  Franks 

Thursday  Jan.   11.  1787 

My  anxiety,  my  dear  Sir,  on  the  detention  of  the  Marocco  treaty, 
is  inexpressible.  However  cogent  and  necessary  the  motives  which 
detain  you,  I  should  be  deemed  inexcusable  were  I  to  let  so  safe 
an  opportunity  as  that  by  Colo.  Blackden  pass  without  sending  the 
papers  on  to  London.  Mr.  Jay  complained  that  a  treaty  signed  in 
June  was  not  ratified  in  October.  What  will  they  say  when  they 
shall  observe  that  the  same  treaty  does  not  reach  them  till  March, 


1  1    JANUARY     1787 

nine  months?  In  the  mean  time  our  whole  commerce  is  paying  a 
heavy  tax  for  insurance  till  it's  publication.  Can  you  fix  a  day  as 
early  as  Monday  or  Tuesday  for  your  departure  whether  your 
baggage  arrives  or  not?  Or  would  you  rather  decline  the  going  with 
the  papers?  In  the  former  case,  if  your  baggage  does  not  arrive 
before  your  departure,  any  orders  you  may  think  proper  to  leave 
respecting  it  shall  be  punctually  executed.  I  can  send  it  to  Mr. 
Limosin  at  Havre  so  that  it  may  go  to  America  in  the  February 
packet.  I  shall  see  you  at  the  Marquis's  to-day  and  we  will  speak 
about  this  matter. 

PrC    (DLC);  unsigned.  plies  in   the   present  letter,   was   of  no 

MR.   JAY  COMPLAINED  in  his  to  TJ  importance   in   so  urgent   a  matter    o£ 

of  27   Oct.    1786.   In   none   of  his   let-  state,  but  the  threatened  use   of  COLO. 

ters   to   Jay   subsequent  to  Franks'   ar-  BLACKDEN  would  not  have  been  so  safe 

rival  in  Paris   early   in   December  had  an    expedient    as    TJ    had    reason    to 

TJ  explained  that  Franks  was  in  Paris  think    (see    Short   to    TJ,    21    and    29 

or  why  he  was  detained.  The  question  May   1787;   Claiborne  to  TJ,   21   June 

of  personal  baggage,  as  TJ  clearly  im-  1787). 

From  the  Abbe  Morellet 

MONSIEUR  jeudy  [11?  Jan.   1787?] 

Mr.  de  Crevecoeur  m'a  dit  hier  que  dans  la  lecture  plus  suivie 
que  vous  avez  f aite  de  notre  traduction  vous  aves  et6  m£content  de 
quelques  articles  oft.  je  vous  ai  mal  entendu  et  de  Tinsertion  que 
j'ai  f  aite  dans  votre  texte  des  notes  de  Mr.  Thomson  et  peut  etre  de 
quelques  autres  points.  Je  vous  prie  de  m'envoyer  les  corrections 
que  vous  croires  necessaires.  Je  ferai  faire  des  cartons.  Quant  aux 
notes  si  j'ai  mal  fait  de  les  placer  dans  le  texte  c'est  un  mal 
aujourd'hui  irremediable  mais  je  vous  en  avois  demand^  la  per- 
mission et  vous  me  Tavies  accordee.  S'il  y  a  quelque  autre  faute  de 
ma  part  si  laquelle  on  puisse  apporter  remede  vous  n'aves  qu'S. 
ordonner.  Toubliois  de  vous  dire  que  les  notes  de  Mr.  Thomson 
etant  tou jours  distingu^es  de  votre  texte  par  des  crochets  qui  les 
enferment  il  me  semble  que  le  lieu  qu'elles  occuppent  dans  1'ouvrage 
est  bien  indifferent.  Faites  moi  savoir  vos  intentions  je  m'y  con- 
formerai  avec  le  zele  que  j'aurai  toujours  £  vous  montrer  mon 
respectueux  devouement.  J'ai  Phonneur  d'etre  avec  respect  Mon- 
sieur Votre  tr£s  humble  et  trds  ob6issant  Serviteur, 


RC      (DLC);      endorsed:      "Morellet  list  of  "Errors  in   the   Abbe"  Morellet's 

AbbS";    undated    and    not    recorded    in  translation    of    the    Notes    on    Virginia 

s JL,    but   evidently   sent   to   TJ   before  the  correction  of  -which  is  indispensable" 

he    dispatched   to   Morellet   the    7-page  (PrC   in  DLCs   TJ  Papers,  27:    4717- 


12    JANUARY     1787 

23);   this  list,   with    an   excellent   com-  dot>s   not    appear    to   be    in   TJ's  hand, 

mentary,  has  been  published  by  Joseph  Nevertheless,     the     Editors    incline   to 

M.    Carriere    in    "The    Manuscript    of  the  opinion   that   the  date  inscribed  on 

Jefferson's  Unpublished  Errata  List  for  this    errata    list    is    the    correct   one.  If 

Abbe     Morellet's     Translation     of     the  this   is   so,   MoreUet's   letter  must  have 

Notes  on  Virginia,"  Papers  of  the  Bibli-  been    \\ritten    several    days    earlier,  for 

ographical    Society    University    of    Vir-  if   it   had   been    written    on   the  "jeudy" 

ginia,    I    (1948-9),    1-24.    It    bears    at  immediately    precfclinfir    19    Jan.    1787, 

the  head  of  the  text  the  date  "January  TJ    would    have    had    only    twenty-four 

19.  1787."  which  Carriere  accepts  with-  hours,  more  or  U'.ss,  in  which  to  compile 

out  question  and  which  may  indeed  be  the    seventy    errors    that    he    listed  so 

correct,  but  the  following  facts  may  be  carefully  in   parallel   columns.  For  this 

noted:    (1)    this   date  is   in   a   different  reason,   the    "jeucly"    of   the   week  pre- 

mk  from  that  of  the   press   copy;    (2)  ceding    has    been     conjectured    as    the 

it  is  in  a  different  form  from  that  usual-  probable   date  of   Morellet's  letter, 
ly   employed   by   TJ    (on    this    date    he  The  list  of  errata   and  LF.S  CARTONS 

wrote  several  letters,  all  of  which  were  made  in   Morellefs  edition  will  be  dis- 

dated  "Jan.   19.   1787,"  which  was  his  cussed    in    the   Second   Series,   where  a 

customary    form);      (3)      it     was     pre-  critical    edition    of    Notes    on    Virginia 

sumably    added    later,    perhaps    on    the  will  appear, 
basis   of   an    entry   in   SJI-;    and    (4)    it 

From  R.  fc  A.  Garvey 

SIR  Roxien   12th.  January  1787 

We  have  the  honor  to  rernitt  you  Inclosed  the  notes  of  our  dis- 

bursments  for  your  Excellency  importing-  £59.5  which  have  taken 

the  liberty  to  value  on  you  at  sight  order  of  Messr.  Perregaux  & 

Co.  which  please  to  own. 

With  the  small  Case  of  Books  there  was  an  Acquit  3.  Caution  de 

Librairie  which  beg  you'll  send  for  to  the   Customhouse   or  the 

Chambre  Sindicalle  and  return  it  us. 

We  are  on  all  your  and  Friends  Commands  very  respectfully 

Sir  Your  Excellency's  most  humble  &  very  obedient  Servants, 


RC    (MHi).  Recorded  in   SJL   as   re-  ceived    from    Barclay    "par    la    Rosalie 

ceived  14  Jan.  1787.  Enclosure  (MHi):  Capne    Fauqueux,"    totalling    59    livres 

Account    of    expenses    of    handling-    two  5  sols.  There  is  also  in  MHi  a  draft  on 

cases    received    from    London    "par    le  TJ    to   the    order    of    Perrepraux   &   Cie. 

sloop    Anglais    PAventure    Capne    John  dated  12  Jan.   1787  for  this  amount. 
Damon,"  and   also  a  case   of  books   re- 

To  Philippe-Denis  Pierres 

Paris   12me.  Janvier  1787. 

M.  Jefferson  prie  Monsieur  Pierre  de  vouloir  bien  lui  envoyer  les 
feuilles  qu'il  a  eu  la  bont€  de  faire  imprimer  pour  lui.  II  a  Phonneur 
de  lui  demander  s'il  seroit  possible  de  procurer  pour  la  presse 
d'imprimerie  que  Monsieur  Pierre  a  eu  la  complaisance  de  se 


14    JANUARY    1787 

charger  de  f  aire  f  aire  pour  M.  Jefferson,  les  characteres  charmantes 
de  Didot,  de  deux  grandeurs,  c'est  &  dire,  de  la  plus  petite,  et  de  la 
Moyenne?  Si  M.  Jefferson  demanderoit  des  Messrs.  Foulis  de 
Glasgow,  des  characteres  Grecques,  est  il  bien  sur  qu'on  pourroit 
les  accommoder  a  une  presse  quelconque?  Dans  ce  cas  M.  Jefferson 
prieroit  Monsr.  Pierre  de  vouloir  bien  lui  indiquer  la  nombre  de 
chaque  caractere  qu'il  doit  faire  venir  de  ces  Messieurs. 

PrC   (MHi);  endorsed. 

From  Mrs.  Rider 

Hotel  de  la  Chine  13  Janvier  1787 

Mrs.  Rider  is  infinitely  obliged  to  Mr.  Jefferson  for  his  very 
kind  attention.  She  has  not  as  yet  met  with  apartmens  that  would 
suit  Her.  From  the  description  Mr.  J— n  gives  of  those  He  has 
seen  they  appear  to  be  just  what  She  wants.  She  proposes  going 
tomorrow  morning  to  see  them. 

RC  (MHi).  Not  recorded  in  SJL. 

To  Ferdinand  Grand 

SIR  Paris  Jan.   14. 

A  person  called  here  to-day,  while  I  was  out,  and  left  the  in- 
closed note  for  me,  on  the  subject  of  Colo.  Wuibert's  moaey.  He 
left  word  at  the  same  time  that  he  would  call  at  your  office  tomor- 
row for  an  answer.  I  have  written  him  the  inclosed  answer,  but  as 
he  did  not  leave  his  name  or  address,  I  am  unable  to  write  an 
address  on  it.  I  will  beg  the  favor  of  you  to  let  it  lye  in  your  office 
till  he  comes,  and  have  it  delivered  to  him,  -with  such  explanations 
as  to  the  mode  in  which  Wuibert's  money  was  remitted  as  you  are 
able  to  give  him. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  much  respect  &  esteem  Sir,  your 
most  obedt.  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC);  without  indication  of  the  year.  Not  recorded  in  SJL.  Enclosures: 
The  note  from  Col.  Wuibert's  agent  is  missing,  but  see  T«Ps  reply  of  this  date, 
which  also  was  enclosed. 


To  an  Agent  of  Antoine-Felix  Wuibert 

SIR  Paris  Jan.  14.  1787. 

I  received  Colo.  Wuiberf  s  letter  and  power  of  attorney  on  the 
16th.  of  February  1786.  I  wrote  immediately  to  Mr.  Thevenard  at 
POrient  to  obtain  an  order  for  his  money.  I  was  called  to  England 
in  the  month  of  March  and  returned  here  the  last  day  of  April 
I  found  Mr.  Thevenard's  answer  here  on  my  return.  From  that 
time  till  the  22d.  of  May  was  taken  up  in  discussions  with  which 
you  are  acquainted.  On  the  22d.  of  May  I  wrote  to  Colo.  Wuibert, 
inclosing  Mr.  Grand's  letter  authorizing  him  to  receive  his  money 
at  the  Cape.  Of  this  letter  I  inclose  you  a  copy-  It  was  directed  to 
him,  as  he  expressly  instructed,  chez  M.  le  Marquis  de  Galiffet  a  6. 
miles  du  Cap.  Fran§ais;  I  wrote  a  second  letter  to  him  June  3.  in- 
closing papers   from   Monsr.    Troyes.    The   whole    were   sent  to 
L'Orient  to  be  forwarded  from  thence  to  the  Cape.  The  date  of  his 
letter  Sep.  4.  at  Philadelphia  gives  room  to  presume  he  had  left  the 
Cape  before  the  receipt  of  mine.  You  will  percieve  by  these  dates, 
Sir,  that  his  business  has  not  been  forgotten  by  me,  and,  by  the 
copy  of  my  letter,  that  I  have  avoided  touching  his  money.  If,  with 
your  answer  to  him,  you  will  be  so  good  as  to  send  him  this  letter, 
he  will  perceive  that  I  served  him  diligently.  I  have  the  honour  to  be 
Sir  your  very  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC);  without  indication  of  addressee.  Recorded  in  S.TI,  as  being  a 
letter  to  "anonymous,  viz.  to  one,  unknown,  on  Wuibert's  affair."  Enclosure:  TJ 
to  Wuibert,  22  May  1786.  Enclosed  in  TJ  to  Grand,  this  date.  TJ's  letter  to  Wui- 
bert of  3  June  and  Wuibert's  to  TJ  of  4  Sep.  1786  have  not  been  found. 

To  Harcourt 

SIR  Paris  Jan.  14.   1787. 

In  the  conversation  with  which  you  were  pleased  to  honor  me 
a  few  days  ago,1  on  the  enfranchisement  of  the  port  of  Honfleur, 
I  took  the  liberty  of  observing  that  I  was  not  instructed  by  my 
constituents  to  make  any  proposition  on  that  subject.  That  it  would 
be  agreeable  to  them  however  I  must  suppose,  because  it  will  offer 
the  following  advantages. 

1.  It  is  a  convenient  entrepot  for  furnishing  us  with  the  manu- 
factures of  the  Northern  parts  of  France  and  particularly  of  Paris, 
and  for  recieving  and  distributing  the  productions  of  our  country 
in  exchange. 

2.  Cowes,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  channel,  has  heretofore 


14    JANUARY     1787 

copy  of  it  may  have  been  intended  for  "Je  ne  suis   pus   sur  que   nos  tabacs  y 

distribution  among:  the  merchants  who  aient  et£  deposes.  Je  crois  qu'ils  etoient 

were  interested  in  the  enfranchisement  conduits      a      Londres      arm      d'y     Itre 

of  Honfleur,  or  for  some  other  purpose.  (fretrs}      assort  is      pour     les     different 

But  this  still  does  not  explain  the  ab~  marches.1*   The    word    "freteV    (copied 

sence  of  a  date  and  the  incomplete  com-  from  "frekt£s"  in   Cr£vecoeur's  transla- 

plimentary  close  in  both  copies   or  the  tion)  was  struck  oxxt  by  TJ,  who  inter- 

correction  in  Short's.  lined  the  word  "asaortis." 

^  Complimentary  close  in  Crevecoeur's 

1  The  phrase  "a  few  days  ago"  does  translation  reads:   ".  .  ,  des  Sentiments 
not   appear  in   translation   in  either   of  de  respect  &  destime  avec  lesquels  Jay 
the    French    texts.    This    may    suggest  Thoneur     detre."     Short's     copy     ends: 
that    Crevecoeur    made    the    translation  u.    .    .   des  sentimens   de    .   .    ."   Short's 
some  time  after  14  Jan.  spelling-  and  punctuation  were  more  cor- 

2  Short's  copy  and  its  prototype  read:  rect  in  general  than  Cr^vecoeur's. 

To  Louis  Guillaume  Otto 

SIR  Paris  Jan.    14.    1787. 

I  have  been  honoured  with  your  letter  of  Oct.  15.  and  thank 
you  for  the  intelligence  it  contained.  I  am  able  to  make  you  but  an 
unequal  return  for  it,  your  friends  here  being  so  much  more  in 
condition  to  communicate  to  you  interesting  intelligence.  With 
respect  to  the  affairs  of  Holland  they  do  not  promise  arrangement. 
The  interest  which  the  King  of  Prussia  takes  in  the  affairs  of  the 
Stadholder  seem  to  threaten  an  interruption  of  his  cordiality  with 
this  country.  The  misunderstanding  between  the  kings  of  Spain 
and  Naples,  and  a  projected  visit  of  the  latter  to  Vienna,  with  the 
known  influence  of  his  queen  over  him  are  matter  for  some 

As  to  domestic  news,  the  assembly  des  Notables  occupies  all 
conversation.  What  will  be  the  subjects  of  their  deliberation  is 
not  yet  declared.  The  establishment  of  provincial  assemblies,  toler- 
ating the  protestant  religion,  removing  the  internal  barriers  to  the 
frontiers,  equalizing  the  Gabels,  sale  of  the  kings  domains,  and  in 
short  every  other  possible  reformation,  are  conjectured  by  different 
persons.  I  send  you  a  pamphlet  on  the  last  assembly  of  Notables, 
from  which  ideas  are  formed  as  to  what  this  will  be.  Possibly  you 
may  receive  the  same  from  some  of  your  friends.  I  send  you  also 
what  it  is  less  likely  you  should  get  from  them,  because  it  is  next 
to  impossible  to  get  it  at  all.  That  is  a  late  memoire  by  Linguet 
which  has  produced  his  perpetual  exile  from  this  country.  To 
these  I  add  a  report  written  by  M.  Bailly  on  the  subject  of  the 
Hotel-dieu  of  Paris  which  has  met  a  very  general  approbation. 
These  are  things  for  the  day  only.  I  recollect  no  work  of  any 
dignity  which  has  been  lately  published.  We  shall  very  soon  Te- 
l: 42  } 

1  5    JANUARY    1787 

ceive  another  volume  of  mineralogy  from  M.  de  Buffon;  and  a  3d. 
vol.  of  the  Cultivateur  Americain  is  in  the  Press.  So  is  a  history 
of  the  American  war  by  a  Monsr.  Soul£s,  the  two  first  volumes  of 
which,  coming  down  to  the  capture  of  Burgoyne  I  have  seen,  and 
think  better  than  any  other  I  have  seen.  Mazzei  will  print  soon  2. 
or  3.  vols.  8vo.  of  Recherches  historiques  et  politiques  sur  les  etats 
unis  d'Amerique,  which  are  sensible. 

We  are  flattered  with  the  hope  that  the  packet  boats  will  here- 
after sail  monthly  from  Havre,  the  first  being  to  sail  on  the  10th. 
of  the  next  month.  This  is  very  desireable  indeed:  as  it  will 
furnish  more  frequent  opportunities  of  correspondence  between  the 
two  countries.  If  I  can  be  made  useful  to  you  in  any  line  whatever 
here,  it  will  make  me  very  happy;  being  with  sincere  esteem  & 
respect,  Sir,  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servt., 


PrC    (DLC).   Enclosures:     (1)    Copy  des    sciences*    du   22    No-vembre    1786. 

of      Simon      Nicolas      Henri     Lingnet's  Rapport  des   commissaires   charges   par 

Memoire  au  Roi  par  M.  Linguet,   con-  PAcadSntie  de  Fexamen  du  projet  d*un 

cernant    ses    reclamations    actuellement  nou-oel    Hdtel-Dieu,    Paris,     1786.     (3) 

pendants   au  Parlement  de  Paris,  Lon-  The    "pamphlet    on    the    last    assembly 

don,  1786.  (2)  Jean-Sylvain  Bailly,  Ex-  of  Notables"  has  not  been  identified. 
trait  des  registres  de  V Academic  royale 

To  St.  John  de  Crevecoeur 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Jan.  15.  1787. 

I  see  by  the  Journal  of  this  morning  that  they  are  robbing  us  of 
another  of  our  inventions  to  give  it  to  the  English.  The  writer 
indeed  only  admits  them  to  have  revived  what  he  thinks  was  known 
to  the  Greeks,  that  is  the  making  the  circumference  of  a  wheel  of 
one  single  peice.  The  farmers  in  New  Jersey  were  the  first  who 
practised  it,  and  they  practised  it  commonly.  Dr.  Franklin,  in  one 
of  his  trips  to  London,  mentioned  this  practice  to  the  man,  now  in 
London,  who  has  the  patent  for  making  those  wheels  (I  forget  his 
name.)  The  idea  struck  him.  The  Doctor  promised  to  go  to  his 
shop  and  assist  him  in  trying  to  make  the  wheel  of  one  peice.  The 
Jersey  farmers  did  it  by  cutting  a  young  sapling,  and  bending  it, 
while  green  and  juicy,  into  a  circle;  and  leaving  it  so  till  it  became 
perfectly  seasoned.  But  in  London  there  are  no  saplings.  The  dif- 
ficulty was  then  to  give  to  old  wood  the  pliancy  of  young.  The 
Doctor  and  the  workman  laboured  together  some  weeks,  and  suc- 
ceeded, and  the  man  obtained  a  patent  for  it  which  has  made  his 
fortune.  I  was  in  his  shop  in  London,  he  told  me  the  whole  story 


15    JANUARY    1787 

himself,  and  acknowleged,  not  only  the  origin  of  the  Idea,  but  how 
much  the  assistance  of  Dr.  Franklin  had  contributed  to  perform 
the  operation  on  dry  wood.  He  spoke  of  him  with  love  and  gratitude. 
I  think  I  have  had  a  similar  account  from  Dr.  Franklin,  but  can- 
not be  certain  quite.  I  know  that  being  in  Philadelphia  when  the 
first  set  of  patent  wheels  arrived  from  London,  and  were  spoken 
of  by  the  gentleman  (an  Englishman)  who  brought  them  as  a 
wonderful  discovery.  The  idea  of  it's  being  a  new  discovery  was 
laughed  at  by  the  Philadelphia^,  who  in  their  Sunday  parties 
across  the  Delaware  had  seen  every  farmer's  cart  mounted  on  such 
wheels.  The  writer  in  the  paper  supposes  the  English  workman 
got  his  idea  from  Homer.  But  it  is  more  likely  that  the  Jersey 
farmer  got  the  idea  from  thence,  because  ours  are  the  only  farmers 
who  can  read  Homer:  because  too  the  Jersey  practice  is  precisely 
that  stated  by  Homer;  the  English  practice  very  different.  Homer's 
words  are  (comparing  a  young  hero  killed  by  Ajax  to  a  poplar 
felled  by  a  workman) 

o  B'  cu  KovtysL.,  -^CL^CLI  7r€<$ci>y  atyctpos  ox?,, 
*H  pa  r*ei>  aa/Aevfl  cA.eos  /xeyaXoto  7r€<f>vK€ 
ara/o   TC  6t  o£ot   err*  oLKporarrj  7r€<£>i»a*»t 
fjiev  0ap/za,TO7n?yo<j  avrjp  at$<oi>i  <$t$rjp<p 

o<ppa  LTVV  Ka^vj  Trcpt/caAAec  8i<f>pto, 
*H  juev  r'a^o^ev^  /cetrat  7roTa/.«no  Trap  o^^as?  4*.  II.  4*8 2. 

literally  thus  'he  fell  on  the  ground,  like  a  poplar,  which  has  grown, 
smooth,  in  the  wet  part  of  a  great  meadow;  with  it's  branches 
shooting  from  it's  summit.  But  the  Chariot-maker  with  his  sharp 
axe,  has  felled  it,  that  he  may  bend  a  wheel  for  a  beautiful  chariot. 
It  lies  drying  on  the  banks  of  the  river.'  Observe  the  circumstances 
which  coincide  with  the  Jersey  practice.  1.  It  is  a  tree  growing 
in  a  moist  place,  full  of  juices,  and  easily  bent.  2.  It  is  cut  while 
green.  3.  It  is  bent  into  the  circumference  of  a  wheel.  4.  It  is 
left  to  dry  in  that  form.  You,  who  write  French  well  and  readily, 
should  write  a  line  for  the  Journal  to  reclaim  the  honour  of  our 
farmers.  Adieu.  Your's  affectionately,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

H.C  (Saint-John  de  CrSvecoeur,  Mon-  making  a  wheel  of  a  single  piece  of 

tesquieu-sur-Losse,  La  Plagne,  France,  wood  was  known  to  the  Greeks;  but  the 

1947).  PrC  (DLC).  writer  had  gone  on  to  say:  "L'on  en  a 

pourtant  fait  honneur,  n'ag-ueres,  a  un 

TJ  mi^ht  not  have  ohjected  to  the  Anglois,  comme  d'une  invention  nou- 

article  in  THE  JOURNAL  OF  THIS  MORN-  velle."  This  was  sufficient  to  arouse  TJ's 

ING  (Journal  de  Paris,  15  Jan.  1787)  patriotic  feelingrs,  and  the  present  MS 

if  its  author  had  confined  himself  to  resulted.— As  TJ  had  requested,  Creve- 

the  interpretation  of  a  passage  in  The  coeur  made  a  translation  of  this  let- 

lliad  as  meaning  that  the  process  of  ter,  with  some  interesting  variations 


1  5    JANUARY    1787 

and    interpolations;    the    most    famous  sont    ceux    qui    couvrent    une    grande 

passage,    as    rewritten    by    Crevecoeur,  partie   de  notre   continent."   This   joint 

reads:  "L'Auteur  de  ce  paragraphe  sup-  production  by  TJ  and  Crevecoeur  was 

pose    mSme    que    le    Charron    Anglois  published  in  the   Journal  de  Paris ,   31 

avoit   tire*    cette   idee    d'Homere.    II   est  Jan.  1787,  and  was  signed  "Un  Am6ri- 

bien    plus    vraisemblable    que    ces    Cul-  cain."— I  WAS  IN  HIS  SHOP  IN  LONDON: 

tivateurs  I'ont  puisSe  dans  cette  source;  TJ  visited  the  shop  with  John  Adams 

cette    classe    d'hommes    etant    dans    ce  during    Apr.     1786    after    their    return 

moment  la  seule  au  sein  de  laquelle  on  from    a   tour    of    the    English    gardens, 

puisse  trouver  des  homines  qui  entendent  "Since   my   return,"    wrote    Adams,    **I 

et  lisent  cet  ancien  Auteur.  La  m6thode  have  been   over   Blackfriar's  Bridge  to 

Angloise   est   d'ailleurs   bien   differente,  see  Viny's  manufacture  of  patent  wheels 

puisqu'on  ne  se  sert  &  Londres  que  de  made  of  bent  timber"   (Adams,  Works , 

bois    sec,    an   lieu   qu'Homere   ne    parle  ed.   C.   F.   Adams,   in,   394-6;    see   also 

que  d'arbres  jeunes   et  verds,  tels   que  TJ  to  Thomson,  22  Apr.   1786,  note). 

From  Philippe-Denis  Pierres 

MONSIEUR  Paris,  le  15  Janvier  1787. 

JPai  1'honneur  de  vous  adresser  les  cartons  dont  vous  avez 
desire*  Timpression.  Je  souhaitte  que  vous  en  soyez  satisfait. 

Quant  aux  Caracteres  que  vous  demandez  pour  accompagner  la 
petite  Presse,  je  ne  crois  pas  qu'il  soit  n€cessaire  de  choisir  ceux  des 
Didot  et  des  Foulis:  J'en  ai  qui  ont  e*t6  grav6s  par  Garamond^  et 
dont  la  beaut6  ne  cede  en  rien  &  ceux-la.  Si  cependant,  Monsieur, 
vous  tenez  a  cette  idee,  ayez  la  bonte*  de  me  la  faire  savoir,  et 
alors  vous  voudriez  bien  vous  adresser  £  eux  m£mes;  mais  je  n'en 
vois  point  la  n£cessit6.  II  seroit  d'ailleurs  difficile  de  determiner  le 
nombre  qu'il  faudroit  de  chaque  caractere,  attendu  qu'il  faut  que 
les  cases  soient  f  aites  avant  cela. 

Agr6ez,  Monsieur,  Les  assurances  du  respect  infini  avec  lequel 
je  suis,  Monsieur,  Votre  Trds-humble  et  tr£s-ob6issant  serviteur, 


RC    (MHi);  endorsed.  Not  recorded  in  SJL. 

To  Abigail  Adams  Smith 

Paris  Jan.  15.   1787. 

Mr.  Jefferson  has  the  honour  to  present  his  compliments  to  Mrs. 
Smith  and  to  send  her  the  two  pair  of  Corsets  she  desired.  He 
wishes  they  may  be  suitable,  as  Mrs.  Smith  omitted  to  send  her 
measure.  Times  are  altered  since  Mademoiselle  de  Sanson  had  the 
honour  of  knowing  her.  Should  they  be  too  small  however,  she 
will  be  so  good  as  to  lay  them  by  a  -while.  There  are  ebbs  as  well 


15    JANUARY    1787 

as  flows  in  this  world.  When  the  mountain  refused  to  come  to 
Mahomet,  he  went  to  the  mountain.  Mr.  Jefferson  wishes  Mrs, 
Smith  a  happy  new  year,  and  abundance  of  happier  ones  still  to 
follow  it.  He  begs  leave  to  assure  her  of  his  esteem  and  respect, 
and  that  he  shall  always  be  happy  to  be  rendered  useful  to  her  by 
being  charged  with  her  commands. 

PrC   (MHi).  See  Mrs.  Smith  to  TJ,  2  Dec.   1786. 

To  William  Stephens  Smith 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Jan.  15.  1787. 

Colo.  Franks's  delay  here,  occasioned  by  that  of  his  baggage, 
gives  me  an  opportunity  of  acknowleging  the  receipt  of  the  map. 
I  am  now  occupied  in  correcting  it.  I  have  got  thro  about  two 
thirds  of  the  map  and  have  a  list  of  172  errors,  so  that  we  may 
expect  in  the  whole  about  250,  and  I  reckon  only  those  which  are 
material.  Small  and  immaterial  changes  of  orthography  I  do  not 
correct.  Except  as  to  the  errors,  the  work  is  fairly   and  neatly 
done.  I  shall  try  to  have  the  corrections  made  by  a  French  work- 
man. If  he  cannot  do  it,  I  must  send  it  again  to  Mr.  Neele  to  be 
done.  I  think  it  is  long  since  you  were  so  kind  as  to  give  me  notice 
that  the  second  copying  press  was  sent  off.  But  I  have  never  heard 
a  tittle  of  it.  I  will  be  obliged  to  you  if  you  will  be  so  good  as  to 
let  me  know  how,  by  whom,  and  to  what  place  it  was  directed,  that 
I  may  give  orders  to  search  for  it,  before  my  departure  to  the 
waters  of  Aix,  which  will  be  within  a  fortnight  or  three  weeks.  I 
will  thank  you  at  the  same  time  for  what  an  Architect  here  describes 
to  me  in  the  following  words  Hin  ruban,  contenft  dans  du  cuivre, 
sur  lequel  est  marqu£  le  pied  Anglois.'  It  is  a  portable  measure, 
made  for  travellers  to  carry  in  their  pockets  in  order  to  measure 
bridges,  arches,  buildings  &c.  He  sais  I  should  have  two,  one  of 
about  20.  feet,  the  other  50  feet.  I  suppose  they  are  to  be  found 
in  the  Mathematical  shops.  I  must  trouble  you  to  send  me  two  by 
the  Diligence,  and  in  time  for  my  journey.  I  must  beg  the  favor  of 
you  to  get  me  also  from  Lee's  at  Hammersmith  the  following 
plants:  12.  of  the  Acer  rubrum.  12.  of  the  Quercus  Phellos,  and 
5.  Liriodendron  tulipiferum.  I  do  not  mean  that  this  should  cost 
you  any  other  trouble  than  to  send  the  inclosed  note  to  Lee,  let  him 
know  you  will  pay  his  bill,  and  press  his  instantaneous  execution 
of  it 

You  will  have  heard  that  the  king  has  called  an  assembly  of 


1  6    JANUARY    1787 

Notables,  which  has  not  been  done  for  160.  years.  The  objects  are 
not  known:  the  following  are  conjectured.  To  establish  provincial 
assemblies:  tolerate  the  Protestant  religion;  remove  all  the  internal 
douanes  to  the  frontiers;  equalise  the  Gabels;  and  sell  the  crown 
lands.  I  send  you  an  account  of  the  last  assembled  des  Notables, 
which  will  give  you  an  idea  of  the  present  one.  The  king  names  the 
members  ad  libitum,  our  friend  de  la  Fayette  is  one,  and  is  the 
youngest  man  but  one  in  it,  and  that  one  is  named  on  account  of  a 
charge  he  has.  The  Dutch  affairs  promise  no  arrangement:  and  it 
has  been  feared  that  the  K.  of  Prussia  might  be  shifted  into  the 
Austrian  scale. 

I  take  the  liberty  of  putting  under  your  cover  some  letters  which 
I  will  only  trouble  you  to  send  to  the  post  office.  I  am  with  very 
sincere  esteem,  dear  Sir,  Your  friend  &  servant, 


ES.  The  letter  which  is  sealed  and  without  a  superscription,  is  for 
a  Mr.  Vaughan  whose  Christian  name  I  have  forgot.  It  is  he  who 
-went  with  us  to  the  king^s  museum.  He  is  married.  "We  dined  at  his 
house,  at  least  Mr.  Adams  and  myself  did,  and  I  dined  in  company 
with  him  at  the  M.  of  Lansdowne's.  From  these  descriptions  perhaps 
you  will  be  able  to  put  the  superscription  on  the  letter. 

RC  (PHC);  endorsed  in  part:  "ansr.  Jany.  29."  PrC  (DLC).  TJ's  "inclosed 
note  to  Lee5*  is  missing;  of  the  other  enclosures,  only  his  letter  "to  Mr.  Vaughan" 
(q,v.  tinder  29  Dec.  1786,  TJ  to  Benjamin  Vaughan)  has  been  identified. 

From  John  Bondfield 

[Bordeaux^  16  Jan.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  21  Jan.  1787. 
Not  found;  but  see  St.  Victour  &  Bettinger  to  TJ,  23  Jan.  1787.] 

From  Carburi 

a  Paris  ce  16  Janv.  1787. 

Ms.  de  Carburi  presente  ses  respects  a  Mr.  Jefferson,  il  lui 
envoye  les  4  demiboutteilles  qu'il  demande,  et  4  autres  demibout- 
teilles  d'autres  vins  de  la  Grece  a  fin  qu'il  choisisse  ceux  qui  lui 
plairont  d'avantage. 

Tous  ces  vins  reviennent  a  6  francs  la  Boutteille  de  Pinte. 

RC  (MHi);  endorsed:  *'Carburi  Comte  de."  Not  recorded  in  SJL. 

To  Edward  Carrington 

DEAR  SIR  pari«  Ja^-  *6.  1787. 

Incertain  whether  you  might  be  at  New  York  at  the  moment 
of  Colo.  Franks's  arrival,  I  have  inclosed  my  private  letters  for 
Virginia  under  cover  to  our  delegation  in  general,  which  other- 
wise I  would  have  taken  the  liberty  to  inclose  particularly  to  you, 
as  best  acquainted  with  the  situation  of  the  persons  to  whom  they 
are  addressed.  Should  this  find  you  at  New  York,  I  will  still  ask 
your  attention  to  them.  The  two  large  packages  addressed  to  Colo. 
N.  Lewis  contain  seeds,  not  valuable  enough  to  pay  postage,  but 
which  I  would  wish  to  be  sent  by  the  stage,  or  any  similar  quick 
conveyance.  The  letters  to  Colo.  Lewis  and  Mr.  Eppes  (who  take 
care  of  my  affairs)  are  particularly  interesting  to  me.  The  package 
for  Colo.  Richd.  Gary  our  judge  of  Admiralty  near  Hampton,  con- 
tains seeds  and  roots,  not  to  be  sent  by  post.  Whether  they  had 
better  go  by  the  stage,  or  by  water,  you  will  be  the  best  judge.  I 
beg  your  pardon  for  giving  you  this  trouble.  But  my  situation  and 
your  goodness  will  I  hope  excuse  it. 

In  my  letter  to  Mr.  Jay  I  have  mentioned  the  meeting  of  the 
Notables  appointed  for  the  29th.  inst.  It  is  now  put  off  to  the  7th. 
or  8th.  of  next  month.  This  event,  which  will  hardly  excite  any 
attention  in  America,  is  deemed  here  the  most  important  one  which 
has  taken  place  in  their  civil  line  during  the  present  century.  Some 
promise  their  country  great  things  from  it,  some  nothing.  Our 
friend  de  la  fayette  was  placed  on  the  list  originally.  Afterwards 
his  name  disappeared:  but  finally  was  reinstated.  This  shews  that 
his  character  here  is  not  considered  as  an  indifferent  one;  and  that 
it  excites  agitation.  His  education  in  our  school  has  drawn  on  him 
a  very  jealous  eye  from  a  court  whose  principles  are  the  most 
absolute  despotism.  But  I  hope  he  has  nearly  passed  his  crisis.  The 
king,  who  is  a  good  man,  is  favorably  disposed  towards  him:  and 
he  is  supported  by  powerful  family  connections,  and  by  the  public 
good  will.  He  is  the  youngest  man  of  the  Notables,  except  one  whose 
office  placed  him  on  the  list. 

The  Count  de  Vergennes  has  within  these  ten  days  had  a  very 
severe  attack  of  what  is  deemed  an  unfixed  gout.  He  has  been  well 
enough  however  to  do  business  to-day.  But  anxieties  for  him  are 
not  yet  quieted.  He  is  a  great  and  good  minister,  and  an  accident 
to  him  might  endanger  the  peace  of  Europe. 

The  tumults  in  America,  I  expected  would  have  produced  in 
Europe  an  unfavorable  opinion  of  our  political  state.  But  it  has 


1 6    JANUARY    1787 

not.  On  the  contrary,  the  small  effect  of  those  tumults  seems  to 
have  given  more  confidence  in  the  firmness  of  our  governments. 
The  interposition  of  the  people  themselves  on  the  side  of  govern- 
ment has  had  a  great  effect  on  the  opinion  here.  I  am  persuaded 
myself  that  the  good  sense  of  the  people  will  always  be  found  to 
be  the  best  army.  They  may  be  led  astray  for  a  moment,  but  will 
soon  correct  themselves.  The  people  are  the  only  censors  of  their 
governors:  and  even  their  errors  will  tend  to  keep  these  to  the  true 
principles  of  their  institution.  To  punish  these  errors  too  severely 
would  be  to  suppress  the  only  safeguard  of  the  public  liberty.  The 
way  to  prevent  these  irregular  interpositions  of  the  people  is  to  give 
them  full  information  of  their  affairs  thro'  the  channel  of  the  public 
papers,  and  to  contrive  that  those  papers  should  penetrate  the  whole 
mass  of  the  people.  The  basis  of  our  governments  being  the  opinion 
of  the  people,  the  very  first  object  should  be  to  keep  that  right;  and 
were  it  left  to  me  to  decide  whether  we  should  have  a  government 
without  newspapers,  or  newspapers  without  a  government,  I  should 
not  hesitate  a  moment  to  prefer  the  latter.  But  I  should  mean  that 
every  man  should  receive  those  papers  and  be  capable  of  reading 
them.  I  am  convinced  that  those  societies  (as  the  Indians)  which 
live  without  government  enjoy  in  their  general  mass  an  infinitely 
greater  degree  of  happiness  than  those  who  live  under  European 
governments.  Among  the  former,  public  opinion  is  in  the  place  of 
law,  and  restrains  morals  as  powerfully  as  laws  ever  did  any  where. 
Among  the  latter,  under  pretence  of  governing  they  have  divided 
their  nations  into  two  classes,  wolves  and  sheep.  I  do  not  exaggerate. 
This  is  a  true  picture  of  Europe.  Cherish  therefore  the  spirit  of  our 
people,  and  keep  alive  their  attention.  Do  not  be  too  severe  upon 
their  errors,  but  reclaim  them  by  enlightening  them.  If  once  they 
become  inattentive  to  the  public  affairs,  you  and  I,  and  Congress, 
and  Assemblies,  judges  and  governors  shall  all  become  wolves.  It 
seems  to  be  the  law  of  our  general  nature,  in  spite  of  individual 
exceptions;  and  experience  declares  that  man  is  the  only  animal 
which  devours  his  own  kind,  for  I  can  apply  no  milder  term  to  the 
governments  of  Europe,  and  to  the  general  prey  of  the  rich  on  the 
poor. — The  want  of  news  has  led  me  into  disquisition  instead  of 
narration,  forgetting  you  have  every  day  enough  of  that.  I  shall 
be  happy  to  hear  from  you  some  times,  only  observing  that  what- 
ever passes  thro'  the  post  is  read,  and  that  when  you  write  what 
should  be  read  by  myself  only,  you  must  be  so  good  as  to  confide 
your  letter  to  some  passenger  or  officer  of  the  packet.  I  will  ask 
your  permission  to  write  to  you  sometimes,  and  to  assure  you  of 


1  7    JANUARY     1787 

the  esteem  &  respect  with  which  I  have  the  honour  to  be  Dear  Sir 
your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servt., 


PrC    (DLC). 

It  may  not  have  been  altogether  a 
want  of  news  that  led  TJ  into  DISQUISI- 
quoted  opinions  that  he  inserted  in  a 
letter  to  one  whose  character  he  under- 
stood very  well  from,  the  days  of  his 
governorsliip  may  have  been  as  cal- 
culated as  was  TJ's  selection  of  a  cor- 
respondent in  Congress  to  supply,  in 
part  at  least,  the  place  formerly  occu- 
pied by  Madison  and  Monroe.  William 
Short  seems  to  have  been  the  inter- 
mediary on  this  occasion.  "Some  time 
ago  Sir,"  he  wrote  Carrinjrton  on  3 
Nov.  1786,  "I  took  the  liberty  of  ad- 
vising1 Mr.  Jefferson  to  write  to  you 
in  order  to  the  commencement  of  a 
correspondence,  as  he  wished  to  have 
an  intimate  one  with  some  of  his  friends 
in  Congress"  (DLC:  Short  Papers). 
This  may  have  been  TJ's  manner  of 
inquiring;  indirectly  whether  such  a 
correspondence  would  be  agreeable. 
Even  before  the  correspondence  was 
opened,  Short  gave  Carrington  an  opin- 
ion  on  American  foreign  relations  that 
might  have  been  only  TJ's  echo:  "What 
will  be  the  principal  deliberations  of 
Congress  during  this  winter?  What 
have  the  states  done  respecting  the 
investiture  of  Congress  with  powers  for 
regulating  the  commerce?  What  are 
the  probabilities  of  the  fcederal  finances 

being    well    arrang-ecl?    These    my   dear 
Sir    are    subjects    which    inquiet   much 
some    of    our    friends    on    this   side  of 
the    Atlantic.    They    frequently  talk  to 
me  on  them,  and  I  confess  I  some  times 
find  it  very  difficult  to  satisfy  all  their 
doubts  and  difliculties.  I  wish  you  "would 
put  it  in  my  power  to  do  this  for  their 
sakes  as  well  as  my  own. —We  want  in 
America    Sir,    but    open     arrangements 
taken   for  the   establishment   of  federal 
credit,   to   become   the   most  envied  na- 
tion  on  earth.  This   is  what  is   agreed 
on  all  hands  here,  but  what  would  sur- 
prize you  is,  to  see  how  few  there  are 
who  suppose  the  continental  union  can 
subsist.  The  British  news-papers  which 
have  an  universal  circulation  in  Europe, 
have  found  means  to  make  it  generally 
believed  that  there  is   nothing1  but  dis- 
tress, disorder  and  discontent  in  Amer- 
ica. Their  lies  have  been  so  often  told, 
that    they    are    believed    now    by    them- 
selves,   and    there    is    no    question   that 
some  of  the  most  able  men  in  England, 
are      fully      persuaded      that      America 
would  be  tflad  at  this  moment  to  throw 
herself  back  into  the  arms  of  Britain.— 
Were  the  foreigrn  debts  once  paid  public 
credit  would   be   re-established  immedi- 
ately on  a  footing  to  give  the  lye  to  all 
these   suppositions,    for   where   there  is 
public   credit,   it   is   difficult   to  be  per- 
suaded that  there   is  public   discontent, 
disorder  and  distress"   (same). 

From  Champagni 

Paris,  Wednesday  117?  Jan.  1787].  He  is  a  French  citizen  who 
wishes  to  buy  some  land  in  the  United  States;  asks  for  information 
about  procedure  and  for  advice  concerning  the  location  of  lands;  realizes 
that  the  value  of  land  varies  according  to  its  location  and  that  land  in 
the  Philadelphia  vicinity  is  the  most  expensive;  however,  that  is  the 
neighborhood  he  prefers  but  does  not  know  whether  an  investment  of 
100,000  francs  in  land  and  an  additional  amount  for  Negroes  would 
yield  a  reasonable  profit.  If  the  cost  of  land  in  Pennsylvania  is  too  high, 
would  like  advice  about  another  situation  in  a  good  climate.  The  latitude 
of  Virginia  would  be  acceptable  but  he  does  not  know  whether  land 
there  is  expensive  or  whether  the  residents  are  "trouble  par  les  sauvages 
qui,  selon  ce  que  disent  nos  gazStes,  inquiStent  terriblement  les  colons 
de  vos  frontieres."  Would  also  like  to  know  in  what  form  he  should 
carry  his  money;  whether  French,  Spanish  or  English  money  is  most 


1  7    JANUARY     1787 

advantageous;  -whether  commercial  intercourse  is  well  enough  estab- 
lished with  some  French  firm  to  enable  him  to  carry  a  letter  of  credit; 
whether  trade  is  easy  in  the  United  States;  what  products  are  the  most 
lucrative;  whether  it  would  be  cheaper  to  transport  a  dozen  Negroes 
from  French  Guiana,  where  he  has  property,  than  to  purchase  them  in 
America.  Asks  pardon  for  asking  so  many  questions;  has  <eune  envie 
6xtr6me  dliabiter  le  pai's  de  la  liberte",  pai's  ou  Fhome  conserve  sa 
nature!  digniteV*  If  it  is  too  much  trouble  to  reply  by  letter,  asks  for 
an  appointment. 

RC  (DLC);  p.  4.;  in  French;  endorsed.  Undated  except  for  the  day  of  the 
\veek  and  not  recorded  in  SJL;  assigned  to  this  date  from  internal  evidence  and 
TJ's  reply  of  19  Jan.  1787. 

To  S.  &  J.  H.  Delap 

GENTLEMEN  Paris  Jan.  17.  1787. 

I  am  honoured  this  day  by  the  receipt  of  your  letter  of  the  6th. 
instant.  Having  nothing  to  do  with  the  matters  of  account  of  the 
United  states  in  Europe,  it  is  out  of  my  power  to  say  any  thing  to 
you  as  to  the  paiment  of  the  balance  due  to  you.  Yet  I  think  it 
would  be  proper  for  you  to  write  to  the  'Commissioners  of  the 
treasury'  at  New  York  on  the  subject.  They  are  the  persons  "who  are 
to  pay  it,  and  as  their  board  has  been  created  since  the  debt  was 
contracted,  they  may  possibly  need  information  on  the  subject. 

As  to  your  loan  office  certificates,  you  would  do  well  to  commit 
them  to  some  correspondent  in  America.  They  will  be  settled  by 
the  table  of  depreciation  at  their  true  worth  in  gold  or  silver  at  the 
time  the  paper  dollars  were  lent.  On  that  true  value  the  interest  has 
been  paid,  and  continues  to  be  paid  to  the  creditors  annually  in 
America.  That  the  principal  will  also  be  paid,  is  as  sure  as  any 
future  fact  can  be.  The  epoch  is  not  fixed.  It  is  expected  that  the 
state  of  New  York  will  shortly  accede  to  the  impost  which  has  been 
proposed.  When  that  shall  be  done,  that  impost  will  suffice  to  pay 
the  interest  and  sink  the  principal  in  a  very  few  years.  I  have  the 
honour  to  be  with  much  respect,  Gentlemen,  your  most  obedt. 
humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC    (DLC);  at  foot  of  text:    "Messrs.  S.  &  J.  H.  Delap  merchts.  Bordeaux.*' 

To  Duler 

SIR  Paris  Jan.   17.  1787. 

I  have  the  honour  of  now  returning  to  you  the  certificate  of  the 
Chevalier  Danmours,  in  your  favour.  The  testimony  of  that  gentle- 


1 7    JANUARY     1787 

man,  with  whose  worth  I  am  well  acquainted,  would  have  satisfied 
me  of  yours,  had  any  testimony  been  wanting.  It  adds  another  to 
the  list  of  many  worthy  persons  whom  I  am  unable  to  assist;  for  I 
declare  to  you  that  I  know  no  way  on  earth  in  which  I  can  be  useful 
to  you.  To  give  you  false  hopes,  would  be  to  injure  and  not  to 
serve  you.  I  beg  you  to  be  assured  of  my  wishes  for  your  success, 
and  of  the  respect  with  which  I  have  the  honor  to  be  Sir  your  most 
obedt.  &  most  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC   (DLC);  at  foot  of  text:  "M.  Duler.  ches  M.  Rochet  Negt.  fi.  Rouen."  On 
the  enclosed  "certificate,"  see  Duler  to  TJ,  8  Jan.  1787. 

To  Jean  Durival 

SIR  Paris  Jan.  17.  1787. 

You  were  pleased,  in  behalf  of  a  friend,  to  ask  information  of  me 
on  the  subject  of  the  money  of  the  United  states  of  America,  and 
I  had  the  honour  of  informing  you,  by  letter  of  Nov.  7.  that  no 
regulations  of  their  coin  had  then  been  made  by  Congress,  as  far 
as  I  knew.  They  had  however  entered  into  resolutions  on  that 
subject  which  have  since  come  to  hand,  A  translation  of  these  will 
be  found  in  the  Leyden  gazette  of  some  few  weeks  ago.  But  it  will 
be  necessary  to  make  the  following  corrections  on  the  gazette. 

The  gazette  dates  the  resolutions  Oct.  10.  but  they  were  of 
Aug.  8. 

It  gives  only  365.64  grains  of  pure  silver  to  the  dollar.  It  should 
be  375.64.  It  states  the  pound  of  silver  with  it's  alloy  to  be  worth 
9.99  dollars  only:  whereas  it  is  fixed  at  13.777  dollars.  And  the 
pound  of  gold  with  it's  alloy  being  worth  209.77  dollars  gives  the 
proportion  of  silver  to  gold  as  1.  to  15.225.  These  corrections  being 
made,  the  resolutions  as  stated  in  the  Leyden  gazette  may  be  con- 
fided in. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  much  respect  Sir  your  most  obedt. 
&  most  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC). 

From  Miguel  de  Lardizabel  y  Uribe 

MONSR.  17  Janvr.  87 

J'ai  et£  hier  chez  vous  sans  me  rapeller  que  vous  seriez  k  Ver- 
sailles. Je  partirai  lundi,  c'est  pour  quoi  je  vous  prie  d'avoir  pret  la 

r  521 

1  7    JANUARY    1787 

boite  des  machines  a  pouvoir  me  Penvoyer  samedi  porchain.  Demain 
au  soir  j'irai  prendre  vos  ordres,  et  a  m§me  terns  m'essayer  dans 
votre  grande  machine  a  imprimer  une  page.  Je  suis  avec  tout  le 
respect  et  avec  tout  1'attachemt.  possible  Mr.  Votre  trSs  humb.  et 
tre"s  obeisst.  servr.,  MICHEL  DE  LARDIZABEL 

RC  (MHi)j  endorsed:  "Lardizabal, 
Don  Miguel  de";  addressed  to  TJ  "a 
la  Grille  de  Chaillot."  Not  recorded  in 


The  BOITE  DES  MACHINES  that  Lar- 
dizabel wished  TJ  to  have  ready  against 
his  departure  on  Monday  contained  one 
of  the  portable  copying1  presses  that 
TJ  had  asked  him  to  convey  as  a  gift  to 
Carmichael  (TJ  to  Carmichael,  26  Dec. 
1786;  possibly  another  press  was  in- 
cluded in  the  box).  Lardizabel's  re- 

mark   that    he     would     attempt    DANS 

"UNE  PAGE  simply  meant  that  TJ  would 
give  him  a  lesson  in  the  technique  of 
operating  the  large  copying  press.— 
Lardizabel  was  the  brother  of  Manuel 
de  Lardizabel  y  Uribe,  Spanish  author 
whose  work  on  penology  was  in  TJ's 
library:  Discurso  sobre  las  penas  contra- 
hido  a  las  leyes  criminates  de  Espana, 
para  facilitar  su  re  forma  (Madrid, 
1782);  Sowerby,  No.  2422. 

From  Segond 

Beausset-en-Provence,  17  Jan.  1787.  A  friend,  charged  with  collect- 
ing for  him  the  interest  due  on  his  account  with  the  United  States, 
informs  him  that  Mr.  Grand  has  received  no  funds  for  that  purpose; 
the  payment  is  now  two  years  in  arrears;  asks  how  long  this  will  con- 
tinue. "Apres  avoir  expos6  nos  jours  a  la  [service]  de  vos  etats,  avoir 
coopere*  &  la  grande  ceuvre  de  votre  independence,  n'est  il  pour  naturel 
de  compter  sur  un  revenu  Si  justement  acquis?  Quand  pendant  une 
geurre  tres  longue  nous  nous  some  prive"  de  toute  jouissance,  que  nous 
n'avons  m€me  procur6  1'absolu  necessaire  qu'a  nos  depens,  n'est  il 
pas  horrible  que  les  etats  mettent  tant  de  lenteur  £  liquide"s  une  creance 
qu'ils  ont  si  authentiquement  reconue  bien  acquise;  qu'ils  n'en  payent 
pas  m6me  1'interets?  S'ils  [avaient]  quelque  id£e  de  justice,  trois  anne*es 
de  paix  ne  les  [.  .  .  .]"  Not  expecting  such  a  lack  of  good  faith,  he 
borrowed  1,800  francs  for  his  trip  to  Paris;  is  being  pressed  for  the 
payment  of  the  loan  and,  as  always,  eager  to  satisfy  his  obligations, 
asks  TJ  to  draw  an  order  on  Mr.  Grand  for  payment  or,  if  TJ  prefers, 
he  will  accept  a  personal  note.  Justice  demands  that  he  be  saved  from 
the  embarrassing  position  in  which  the  default  of  the  United  States 
has  thrown  him. 

Tr  (DNA:  PCC,  No.  107,  i);  2  p. 
Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  25  Jan. 
1787;  enclosed  in  TJ  to  John  Jay,  1 
Feb.  1787.  An  English  translation  is 
printed  in  Dipl.  Corr.,  1783-89,  n,  30-1, 
but  with  omissions. 

The  Chevalier  de  Segond  (1758- 
1832)  was  a  native  of  Beausset  in 
Provence  who  volunteered  in  the  Amer- 
ican army  in  1777.  He  was  made  a 

captain  in  the  Pulaski  Legion  in  1778 
and  fought  at  Brandywine,  German- 
town,  Whitemarsh,  and  in  the  Southern 
campaign,  being  captured  at  Charleston 
in  1780.  He  served  in  Holland  from 
1785  to  1788;  in  Russia  from  1788  to 
the  end  of  1790;  and  after  a  short 
period  with  the  French  armies,  1791  to 
1793,  he  deserted  to  Austria  (Lasseray4 
Les  Frartfais  sous  les  treize  €toiles>  p. 


To  John  Adams 

gIR  Paris  Jan.  19.  1787. 

Colo.  Franks  having  occasion  for  fifty  pounds  sterling  to  enable 
him  to  pursue  his  journey  to  London  and  New  York,  Mr.  Grand 
has  furnished  him  with  that  sum,  for  the  reimbursement  whereof 
I  have  drawn  on  you  in  his  favor,  and  have  to  pray  you  to  honour 
that  draught  and  to  charge  it  against  the  fund  appropriated  to  the 
negociations  with  Marocco,  as  expended  in  that  business.  I  have 
the  honour  to  be  with  the  most  perfect  esteem  &  respect,  Sir,  Your 
most  obedient  &  most  humble  servt.,  Til:  JEFFERSON 

RC  OMHi:  AMT);  endorsed  by  Adams:  "Letter  of  advice  of  a  Bill  of  50£  in 
favor  of  Mr.  Grand  indorsed  to  Lane  Son  &  Fraser.  Bill  accepted  by  me  30.  Jan. 
for  Franks's  Expences."  PrC  (DLC). 

To  Champagni 

[Paris,  19  Jan.  1787] 

Vous  me  faites  Phonneur,  Monsieur,  de  demander  mes  conseils 
sur  le  projet  que  vous  avez  congu,  de  vendre  vos  biens  ici,  et  d'aller 
vous  etablir  en  Arnerique.  Je  vous  repeterai  ce  que  j'ai  eu  Phonneur 
de  conseiller  a  d'autres,  qui  en  ont  et£  dans  la  suite  tres  contents. 
C'est  de  ne  vendre  ici,  qu'apres  que  vous  vous  auriez  rendu  en 
Amerique,  que  vous  auriez  bien  parcouru  les  etats  dont  le  climat 
est  tempere,  que  vous  auriez  examine  par  vous  meme  le  sol,  le 
prix,  la  societe,  et  toutes  les  circonstances  qui  entreroient  pour 
quelque  chose  dans  votre  decision.  C'est  selon  votre  gout  que  doit 
se  faire  cette  decision,  et  il  n'y  a  personne  qui  peut  la  faire  aussi 
bien  que  vous  meme.  Si  vous  trouverez  que  vous  pouvez  y  etre 
plus  heureux  qu'ici,  vos  amis  vendront  vos  biens  d'ici,  deposeront 
Pargent  chez  un  banquier  connu,  et  en  tirant  sur  ce  banquier  des 
billets  d'exchange  la  bas,  on  vous  donnera  de  Pargent  contant,  et 
vous  y  gagnerez  meme  quelque  chose.  Si  pourtant  vous  preferez  de 
vendre  avant  d'avoir  vu  ce  pai's-la,  vous  ferez  bien  de  deposer 
Pargent  semblablement  chez  un  banquier  connu.  Messrs,  le  Cou- 
teulx,  Monsieur  Grand,  Monsieur  Perigaux  sont  bien  connus  en 
Amerique.  J'ai  Phonneur  d'etre,  avec  bien  de  respect,  Monsieur 
votre  tres  humble  et  tres  obeissant  serviteur, 


PrC  (MoSHi);  endorsed;  at  foot  of  text:  "M.  le  Chevr.  de  Champagni.  hotel 
d'Auvergne.  Quai  des  Augustins."  The  date  has  been  supplied  from  an  entry  in 
SJL  for  a  letter  to  Champagni  of  this  date. 


From  Chevallie  Fils 

MONSIEUR  L'Orient  le  19  Janvier  1787. 

Arriv6  bier  au  Soir  de  Newyork,  Je  m'enpresse  a  remettre  a 
Votre  Excellence,  deux  lettres  de  Mr.  James  Madisson,  et  Saislr 
cette  occasion  de  vous  presenter  mes  tr£s  humbles  remerciments 
des  renseignements  dont  vous  honnorates  mon  Pere  N€gociant  £ 
Rochefort  en  Janvier  1785  et  qui  ont  descid6  mon  passage  en 
amerique  pour  recouvrer  les  fonds  qui  luy  etoient  dus  par  1'Etat  de 
Virginie.  L'assemble'e  de  cet  Etat,  Sans  repondre  entigrement  a 
mes  pretensions,  a  cependant  traitg  ma  demande  plus  favorable- 
ment  que  celle  d'aucun  crgancier;  aussi  Si  mon  pere,  peu  satisfait 
de  ce  traitement,  Veut  mon  retour  aux  Etats  unis,  je  ne  manquerai 
pas  de  prendre  vos  ordres  et  reclamer  Fappuy  de  Votre  protection. 
Je  suis  avec  respect  De  Votre  Excellence  Le  trds  humble  &  tres 
ob^issant  Serviteur,  CHEVALLif  FILS 

a  Rochefort 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  RENSEIGNEMENTS  DONT  vous  HON- 
SJL  as  received  24  Jan.  1787.  Enclo-  NORATES  MON  PEBE  refers,  no  doubt, 
sures:  James  Madison  to  TJ,  25  Nov.  to  TJ's  letters  to  Franklin  of  25  Nov. 
and  4  Dec.  1786.  and  1  Dec.  1784,  which  Chevallie"  pSre 

replied  to  in  his  to  TJ  of  17  Mch.  1785. 

Chevallie's    acknowledgement   of   the 

To  R.  Sc  A.  Garvey 

GENTLEMEN  Paris  Jan.  19.  1787. 

I  am  honoured  with  your  letter  of  Jan.  8.  on  the  subject  of  the 
duties  paid  by  Mr.  Boylston  on  his  cargo  of  whale  oil,  but  being 
about  to  take  a  journey  which  will  absent  me  from  Paris  three 
months,  it  will  be  necessary  for  Mr.  Boylston  to  desire  his  corre- 
spondent at  this  place  to  undertake  the  sollicitation  of  that  reim- 

Your  bill  for  59tt  5s  has  been  presented  to-day  and  paid.  I  sent  to 
the  Douane  to  ask  your  Acquit  &  caution.  They  said  they  thought 
they  had  sent  it  to  you  lately;  but  desired,  if  you  had  not  received 
it,  that  you  would  be  so  good  as  to  send  me  a  description  of  it,  by 
it's  number  &c.  as  usual,  and  they  will  immediately  deliver  me  for 
you  a  proper  discharge.  I  will  thank  you  to  send  me  this  immedi- 
ately as  I  would  wish  to  see  it  settled  myself  before  my  departure. 

I  expect  a  box  or  two  containing  another  copying  press  from 
London  very  shortly.  Indeed  I  suspect  it  is  already  lodged  either  at 


1  9    JANUARY     1787 

Rouen  or  Havre.  I  shall  thank  you  for  your  care  of  it,  as  I  do  for  the 
past,  and  have  the  honour  to  be  with  much  esteem  Gentlemen  your 
most  obedt.  humble  servt,,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC). 

To  Francois  Soulcs 

SIR  Paris  Jan.  19.  1787. 

I  have  the  honour  of  inclosing  to  you  the  sheets  on  the  subject  of 
Wyoming.  I  have  had  a  long  conversation  with  M,  Crevecoeur  on 
them.  He  knows  well  that  canton.  He  was  in  the  neighborhood  of 
the  place  when  it  was  destroyed,  saw  great  numbers  of  the  fugitives, 
aided  them  with  his  waggons,  and  had  the  story  from  all  their 
mouths.  He  committed  notes  to  writing  in  the  moment,  which  are 
now  in  Normandy  at  his  father's.  He  has  written  for  them,  and  they 
will  be  here  in  5.  or  6.  days,  when  he  promises  to  put  them  into  my 
hands.  He  says  there  will  be  a  great  deal  to  alter  in  your  narration, 
and  that  it  must  assume  a  different  face,  more  favorable  both  to 
the  British  and  Indians.  His  veracity  may  be  relied  on,  and  I  told 
him  I  was  sure  your  object  was  truth,  and  to  render  your  work 
estimable  by  that  character,  that  I  thought  you  would  wait,  and 
readily  make  any  changes  upon  evidence  which  should  be  satis- 
factory to  you.  The  moment  I  receive  his  notes  I  will  communicate 
them  to  you;  I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  much  respect  Sir  Your 
most  obedt.  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC    (DLC).   Enclosure:    Either   MS  the   first    sheet    (sif?.    A)     and   the  first 

or    proof     sheets     of     SouleV     Histoire  paj?e  of  the   second    (sigr.  B)— and  this 

des   Troubles   de    VAmerique    Anglaise;  included  a  prood  bit  of  matter  about  the 

Soules   may  have   sent   proof   sheets    of  Connecticut-Pennsylvania      disputes     in 

the  account  of  the  Battle   of  Wyoming-  the  Wyoming-  Valley   and  a  description 

of  3  July  1778,  for,  as  finally  published,  of    the    region     that    could    only    have 

the    story    occupied     only    p.     9-17     of  been   added   after  TJ   sent  Crevecoeur'a 

Volume    m— that    is,    the    last    half    of  notes   (see  TJ  to  Soules,  2  Feb.  1787). 

To  the  Abbe  Morellet 

[Paris,  19  Jan.  1787.  Entry  in  SJL  reads:  "Morellet  TAbb£."  Not 
found;  but  see  Morellet  to  TJ,  11?  Jan.  1787.] 

To  Elizabeth  Blair  Thompson 

DEAR  MADAM  Paris  Jan.    19.   1787. 

I  am  this  day  honoured  with  your  favour  of  the  10th.  instant 
and  have  the  happiness  to  inform  you  that  Mr.  Bannister  has  been 


1  9    JANUARY    1787 

here  near  two  months,  and  appears  to  enjoy  as  perfect  health  as 
any  person  can.  I  am  in  hopes  he  will  have  no  more  relapses. — I  am 
much  obliged  by  your  kind  expressions  of  concern  at  the  accident 
which  prevented  me  the  honour  of  seeing  you  at  Titchfeild.  Cer- 
tainly if  I  had  suspected  your  being  in  the  house  I  should  have 
pressed  for  a  permission  to  see  you.  The  accident  of  my  daughter's 
being  taken  ill  a  little  before  we  made  land,  occasioned  my  going 
ashore  on  your  side  of  the  channel  to  procure  medical  aid,  and 
the  gentleman  who  attended  her,  gave  me  the  first  information  of 
your  living  in  the  neighborhood.  A  fair  wind  offering  to  cross  the 
channel  the  day  after  I  had  been  to  Titchfeild,  left  me  no  longer 
at  liberty  to  indulge  my  wish  of  making  another  effort  to  see  you. 
I  am  sincerely  pleased  to  hear  you  have  been  able  to  raise  so  many 
blessings  for  the  autumn  of  life,  for  by  this  term  I  am  sure  your 
children  will  deserve  to  be  named.  Some  years  ago   (I  am  afraid 
to  say  how  many)  we  should  have  thought  this  but  an  awkward 
congratulation:  but  we  have  both  lived  to  learn  that  there  is  no 
subject  which  affords  more  just  ground  for  it.  My  history,  since 
I  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you  last,  would  have  been  as  happy 
a  one  as  I  could  have  asked,  could  the  objects  of  my  affection  have 
been  immortal.  But  all  the  favors  of  fortune  have  been  embittered 
by  domestic  losses.  Of  six  children  I  have  lost  four,  and  finally  their 
mother.  This  happened  too  in  the  moment  when  I  had  retired  from 
all  public  business,  determined  to  enjoy  the  remainder  of  life  in 
the  bosom  of  my  family.  I  have  been  induced  to  enter  again  on  a 
stage  I  had  quitted,  merely  to  absent  myself  from  scenes  where 
I  had  been  happier  than  I  ever  can  be  again.  I  have  one  daughter 
14.  years  of  age,  now  with  me,  and  expect  the  other  over  in  the 
spring.  She  is  10.  years  old.  The  time  of  my  stay  in  Europe  is 
unfixed;  but  I  love  my  own  country  too  much  to  stay  from  it  long. 
I  went  to  London  the  last  summer  under  a  commission,  the  object 
of  which  was  to  endeavor  to  heal  the  wounds  of  affection  between 
the  two  countries.  It  proved  unsuccesful.  I  wished  an  occasion  of 
taking  Titchfeild  in  my  way  back:  but  circumstances  did  not  per- 
mit it:   and  I  think  it  rather  improbable  I  should  ever  cross  the 
channel  again.  Perhaps  the  wish  to  see  your  friends  may  one  day 
tempt  you  to  revisit  the  country  which  possesses  them.  In  that  event 
I  may  hope  to  meet  you  there.  Be  assured  that  there  is  none  who 
would  meet  you  with  more  sincere  affection.  The  friendships  con- 
tracted earliest  in  life,  are  those  which  stand  by  us  the  longest. 
The  happy  hours  and  days  I  have  passed  in  your  company  are 
recollected  with  infinite  sensibility.  To  talk  them  over  again,  would 


20    JANUARY     1787 

be  to  renew  them.  But  to  complete  this  enjoyment  it  should  be  in 
the  same  circle:  some  chasms  indeed  are  made  in  that;  but  the 
greater  part  are  still  living.  I  have  no  late  news  from  our  friends 
in  Virginia.  You  know  that  indolence  is  one  of  the  characteristics 
of  that  country.  They  write  seldom  and  little.  I  shall  be  happy  at 
all  times  to  hear  of  your  welfare,  and  of  that  of  all  who  are  dear 
to  you.  Be  so  good  as  to  make  my  respects  acceptable  to  Captain 
Thompson  and  to  be  assured  of  the  sincerity  of  those  sentiments 
of  friendship  &  esteem  with  which  I  have  the  honour  to  be  Dear 
Madam  your  affectionate  humble  servant, 


PrC   (DLC). 

From  Charles  Burney 

SIR  London,  Jany.  20th.    1787. 

Few  things  have  given  me  more  concern  than  the  not  being  able 
sooner  to  give  you  a  satisfactory  account  of  the  Harpsichord  and 
its  Machinery,  which  I  had  the  honour  to  bespeak  for  you,  last 
Summer.  I  visited  Kirkman  from  time  to  time  whenever  I  came  to 
town,  and  saw  the  Instrument  in  every  stage  of  its  construction. 
The  wood  was  chosen  with  great  care;  the  Lid  is  solid,  as  you 
desired,  and  no  part  has  been  veneered  or  inlaid  that  could  possibly 
be  avoided,  or  which  could  receive  the  least  injury  from  vicis- 
si[tu]de  of  climate.  I  got  the  Instrument  out  of  Kirkman's  hands, 
very  completely  finished,  as  far  as  concerned  his  part  of  the  busi- 
ness, in  Autumn;  and  by  a  little  management  prevailed  on  him 
to  send  it  to  Walker,  with  tolerable  good  humour.  Walker  under- 
took to  place  his  Machine  for  the  Celestine  Stop  upon  it,  with  great 
readiness,  finding  for  whom  the  Instrument  was  made:   as  I  dis- 
covered that  he  had  had  the  honour  of  conversing  with  you  about 
the  difficulties  and  objections  on  the  Subject  of  his  Stop.  I  was  glad 
of  this,  as  it  made  him  more  alert  and  solicitous  to  execute  his  part 
well.  He  told  me  that  he  had  little  doubt  but  that  he  could  put 
his  machinery  in  motion  by  clock-work,  with  very  little  use  of  a 
Pedal.  I  let  him  alone  to  meditate  and  work  at  his  leisure  till  the 
Month  of  November,  when  I  began  to  be  uneasy  lest  you  should 
imagine  the  commission  had  been  neglected  on  my  Part.  Walker 
was  still  in  high  spirits  about  the  success  of  his  new  Machine,  and 
only  waited  for  the  Clock-maker's  part  of  the  work.  Last  month  the 
new  Machine  was  applied;  and  though  infinitely  superior  to  the 

t  58} 

20    JANUARY    1787 

old,  the  motion  given  to  it  by  a  single  stroke  or  pressure  of  the 
foot,  was  not  so  durable  as  I  wished,  or  as  Walker  expected.  He 
had  difficulties  in  placing,  and  covering  his  machine,  after  it  was 
made;  as  well  as  in  regulating  its  operations.  At  length,  after  long 
delays,  some  occasioned  by  real  difficulties,  and  others  by  having, 
like  all  his  brethren,  projectors,  too  many  pursuits  at  a  time,  the 
machine  has  received  all  the  perfection  he  can  give  it.  He  has 
promised  to  describe  its  powers,  and  the  means  of  exhibiting  them, 
in  a  paper  which  will  accompany  the  Instrument.  The  Resin  will, 
he  says,  be  easily  brushed  off  the  strings,  if  adhesion  from  damp 
is  not  suffered  to  take  place,  by  neglecting  to  clean  the  strings  too 
long.  As  a  Harpsichord  I  never  heard  a  better  instrument  or  felt 
a  more  even  and  pleasant  touch.  The  Tone  is  full,  sweet,  and 
equally  good  through  the  whole  scale.  And  as  to  Walkers  stop,  it 
is  much  more  easily  used  than  any  I  ever  tried.  It  will  not  suit 
things1  of  execution,  but  is  not  confined  to  mere  Psalmody,  as  was 
the  Case  at  the  first  invention.  The  machine  or  species  of  Bow  is 
sooner  and  more  easily  brought  into  contact,  than  formerly,  and 
is  not  so  subject  to  produce  a  Scream  by  over  pressure  of  the  keys. 
It  is  perfectly  sweet,  and  at  a  little  distance  Organic:  that  is  it 
reminds  one  of  the  best  and  most  expressive  part  of  an  organ,  the 
Swell.  On  the  degree  of  pressure  depends  not  only  the  durability 
of  tone,  but  its  force.  It  will  require  much  exercise  to  find  out,  and 
display,  all  the  beauties  of  this  stop.  You,  Sir,  are  speculative 
Musician  sufficient  to  know  the  truth  of  this  assertion,  and  to  avail 
yourself  of  it.  As  to  the  Question  you  ask  concerning  the 

superiority  of  organs  made  in  England  or  France?  I  can  only 
answer  that  as  far  as  I  have  seen,  heard,  or  examined,  this  mecha- 
nism of  the  English  is  infinitely  superior,  as  well  as  the  tone  of  the 
Solo-stops.  Green,  the  organ  builder  here,  is  a  very  ingenious  and 
experimental  man;  and  not  only  makes  dayly  discoveries  and  im- 
provements himself,  but  readily  adopts  those  that  may  be  made 
or  recommended  to  him  by  others.  Pour  la  forme  and  ornaments 
the  Fr.  will  doubtless  beat  us;  mais,  pour  le  fond,  I  think  we  always 
had^  and  still  have  it  all  to  Nothing  against  the  rest  of  Europe.  We 
are  Notorious  for  want  of  invention — yet  give  us  but  a  principle 
to  work  on,  and  we  are  sure  of  leaving  an  invention  better  than  we 
find  it.  I  write  now  in  too  great  a  hurry  to  describe  the  contents 
of  such  a  Chamber  organ  as  you  have  in  meditation.  About  £100 
would  I  think  supply  all  that  is  wanting  in  such  an  Instrument. 
Fine  stops,  well-voiced,  and  chosen,  will  produce  better  Effects  in 
a  small  space,  than  crowds  of  such  course  or  unmeaning  pipes  as 


20    JANUARY    1787 

are  usually  crammed  into  Chamber  organs  of  any  Size.  If  I  can  be 
of  the  least  further  use  in  this  or  any  other  commission]  in  my 
Power,  I  beg  you  not  to  spare  me,  being  with  great  respect  & 
regard,  Sir  your  obedient  &  most  humble  Servant, 


RC    (BLC);  addressed-,  endorsed:    "Burney  Dr."  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received 
2  Feb.  1787. 

i  Thus  in  MS;  Burney  probably  intended  to  write:  "things  difficult  of  execution." 

From  Jean  Durival 

Versailles,  20  Jan.  1787.  Acknowledges  receipt  of  information  on 
the  coinage  of  the  U.S.,  which  he  will  forward  to  "M.  Des  Rotours 
Premier  Commis  des  Monnoyes  £  Paris"  for  use  in  his  book  now  in 
preparation.  Des  Rotours  will  be  grateful  for  any  further  information 
TJ  may  procure  on  that  subject;  his  address  is:  "rue  Neuve  de  Luxem- 
bourg No.  29." 

RC  (DLC);  2  p.;  in  French;  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJt,  as  received  21  Jan, 

From  Uriah  Forrest 

Georgetown,  Md.^  20  Jan.  1787.  Introducing  the  bearer,  Joseph 
Fenwick,  his  "particular  Friend,  a  Man  of  the  best  Character  and  Con- 
nexions." Forrest  will  spend  remainder  of  winter  and  spring  in  New 
York  and  will  communicate  with  TJ  from  there. 

RC  (MHi);  2  p.;  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL,  as  received  25  May  1787  at 

From  Madame  de  Tesse 

a  Paris  ce  21  Janvier 

Monsieur  Jefferson  est  supplie  cTaccepter  a  la  fois  les  excuses  et 
les  Regrets  <Tun  hopital  entier.  Mr.  de  Tesse  est  condamne"  par 
Pordre  du  medecin  a  garder  sa  chambre  pour  un  gros  Rhume. 
Me.  de  Tott,  excessivement  souffrante  depuis  plusieurs  jours,  a 
tellement  fatigu£  par  Tinquietude  la  fragile  constitution  de  Me.  de 
Tesse*  quelle  se  trouve  ce  matin  hors  d'etat  de  sortir.  Le  chagrin 
quils  eprouvent  de  rnanquer  une  occasion  qui  leur  etolt  si  chere 
merite  quelque  pitie"  et  les  engage  a  se  flatter  que  Monsieur  Jefferson 
voudra  bien  leur  en  accorder  le  dedommagement  a  son  Retour  des 

£60  3 

22    JANUARY    1787 

eaux.  L'espoir  de  trouver  Mademoiselle  Jefferson  ch£s  Monsieur 
son  pere  ajoute  au  malheur  de  toute  la  famille. 

Mr.  Short  verra  ici  pourquoi  Me.  de  Tess£  a  et6  privge  deux 
fois  du  plaisir  de  le  voir.  Elle  etoit  retenue  pr£s  de  Me.  de  Tott 
trop  souffrante  pour  recevoir  quelqu'un. 

RC  (DLC);  without  indication  of  the  year.  The  date  has  been  established 
from  Madame  de  Tesse's  reference  to  TJ's  imminent  journey  to  the  EAUX  of 
southern  France.  Not  recorded  in  SJL. 

From  William  Jones 

SR.  London  Jany.  22nd.  1787 

On  account  of  the  hurry  of  previous  business,  I  have  been  pre- 
vented from  finishing  your  Perspective  Machine  as  soon  as  I 
wished,  but  herewith  you  receive  it,  and  in  a  State  which  I  presume 
will  not  be  unacceptable.  I  have  improved  it,  by  adding  the  few 
requisites  for  a  Drawing  Board,  which  make  it  a  complete  Instru- 
ment. The  use  of  the  several  parts  of  the  Machine  I  presume  will 
be  obvious  to  you,  viz.  the  T.  and  Bevil  Square  for  drawing  Parallel 
lines  in  all  Directions.  The  box  scale  frame,  for  confining  down 
the  paper  (which  should  be  rather  damp  when  first  put  down)  on 
the  board.  The  scale  serving  as  a  guide  to  the  distance  of  the 
parallel  lines.  The  Steel  Pin  at  the  corner  of  the  Box  is  to  be  put 
in  a  hole  in  one  of  the  joints  to  keep  the  brass  frame  upright  when 
necessary.  There  is  a  groove  in  the  brass  frame,  to  contain  a  Pane 
of  Glass  mentioned  by  Ferguson.  I  made  the  frame  square  for  an 
obvious  reason  viz.  to  admit  the  whole  of  the  board,  as  the  drawing 
of  a  Machine  &c.  when  placed  near  the  Instrument  may  require  a 
larger  space,  than  the  Arches  admit  of.  A  Friend  has  informed  me 
Sir  that  Monsr.  Guyot,  has  lately  published  a  very  pleasant  Work, 
entitled  R6cr£ations  Physiques  et  Mathematiques,  in  3  Vos.  Octavo, 
containing  a  selection  of  many  very  curious  and  entertaining  ex- 
periments [in]  Electricity,  Magnetism  &c.  I  expect  very  shortly 
some  copies  of  his  book  from  him  having  ordered  them  3  Months 
ago.  If  you  think  it  worth  while  to  call  on  him,  as  he  is  [a]  curious 
man  I  have  written  underneath  the  Direction  of  his  Address. 
I  am  Sr.  Your  Obliged  Humble  Servt.,  WM.  JONES 

Monsr.  Guyot,  directeur  des  Postes,  rue  francois  Pres  la  rue 
mauconseil  No.  12. 

RC    (DLC);   addressed;   endorsed:    "Jones  Win.    (Mathematic)."  Recorded   in 

22    JANUARY     1787 

SJL  as  received  26  Mch.  1787  at  Aix.  For  the  misfortunes  which  happened 
to  this  letter  and  the  accompanying  apparatus,  »ee  Smith  to  TJ,  29  Jan.  1787 
and  TJ  to  Smith,  19  Feb.  1787, 

From  Tarbc 

^  22  Jan.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  24  Jan.  1787. 
Not  found;  but  it  must  have  enclosed  an  undated  statement  (MoSHi; 
endorsed  "Tarbe")  to  the  amount  of  £34.19,6  for  tlu*  cost  of  handling 
a  barrel  of  wine  sent  from  Bordeaux  by  Le  Veillard  to  TJ;  see  TJ  to 
Tarbe*,  11  Feb.  1787.] 

From  St.  Victour  &  Bettinger 

Paris,  23  Jan.  1787.  Enclosing  copy  of  certificate  dated  2  Nov.  1786 
of  the  artillery  officer*  Dubois  d'E.scordal,  at  tin*  manufactory  of  arms 
at  Tulle  for  27  boxes  containing  820  rifles  at  27tt  10s.  or  a  total  of 
22,550ti:;  also  a  copy  of  a  letter  from  Bondfield  at  Bordeaux  to  Bettinger, 
16  Jan.  1787,  acknowledging  receipt  of  the  shipment.  They  request 
payment  by  TJ  and  will  provide  the  person  in  charge  of  the  cases 
with  their  receipt,  the  original  of  the  certificate,  and  Bondfield's  letter. 

RC  <Vi);  2  p.;  in  French.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  24  Jan.  1787.  En- 
closures: (1)  Certificate  as  described  (missing).  (2)  Bondfield  to  Bettinger, 
16  Jan.  1787  (Vi). 

From  Q  W.  F.  Dumas 

MONSIEUR  LaHaie  23e.  Janv.  1787 

De  retour  <T Amsterdam,  je  me  hate  de  repondre  &  la  question 
confidentielle  que  m7a  fait  votre  Excellence  dans  sa  Lettre  du  25 
Decembre  dernier. 

S^il  y  auroit  moyen  de  negocier  en  Hollands  de  P  Argent  pour 
les  Etats-Unis,  afin  de  rembourser  les  24  millions  tournois  qdon 
doit  d  la  France? 

J'ai  consulte  la  des  amis  intimes,  dont  je  suis  sftr,  non  settlement 
quant  a  la  Discretion,  qui  sera  scrupuleusement  observee,  mais 
aussi  quant  ^  la  capacity  honnetete  et  suffisance  parfaite  pour 
Tex^cution  meme  d'une  telle  entreprise:  Et  voici  le  Resultat  de  nos 
entretiens,  couche  par  £crit  a  Amsterdam  le  20  et  le  21,  quoique 
je  le  transcrive  et  date  comme  ci-dessus. 

Pour  ce  qui  est  du  Credit  du  Congr£s,  il  est  certain  que  peu  & 
peu  il  s'etablit  sur  un  pied  solide:  Ce  qui  y  contribue  gran  clement, 

{62  ] 

23    JANUARY    1787 

c'est  1'acquit  regulier  des  Inter£ts  dans  le  temps  pr6cis  de  leur 
6ch6ance,  et  sp6cialement  aussi  celui  des  Primes  de  la  N6gociation 
de  deux  Millions  de  florins  en  argent,  que  le  Congres  avoit  le  choix 
de  faire  en  obligations  nouvelles.  On  pense  m§me  que  ce  Credit 
seroit  parvenu  d£s-&-pr£sent  au  point,  que  Ton  etit  pu  en  toute  as- 
surance donner  des  encouragemens  a  des  N€gociations  ult6rieures, 
et  des  promesses  touchant  leur  reussite,  si  les  Papiers  Anglois  ne 
continuoient  de  debiter  sur  Fetat  des  affaires  en  Am&rique  des 
Avis  trfes-propres  a  donner  la  fievre  aux  Rentiers,  et  certains  Ga- 
zettiers  de  ce  pays  de  les  adopter  avidement  dans  leurs  papiers. 
Ces  derniers  appartiennent  a  la  Faction  de  ceux  qui,  traversant 
tant  qu'ils  peuvent  les  efforts  qu'on  fait  pour  rStablir  la  Libert6 
civile  en  ce  pays,  s'imaginent  que  la  reproduction  continuelle 
d'images  qui  reprgsentent  les  £meutes  et  commotions  populaires 
(lesquelles  selon  eux  ont  lieu  en  Am6rique),  doit  d6goftter  les 
esprits  ici  de  la  pens6e  de  s'en  tenir  a  une  Constitution  ou  le  Peuple 
ait  quelque  influence  dans  le  Gouvernement.  Quoique  Ton  ne 
craigne  guere  que  ces  m6chants  atteignent  leur  but  en  ceci,  il  n'en 
est  pas  moins  facheux  que  leur  artifice  fasse  assez  d'impression 
sur  nombre  de  personnes  peu  instruites,  pour  leur  faire  soupgonner 
que,  vu  de  pareils  troubles,  une  pareille  confusion,  une  telle 
foiblesse  du  Gouvernement  en  Am6rique,  il  ne  soit  pas  prudent 
de  lui  accorder  un  grand  Credit.  II  est  possible  de  ramener  les 
plus  senses  a  des  id£es  plus  saines;  mais  le  grand  nombre  des 
Rentiers  Pest  peu,  et  se  laisse  aller  au  prejug£  plutdt  qu9&  la  raison. 

II  est  done  impossible  d'assurer  positivement  que  Ton  feroit  avec 
succds  une  nouvelle  N€gociation,  ni  d'en  determiner  la  somme  et 
les  conditions,  Ce  qui  ajoute  3.  Fincertitude,  et  fait  craindre  qu'en 
tout  cas  ces  conditions  ne  fussent  tr£s-on6reuses,  c'est  que  Ton 
n'ignore  pas  ici  que  la  Dette  interne  du  Congres  en  Ainerique  peut 
^tre  achet^e  d  un  prix1  tel  que  les  Acheteurs  y  trouvent  incom- 
parablement  plus  de  profit  qu'on  ne  leur  en  accorderoit  ici;  tandis 
que  la  solidite  de  cette  Dette  interne  est  tout  aussi  bonne  que  celle 
de  la  Dette  externe. 

Ce  qu'il  y  auroit  done,  selon  mes  amis,  de  mieux  a  faire,  seroit 
de  se  charger  ici  de  la  pr£tention  de  la  France  aux  conditions  qu'on 
pourroit  stipuler,  accompagnges  d'un  petit  sacrifice  de  la  part  de 
ce  Royaume,  avec  la  Liberte  de  n6gocier  ici  Tar  gent  pour  un 
nombre  limite  d'ann£es  sur  le  Credit  du  Congres  et  sous  la 
Garantie  de  la  France.  Cette  derniere  condition,  oil  Ton  ne  voit 
rien  que  d'honorable  pour  le  CongrSs,  influeroit  beaucoup  sur 
t,  que  Ton  obtiendroit  moindre  en  ce  cas  qu'autrement  on  ne 


23    JANUARY     1787 

pourroit  le  faire  dans  les  circonstances  prfisentes  pur  les  raisons  * 
apport€es  ci-dessus:  et  cle  cette  maniere  on  pourroit  en  meme  temps 
reculer  de  quclques  annces  les  termes  du  rcmboitrsement  quivont 
bientot  echeoir;  ce  qui,  ce  semble,  conviendroit  fort  au  Congrfe, 
On  croit  aussl  que  le  sacrifice  que  la  France  feroit  pour  cela  ne 
sauroit  y  mettre  obstacle:  car  cette  operation  ne  laisseroit  pas  que 
de  verser  une  somme  considerable  duns  son  Tresor,  qu'elle  ne  seroit 
point  obligee  de  restituer,  et  qui  par  consequent  ne  tourneroit  point 
£  la  charge  du  Royaume.  Aussi  ne  s'attend-on  pas  de  la  part  de  la 
France  £  la  moindre  difficult^  pour  accorder  cette  Garantie;  attendu 
que  cette  Cour-la  est  tr&s  exactement  au  fait  de  Petat  des  affaires 
Am€ricaines)  et  qu'elle  a  interet  de  les  maintenir. 

Si  Ton  avoit  quelque  inclination  pour  ce  Plan,  mes  Amis  entreront 
volontiers  en  pourparler  !&-dessus,  et  exaniineront  alors  le  degrS 
de  possibility  H  trouver  toute  la  Somme  dans  un  temps  limits  ce 
qui  est  un  point  dont  on  ne  peut  s'occuper,  pour  le  determiner, 
qu'en  s'ouvrant  et  traitant  l&-des$us  avec  d'autres  gens. — Us  pensent 
que  pour  peu  que  les  conditions  soient  €tablies  d'une  maniere  ac- 
ceptable, on  trouveroit  d^abord  promptentent  3  SL  4  Millions  de 
Florins  d'Hollande  (6  &  8  Millions  de  Livres  tournois,  ou  12  &  16 
cent  mille  Dollars ) . 

ES.  Nous  nous  sonimes  ult6rieurenient  et  sous  le  sceau  du  secret, 
entretenus  sur  la  question  ci-dessus  avec  un  des  hommes  les  plus 
experts  dans  la  matiere.  II  a  confirme  absolument  notre  avis;  en 
ajoutant  seulement  que  si  Ton  se  dfiterminoit  promptement  I 
quelque  chose,  le  sacrifice  en  question  seroit  tr£s-petit,  et  mSme, 
qu'il  pourroit  6tre  bonijic  par  une  diminution  sur  TlnterSt  La 
raison  de  cela  est  Tabondance2  actuelle  d'argent.  Mais  comme  cela 
peut  changer  en  peu  de  temps,  il  faudroit  se  determiner  le  plut6t 

En  reflechissant  &  tout  cela  pendant  mon  retour,  il  m'a  semb!6 
que  Votre  Excellence  et  Mr.  le  Ms.  De  la  Fayette  pourroient, 
puisqu'il  ne  s'agiroit  que  d'acheter  la  Dette  due  £  la  France,  rendre 
un  grand  service  et  a  la  France  et  aux  Etats-Unis,  en  secondant  et 
favorisant  cette  vente,  de  maniere  &  reserver  au  Congres  YOption 
de  reculer  de  quelques  annees  le  Remboursement,  sans  qu'il  soit 
n^cessaire  de  perdre  un  temps  pr€cieux,  peut-Stre  irrevocable,  ^ 
consulter  d'avance  le  Congres:  Car  de  cette  maniere,  la  France 
€tant  libre  de  vendre  ou  endosser  la  Dette  pour  remplir  son  tr£sor, 
et  le  Congres  de  profiter  de  TOption,  il  ne  seroit  fait  tort  quelconque 
!l  personne,  on  profiter oit  de  la  bonne  occasion,  et  chacun  seroit 


25    JANUARY    1787 

aidg,  puisque  YOption  6quivaudroit  a  VEmprunt  en  question,  et 
seroit  mSme  plus  avantageuse.  Si  Votre  Excellence  goftte  mon 
opinion,  et  veut  me  donner  ses  ordres  aprSs  avoir  con£6rg  et  agre6, 
si  ce  n'est  MinistSriellement,  au  moins  personnellement,  avec  les 
Ministres  en  France,  j'irai  les  ex€cuter  sur  le  champ  a  Amsterdam, 
et  ferai  connoitre  a  Votre  Excellence  la  Maison  consultee,  contre 
laquelle  je  sais  d'avance  que  ni  les  dits  Ministres,  ni  Votre  Excel- 
lence ne  feront  aucune  objection. 

Je  suis  avec  le  plus  respectueux  devouement,  De  Votre  Excellence 
Le  trds-humble  et  tr£s-ob£issant  serviteur, 


RC    (DL.C);  endorsed.   FC    (Rijksar-  peut  Pavoir  a  Amsterdam  a   9   p%    de 

chief,  The  Hague,  Dumas  Papers;  photo-  profit  net  par  an." 

stats   in  DLC).   Tr    (DNA:    PCC,   No.  2  In  both  RC   and  FC  the  following 

1O7,  i);    with   several   copyist's   errors.  is  written   in   the  margin:    "Provenant 

Translation     printed     in     Dipt.     Corr.9  de  la  rentrSe  ordinaire  des  Inter&ts  ici, 

1  783-89,  n,  31-3.  et  pour   le   coup   encore   extraordinaire- 

ment  des   Remboursemens   que   fait   la 

i  In  both  RC   and  FC  the  following  Russie  et  de  ce   que  ni  les  Anglois  ni 

is  written  in  the  margin:    "On  m'a  as-  les    Francois    n'ont    pas    encore    ouvert 

sure*  et  promis  de  me  faire  voir,  qu'on  quelque  nouvel  Emprunt." 

From  Madame  de  Tesse 

a  Paris  ce  23  Janvier. 

Mr.  de  Tesse  est  presqu'entierement  gueri  de  son  Rhume.  Me. 
de  Tott  souffre  beaucoup  moins,  mais  elle  souffre  encore  trop  pour 
que  Me.  de  Tess6  puisse  se  Retablir.  Elles  seront  fort  heureuses  la 
premiere  fois  que  Monsieur  Jefferson  voudra  bien  leur  donner  Toc- 
casion  de  lui  Renouveller  Fassurance  de  Tattaclieinent  bien  sincere 
et  bien  profond  qu'elles  lui  ont  consacrg. 

RC  (DLC);  without  indication  of  the  year  (see  Madame  de  Tesse'  to  TJ,  21 
Jan.  [1787]).  Not  recorded  in  SJL. 

From  John  Adams 

DEAR  SIR  Grosvenor  Square  Jan.  25.  1787 

I  have  received  your  Letters  of  December  20.  and  Jan.  11.  by 
Coll.  Franks.  The  whole  of  the  Business  shall  be  dispatched,  and 
Coll.  Franks  sent  to  Congress  as  you  propose,  as  soon  as  possible. 
I  have  prepared  a  Draught  of  a  joint  Letter  to  Mr.  Barclay  and 
signed  it,  concerning  Mr.  Lamb,  and  shall  inclose  it  to  you  with 
this.  As  to  the  Treaty  with  Portugal,  the  Chevalier  De  Pinto's 


25    JANUARY     1787 

Courier  whom  he  sent  off  when  you  were  here,  is  still  in  Lisbon, 
He  is  a  confidential  Domestick  of  De  Pinto  and  calls  every  day, 
at  the  Ministers  office  in  Lisbon  but  can  get  no  answer.  De  Pinto 
is  very  uneasy,  makes  apologies  when  he  sees  me,  but  can  do  no 
more.  He  says  Mr.  De  Melo  has  been  sick  and  the  Queen  in  the 
Country,   and   that  Falkner   could  obtain   no   audience  for  these 
Causes  till  December.— I  suppose  the  Treaty  of  Commerce  be- 
tween France  and  England  has  astonished  Portugal,  and  divided 
the    Court   into   Parties,    so   that   neither    administration   can  be 
settled,  nor  a  system  adopted  relative  to  Spain  France,  England  or 
America.  Congress  are  always  informed  of  Facts  as  soon  as  they 
happen,  and  it  is  not  to  be  expected  that  we  should  write  Letters 
every  Day  to  tell  them,  that  Events  have  not  happened.  As  to  the 
Reasons  why  the  Treaty  is  not  signed,  they  know  at  New  York 
as  well  as  you  and  I  know,  or  even  as  De  Pinto  knows  them. 

The  charitable,  the  humane,  the  Christian  Mathurins  deserve 
our  kindest  Thanks,  and  we  should  be  highly  obliged  to  them  if 
they  could  discover  at  what  Price,  our  Countrymen  may  be  re- 
deemed: but  I  dont  think  we  have  Authority  to  advance  the  Money 
without  the  further  orders  of  Congress.  There  is  no  Court,  or 
Government,  that  redeems  its  Citizens  unless  by  a  Treaty  of  Peace, 
This  is  left  to  private  Connections  and  benevolent  Societies.  If 
Congress  redeem  these,  it  will  be  a  Precedent  for  all  others,  and 
although  I  might1  in  Congress  vote  for  Setting  the  Precedent,  and 
making  it  a  Rule,  Yet  I  dont  think  that  as  Subordinate  Ministers 
We  have  a  Right  to  do  it.  The  Money  remaining,  must  in  February 
be  applied  to  the  Payment  of  Interest,  and  We  must  absolutely 
come  to  a  full  Stop  in  all  Expences  relating  to  Barbary  Matters 
untill  further  orders  of  Congress.  Lamb  has  drawn  on  me  for  Three 
thousand  two  hundred  and  twelve  Pounds,  twelve  shillings.2  Mr. 
Barclay  has  drawn  a  great  sum,  £4020. .0..0  according  to  the 
Minutes  inclosed. 

If  Congress  thought  the  original  appointment  of  Lamb  censura- 
ble they  had  reason.  But  you  and  I  were  not  censurable.  We  found 
him  ready  appointed  to  our  hands.  I  never  saw  him  nor  heard  of 
him.— He  ever  was  and  still  is  as  indifferent  to  me,  as  a  Mohawk 
Indian.  But  as  he  came  from  Congress  with  their  Dispatches  of 
such  importance,  I  supposed  it  was  expected  We  should  appoint 
him. — There  is  no  harm  done. — If  Congress  had  sent  the  ablest 
Member  of  their  own  Body,  at  such  a  Time  and  under  such 
pecuniary  Limitations  he  would  have  done  no  better.  With  great 


26    JANUARY    1787 

and  sincere  Esteem  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  dear  Sir,  your  most 
obedient  and  most  humble  Servant,  JOHN  ADAMS 

RC     (DLC);     endorsed.    FC     (Mffi:  both   dated    18    Feb.    1787;   Carmichael 

AMT);    in    W.    S.    Smith's    hand.    Re-  to  TJ,  25  Mch.  1787).  (2)  The  account 

corded  in  SJL,  as  received  2  Feb.  1787.  current    of   Barclay,    listing-   twenty-one 

Enclosures:     (1)    Adams'    "Draught   o£  drafts    accepted   by   Adams   between    7 

a  joint  Letter  to  Mr.  Barclay"  has  not  Oct.    1785    and  21   Dec.    1786,   to    the 

been  found,  and  in  fact  may  never  have  amount  of  £4020,  to  which  was  added 

been  sent  to  Barclay  by  TJ,  who  mis-  the  total  of  all  drafts  drawn  by  Lamb, 

takenly  thought  David  Franks  had  in-  making  in  all  £7232-12-0  (DLC). 
eluded  it  with  the  other  papers  on  the 

Morocco    negotiations    that    the    latter  1  Adams    first    wrote    "would,"    then 

carried    to    Le    Havre;    TJ's    letters    to  deleted  it  and  interlined  ''might." 
Barclay  and  Carmichael  give  no  indica-  2  Adams   first  wrote   "Two  thousand 

tion   that  he  had  found  it,   as   Franks  Nine  hundred  Pounds"  and  then  altered 

suggested,  in  his  own  study   { see  TJ's  this  to  read  as  above,  possibly  to  accom- 

two  letters   to   Franks,    11   Feb.    1787;  modate  a  new  draft  by  Lamb. 
TJ  to  Barclay  and  TJ  to   Carmichael, 

From  R.  8c  A.  Garvey 

SIR  Rouen  25  January  1787 

The  acquit  for  your  Excellencys  things  has  not  been  returned; 
they  would  not  Give  a  duplicate  of  it;  the  original  one  is  No.  1477 
and  is  dated  the  21  October  1786:  we  shall  be  much  obliged  to 
you  to  Give  the  necessary  orders  about  it  before  your  departure,  for 
if  it  is  not  returned  discharged,  or  some  other  document  to  serve 
in  its  stead,  it  will  be  attended  with  very  disagreable  Consequences, 
which  its  proper  to  avoid. 

Great  Care  shall  be  taken  of  the  Boxes  you  Expect,  and  your 
orders  for  their  ultimate  expedition  duly  attended  to.  We  remain 
with  respect  Sir  Your  Excellencys  most  humble  &  most  obedient 
Servants,  ROBT.  &  ANT.  GARVEY 

RC   (MHi)j  endorsed.  Not  recorded  in  SJL. 

From  Le  Veillard 

[Before  26  Jan.  1787] 

Monsieur  de  Jefferson  a  du  recevoir  ces  jours  cy  de  Mr.  Tarbe 
negotiant  a  Rouen  que  Le  vin  de  Cahuzac  est  en  route  et  doit 
arriver  ces  jours  cy.  Mr.  Tarbe  aura  vraisemblablement  joint  a  son 
avis  le  mSmoire  des  droits  et  frais  depuis  Bordeaux  jusqua  Rouen 
pour  les  quels  il  aura  tir£  un  mandat  payable  &  vue  et  qu'on 
presentera  a  monsieur  Jefferson.  Outre  cela  il  y  aura  a  payer  la 
Voiture  depuis  Rouen  et  les  droits  dentr6e  a  paris  dont  le  Voiturier 


26    JANUARY     1787 

lui  presentera  le  memoire  pour  en  estre  remboursfi.  II  ne  restera 
plus  que  le  prix  du  vin  et  de  sa  route  jusqu'&  Bordeaux  qui  est 
de  98ifc  et  que  iru  leVelllard  se  chargcra  de  faire  tenir  au  vendeur, 
La  barrique  est  de  250  bouteilles,  par  consequent  ce  vin  qui  est 
excellent  n'ira  peut  estre  qu^  15  ou  16s.  la  pinte. 

M.  LeVeillard  assure  de  son  respect  monsieur  Jefferson.  Q 
auroit  eu  Phoneur  de  le  voir,  si  sa  sante  qui  a  etc  miserable  depuis 
3  mois  le  luy  eut  permis.  II  le  prie  de  luy  faire  savoir  s'il  na  pas 
eu  des  nouvelles  d'am6rique  et  s*II  auroit  une  occasion  pour  y 
envoyer  un  paquet  de  quelques  livres.  M.  L.  V.  a  eu  hier  des 
lettres  du  13  Xbre.  Mr.  Frank.,  bien  portan[t]. 

RC    (MoSHi)j    without   signature   or  35/."  and  "i>d.  Le  Veillard  for  the  same 

date;  in  Le  Veillard's  hand;  memoran-  \vim§  9B/.  Note  the  barrel  contains  250 

dum   of   costs   on   verso   in   TJ's   hand.  bottles,   and   this   was   for  the  wine  de- 

The  date  has  been  assigned  from  TJ's  Hvered    at    Bourdeaux"     (see    also  the 

entries  in  his  Account  Book   under   26  entry  for  Ttirbe  to  TJ,  22  Jan,,  and  TJ 

Jan.    1787,   which   read:    "pd.    Tarbe's  to  Tarbe,   11   Feb.   1787). 
draught  for  portage  of  wine  de  Cahusac 

From  John  Sullivan 

SIR  Portsmouth  Jany.  26th.  1787 

Perhaps  you  may  think  it  strange  that  I  have  not  forwarded 
the  Articles  I  promised,  but  want  of  opportunity  prevented  till 
I  found  it  in  my  power  to  forward  to  your  Excellency  the  whole 
Skeleton  of  a  Moose  which  is  now  on  Connecticut  River  and  I  expect 
it  in  a  sleigh  as  soon  as  the  Roads  are  broken  through  the  snow 
which  is  now  very  Deep  and  no  time  shall  be  Lost  in  forwarding 
the  same  to  your  Excellency. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  great  respect  your  Excellencys  most 
obedt.  &  very  humble  Servt.,  JNO.  SULLIVAN 

RC    (DLC);  endorsed:    "Sullivan   Genl."  Recorded   in  SJL  as  received   16  June 

From  John  Sullivan 

Portsmouth  New  Hampshire 
SIR  Jany.  26th.  1787 

I  have  the  honor  to  inclose  your  Excellency  a  petition  from  Mr. 
Darby  to  his  most  Christian  majesty  respecting  a  vessell  con- 
demned at  port  au  prince  with  Copies  of  Depositions  to  Support 
the  facts  therein  alledged.  Your  Excellencey  will  at  once  Discover 


26    JANUARY    1787 

how  Injuriously  Mr.  Darbey  has  been  treated  and  how  by  the  Art 
and  Design  of  the  Two  French  Merchants  mentioned  he  has  suf- 
fered a  Loss  which  must  almost  ruin  him:  may  I  entreat  your 
Excellency  to  Interest  your  self  in  his  favour  at  the  Court  of 
France,  where  the  original  Petition  and  Depositions  are  forwarded. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  the  most  Lively  Sentiments  of  Esteem 
Your  Excellenceys  most  obedt.  and  very  Humble  Servt., 


RC  (DLC).  Recorded  in  SJL  as 
received  16  June  1787.  Enclosures 
(DLC):  (1)  Petition  of  Elias  Hasket 
Derby  to  the  king  of  France,  dated  at 
Salem,  Mass.,  24  Jan.  1787,  stating 
that  in  April  of  1786  he  had  dispatched 
the  brig  Afancz/,  Ichabod Nichols,  master, 
to  the  French  West  Indies  with  a  "very 
valuable  Cargo"  in  order  to  carry  on 
*6a  Trade  there  Agreably  to  the  estab- 
lished Laws";  that  at  Port  au  Prince 
Nichols  met  with  one  of  Derby's  snows 
laden  with  lumber;  that  teMessrs. 
Barrere  &  La  Maire,  Merchants  of  that 
place  agreed  for  the  purchase  of  both 
Cargoes  at  a  price  certain,"  agreeing 
to  pay  in  sugars  at  a  stipulated  price; 
that  Nichols  fulfilled  his  part  of  the 
contract  only  to  find  **to  his  extreme 
mortification  and  Disappointment  .  .  . 
they  had  no  intention  to  perform  their 
engagement,  which  they  now  alledged 
to  be  impossible";  that  hi  his  dilemma 
Nichols  had  been  persuaded  to  accept 
the  merchants'  proposal  "that  his  Snow 
should  be  conveyed  to  one  of  them,  and 
made  a  French  Bottom,  and  that  they 
would  lade  on  board  a  Cargo  to  the 
amount  of  the  Debt  and  clear  out  the 
Vessel!  for  Nantes";  that  the  transfer 
was  made,  the  vessel  loaded  with  410,* 
000  pounds  of  sugar,  4,000  pounds  of 
coffee,  7,400  pounds  of  cotton,  &c.  so 
that  the  value  of  vessel  and  cargo 
amounted  to  a  total  of  230,473  livres, 
and  clearance  papers  obtained  for  a 
voyage  to  Nantes;  that,  soon  after,  the 
vessel  was  seized  "under  a  pretext  of 
her  being  bound  to  the  Continent  of 
America,"  and,  after  "Mr.  La  Maire 

appeared  as  Owner"  and  made  what 
seemed  to  be  a  feeble  opposition  as 
claimant,  the  snow  was  condemned  by 
the  admiralty  court;  that  an  appeal  was 
made  but  lie  verdict  confirmed,  "al- 
though some  of  the  Judges,  and  the 
most  learned  Lawyers  were  clearly  of 
opinion  that  the  Vessell  being  still  in 
port,  there  was  not  any  transgression 
of  the  Law";  that  it  appears  the  mer- 
chants were  interested  in  the  condem- 
nation, since  their  captain  was  the 
informer,  caused  the  seizure,  "and  im- 
mediately Fled  apparently  to  avoid  the 
Public  Odium  and  Indignation";  and 
that  the  petitioner  now  has  "no  re- 
source but  in  that  Royall  power  and 
Goodness  ...  to  relieve  the  distressed 
and  Injured."  (2)  Notarized  deposition 
of  Ichabod  Nichols,  dated  at  Ports- 
mouth, N.H.,  4  Dec.  1786,  testifying 
to  the  same  facts.  ( 3 )  Notarized  deposi- 
tion of  Richard  Tibbets,  mariner,  of 
Portsmouth,  N.H.,  dated  16  Nov.  1786, 
testifying  that  he  was  at  Port  au  Prince 
in  the  summer  of  1786  and  '^present  at 
a  conversation  between  Captain  Ichabod 
Nichols  and  Messrs.  Barrifere  and  Le- 
maire"  when  the  latter  offered  to  pur- 
chase the  cargoes  of  the  Nancy  and  the 
snow,  of  which  he,  Tibbetts,  was 
master;  and  that  he  also  heard  the 
merchants  tell  Nichols  "it  would  be 
more  for  their  Interest  and  his  to  make 
a  French  Bottom  of  his  Vessell,"  to 
which,  "after  a  good  deal  of  persuasion 
on  their  part  he  consented."— Sullivan's 
covering  letter  and  its  enclosures  were 
sent  to  TJ  by  Derby  with  his  letter  of 
1  Mch.  1787,  q.v. 

From  Benjamin  Vaughan,  with  Enclosure 

DEAR  SIR  Jeffries  Square  London  Jany.  26.  1787. 

I  was  honoured  with  your  letter  of  the  29th.  of  December  only 
last  night,  and  take  the  first  moment  of  answering  it,  presuming 


2  G    JANUARY     1787 

to  offer  a  few  remarks  on  the  objects  you  have  in  view,  by  way  of  ' 

It  appears  that  many  mistakes  respecting  the  animal  and  vegeta- 
ble productions  of  America  have  arisen  from  the  precipitancy  of 
European  philosophers  in  deciding  upon  slight  evidence;  as  well 
as  from  the  propensity  of  mankind  to  extend  partial  into  general 
conclusions.  Your  notes  respecting  Virginia  furnish  ample  proofs 
of  this. 

Those  Europeans  however  who  have  disparaged  the  New  World 
have  not  only  been  imperfectly  acquainted  with  their  subject;  but 
seem  to  have  overlooked  the  original  destitute  state  of  Europe 
which  is  said  to  have  borrowed  many  of  its  valuable  animals  and 
vegetables  from  other  countries.  We  hear  of  a  Ceres,  a  Bacchus, 
and  a  Minerva  deified  for  the  introduction  of  corn,  of  wine,  and  of 
oil  into  our  quarter  of  the  globe;  and  we  can  very  easily  credit 
these  traditions  from  the  accounts  given  of  the  gradual  spread  of 
the  two  latter  productions  in  the  Southern  parts  of  Europe.  We 
are  not  able  (it  is  said)  in  this  island  of  Great  Britain  to  boast  of 
a  single  fruit  as  indigenous  among  the  number  that  now  appear 
at  our  tables,  and  it  is  clear  frotn  authentic  accounts,  that  we  have 
as  little  claim  to  the  original  of  most  of  our  esculent  vegetables, 
which  are  now  so  common.  I  must  add  that  the  species  both  of  our 
fruits  and  common  esculent  vegetables  are  still  very  few  in  num- 
ber, though  we  have  taken  some  pains  to  traverse  the  globe  to 
collect  or  add  to  them,  and  have  likewise  called  in  experienced  art 
to  our  assistance.  It  is  observable  also  that  several  of  our  present 
English  fruits  have  had  their  reputed  origin  from  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  Black  Sea,  whose  climate  bears  a  very  particular  re- 
semblance to  those  parts  of  Eastern  North  America  which  lie  in 
correspondent  latitudes.  I  may  add  that  from  various  authentic 
relations,   Eastern   North   America    appears    to   exhibit    (notwith- 
standing the  opinions  that  have  been  entertained  respecting  it) 
a  fair  Model  in  general  of  the  climate  of  all  the  inland  and  Eastern 
quarters  of  our  Northern  Hemisphere. 

I  have  sometimes  thought  that  if  Eastern  North  America  had 
been  peopled  by  old  and  civilized  nations,  some  ages  before  the 
birth  of  Christ,  and  had  at  that  time  accumulated  in  it  (wherever 
the  climates  were  analagous)  not  only  the  productions  (vegetable 
and  animal)  of  the  Western  and  Southern  parts  of  its  double 
continent,  but  those  from  China  and  Japan,  in  addition  to  all 
those  productions  which  accident,  as  well  as  diligence  and  art 


26    JANUARY    1787 

might  have  enabled  it  to  discover  and  propagate  within  itself:  I 
have  thought  that  if  a  people,  so  circumstanced  in  those  parts,  had 
at  that  period  discovered  Western  Europe,  similar  remarks  would 
probably  have  occurred  (after  a  time)  among  their  speculative 
philosophers,  on  the  rude  and  ill  provided  condition  of  the  New 
World  (as  our  part  of  it  would  then  have  been  called) .  A  civilized 
Chinese,  given  to  speculation  and  theory,  might  in  similar  terms 
now  speak  of  Western  North  America;  though  Western  North 
America,  there  is  good  reason  to  think,  is  the  exact  counterpart, 
as  to  climate,  of  Europe  and  part  of  Africa.  Indeed  it  is  to  be  hoped 
that  in  future  ages  it  -will  become  alike  civilized  and  alike  abound- 
ing in  the  good  things  of  this  life  with  Western  Europe,  and 
when  that  period  arrives,  the  voyages  of  Cook  will  be  read  with 
the  same  degree  of  curiosity  by  Western  Americans  with  which 
Western  Europeans  now  peruse  the  accounts  of  Germany,  Gaul  and 
England  given  by  Tacitus  and  Caesar.  Certain  it  is,  that  Europeans 
in  general  do  not  at  present  think  worse  of  America  than  some  of 
the  Greeks  and  Romans  formerly  thought  of  those  parts  of  Europe, 
which  now  make  the  most  brilliant  figure  of  any  countries  upon 
the  globe. 

I  do  not  mean  to  suggest  by  any  of  these  remarks,  that  there 
are  not  certain  considerable  and  characteristic  distinctions  between 
the  climate  of  this  quarter  of  the  world  and  that  of  your  own.  But 
every  circumstance  of  this  sort,  were  it  to  be  entered  into,  would 
come  under  a  separate  head  of  discussion.  All  that  I  mean  to 
affirm  is,  that  there  is  nothing  peculiar  and  ill-fated  in  your  own 
climate  and  soil,  compared  with  that  of  the  globe  at  large;  and 
that  nature,  after  she  has  had  proper  time  to  make  a  full  display 
of  herself,  will  be  found  as  provident  to  you,  as  to  the  Northern 
Hemisphere  in  general.  Indeed  it  has  never  appeared  her  intention 
to  accumulate  all  her  favours  upon  any  one  situation:  her  gifts  are 
dispersed;  and  men  are  to  be  made  acquainted  and  united  among 
each  other,  by  their  attempts  to  assemble  and  exchange  them. 

I  am  truly  happy  to  see  that  in  your  work,  you  have  with  so 
much  success  combated  the  opinions  of  certain  European  philoso- 
phers on  some  of  these  subjects  respecting  Eastern  America.  I 
think  the  Recherches  sur  Les  Americains  contain  nearly  three 
volumes  of  errors,  believed  in  Europe  because  boldly  asserted,  and 
till  lately  never  controverted.  Monsr.  De  Buffon  and  the  abbe 
Raynal  in  particular  among  the  French,  and  Dr.  Robertson  and 
others  with  us,  have  largely  imbibed  these  errors;  but  the  time 


26    JANUARY     1787 

has  arrived  when  science,  industry  and  art  on  your  side  of  the 
water,  will  soon  furnish  materials  to  overthrow  the  whole  of 
them,  and  even  to  efface  their  memory. 

As  to  the  supposed  humidity  of  the  atmosphere  of  Eastern  North 
America,  compared  with  that  of  Kuropc,  (your  desire  of  enquiring 
into  which  gave  occasion  to  the  letter  you  have  done  me  the  honour 
to  write)  European  philosophers  seem  to  have  formed  their  con- 
clusion respecting  this  subject  principally  from  three  sources.  First, 
from  the  excessive  vehemence  of  the  rains  which  fall  at  times  in 
the  colonized  parts  of  Eastern  America,  especially  to  the  South- 
ward. Next  from  the  cultivated  parts  of  the  West  Indies  (a  sup- 
posed appendage  of  the  part  of  America  in  question)  being  divided 
into  small  islands  exposed  to  the  sea  air.  And  lastly  from  the  in- 
habitants of  all  our  colonies  having  generally  chosen  for  the  seat 
of  their  plantations  and  settlements  the  banks  of  the  sea  or  of 
rivers;  or  else  low  lands,  swamps  and  mill  ponds;  either  for  the 
sake  of  cheap  carriage  and  easy  cultivation,  or  of  the  advantages 
for  machinery  afforded  by  such  situations;  preferring  the  speedy 
acquisition   of  wealth,   to   health   and    happiness,    and   the  other 
slower,  though  more  permanent  and  substantial  modes  of  attaining 
riches.  I  do  not  defend  the  necessity  of  the  last  of  these  causes;  I 
think  it  an  opprobrium  to  my  American  friends,  and  that  it  much 
more  deserves  legislative  attention  in  each  particular  state,  than 
matters  of  trade,  or  other  matters  of  a  more  delicate  nature  which 
legislators  seldom  treat  with  any  success.  But  after  allowing  for 
all  these  causes  in  their  fullest  extent,  I  cannot  but  incline  to  the 
opinion  which  yourself  and  Dr.   Franklin   have   assumed  on  the 
subject  alluded  to,  as  far  as  respects  the  Eastern   and  probably 
the  internal  parts  of  North  America. 

Trusting  to  your  kind  forgiveness  of  a  few  observations  made  in 
favour  of  a  country  from  which  I  am  in  part  descended,  I  shall 
now  have  the  pleasure  of  attending  more  immediately  to  the  par- 
ticulars respecting  which  you  did  me  the  honour  to  apply  to  me. 

I  have  been  some  time  acquainted  with  Dr.  Franklins  observa- 
tions on  Hygrometers,  since  published  in  the  second  volume  of 
the  Philadelphian  Philosophical  Transactions.  He  showed  me  the 
manuscript  when  in  an  unfinished  state,  in  which  it  had  long  lain  by 
neglected,  and  which  occasioned  me  to  express  considerable  regret, 
and  I  had  the  pleasure  to  find  that  the  paper  was  soon  after  com- 
pleted and  forwarded  to  Mr.  Nairne.  I  think  it  in  his  usual  manner, 
novel,  sagacious,  and  simple;  and  it  appears  the  more  useful,  as 


2  6    JANUARY    1787 

extreme  diversity  of  opinion,  if  not  difficulty  has  long  prevailed 
respecting  hygrometers  constructed  upon  other  principles. 

Mr.  Nairne  made  an  instrument  pursuant  to  Dr.  Franklins  hint, 
of  which  he  some  time  ago  favoured  me  with  a  drawing  and  de- 
scription, a  copy  of  which  I  have  annexed.  My  objection  to  the 
plan  of  this  instrument,  though  otherwise  ingenious,  is,  that  the 
motion  of  the  pin  produces  greater  changes  in  the  position  of  the 
smaller  arm  and  consequently  of  the  index,  when  the  smaller  arm 
is  at  right  angles  to  the  line  of  motion  of  the  pin,  than  when 
oblique.*  The  remedy  of  this  difficulty  must  either  lie  in  certain 
complex  machinery  annexed  to  the  arm,  or  in  a  complex  division 
of  the  scale  to  which  the  index  points:  but  as  the  result  sought 
after,  is  made  to  depend  upon  the  comparison  of  two  instruments, 
the  less  complex  the  plan  is,  the  better. 

I  have  therefore  been  led  to  employ  Dr.  Franklin's  principles  in 
a  manner  more  simple.  As  the  case  of  the  shutter  of  the  magnet- 
box  seemed  to  prove  that  a  small  plate  of  wood,  cut  thin,  might 
exhibit  considerable  variations  of  dimension  across  the  grain,  I  at 
first  directed  a  number  of  such  plates  to  be  cut  square,  two  of  the 
sides  of  which  should  run  parallel  to  the  grain  or  fibre  of  the  wood; 
and  the  other  two  to  be  at  right  angles;  designing  to  make  the 
invariable  serve  as  measures  to  the  variable  sides.  But  as  a  small 
scale  might  leave  room  for  doubts,  and  if  the  squares  were  much 
enlarged,  other  inconveniences  might  arise,  I  directed  a  thin  and 
narrow  stripe,  or  fillet  of  wood,  to  be  cut  across  the  grain  of  the 
widest  plank  of  Mahogony  that  could  be  found;  and  that  from 
the  same  wood  a  staff  should  be  cut,  in  which  the  fibres  should  run 
longitudinally;  the  staff  being  both  solid  and  long  enough  to  allow 
of  a  groove  in  it  for  the  purpose  of  receiving  the  fillet.  (The  fillet 
having  the  cross  grain,  would  thus  lie  freely  in  the  groove  of  the 

*  That  is,  if  from  /.  be  drawn  lines  intersecting  equal  portions  of 
the  line  a 

those  center  lines  which  decline  most  from  a  right  angle  with  a,  will 
form  the  smallest  angles  respectively  at  /  with  the  contiguous  radii.  But 
it  is  upon  the  equality  of  the  angles  at  /,  and  not  of  the  portions  of 
motion  along  the  line  a,  that  the  equal  motions  of  the  index  "will  depend. 

£73  3 

£>  6    J  A  N  U  A  R  Y     1  7  H  7 

staff  which  is  oppositely  grained,  nearly  as  a  pocket  comb  lies  in 
its  tortoise  shell  case.)  The  staff  bring  nuitle  a  little  longer  than 
the  fillet,  when  the  two  were  brought  to  coincide  at  one  of  their 
extremities,  it  would  be  easy  to  mark  upon  the  staff  the  standard 
point,  to  which  the  other  end  of  the  fillet  reached  in  the  standard 
country;  and  afterwards,  to  mark  the  point  to  \vhich  the  fillet 
should  stretch  or  shrink  in  other  countries.,  accordingly  as  they 
were  moister  or  drier. 

An  instrument  of  this  kind,  which,  by  being  composed  of  two 
parts,  carries  along  with  it  its  own  standard  and  allows  its  changes 
to  be  reduced  into  well  known  and  ordinary  measures,  I  had  the 
pleasure  about  a  fortnight  ago  to  sent!  to  Mr.  White,  who  is 
appointed  principal  surgeon  to  attend  the  proposed  expedition  with 
our  convicts  to  Botany  Bay  in  the  South  Seas.  It  is  one  of  its  ad- 
vantages, that  any  carpenter  can  easily  construct  the  like  out  of  any 
kind  of  wood. 

I  was  sorry  not  to  have  been  able  to  inspect  the  instrument  sent 
to  Mr.  White.  But  Messrs.  Nairne  &  Blunt,  who  made  it,  having 
undertaken  to  make  a  second  for  me,  I  have  the  honour  to  request 
your  acceptance  of  it,  Coll.  Smith  offering*  the  means  of  conveying 
it  to  you. 

I  have  had  no  trial  of  this  little  contrivance,  but  I  foresee  several 
precautions  necessary  to  be  observed.  The  first  is,  that  of  placing 
the  instrument  in  corresponding  situations  in  the  countries  of  trial; 
since  considerable  differences  may  arise  from  the  neighbourhood 
of  the   sea   and   other  waters,   or  from  swampy   or  mountainous 
situations;  and  other  differences  again  from  the  apartments  in  which 
the  instruments  are  preserved,  either  as  to  their  being  with  or  with- 
out fires,  their  aspect,  elevation  from  the  ground,  and  other  cir- 
cumstances. A  second  precaution  is,  that  of  noting  the  state  of  the 
weather,  or  the  season  at  the  period  of  observation;  for  it  is  well 
known,  for  instance,  that  the  doors  and  windows  of  houses  will 
shut  more  or  less  closely,  according  to  the  state  of  the  air  as  to 
humidity,  at  different  periods  in  the  same  country.  A  third  pre- 
caution is,  that  of  using  for  the  construction  of  the  instrument  none 
but  seasoned  wood.  It  is  partly  owing  to  a  neglect  of  this  that  the 
floor  of  the  room  where  I  now  write,  has  large  openings  between 
each  of  its  boards;  though  neither  the  boards,  nor  the  rafters  that 
run  across  the  boards,  appear  to  have  altered  in  their  dimensions 
longitudinally;  and  in  like  manner  that  the  door  of  a  deal  box  (in 
which,  when  lined  with  baize,  fire  arms  may  long  be  kept  dry  and 
free  from  rust)  and  which  is  fastened  to  the  wainscot  of  my  bed- 
room, has  shrunk  considerably  cross  ways,  though  two  wooden 

2  6    JANUARY    1787 

bars,  that  stretch  across  this  door  at  right  angles,  appear  to  retain 
their  original  dimensions:  (These  effects  being  also  partly  owing 
to  the  removal  of  the  wood  from  an  open  timber  yard,  or  carpenters 
shed,  into  a  warm  inhabited  house).  The  warping  of  the  parts  of 
the  instrument  may  call  for  a  fourth  precaution;  and  to  remedy 
this  defect,  when  it  takes  place  in  the  filleting,  the  filleting  may  be 
measured  when  laid  under  the  pressure  of  a  moderate  weight; 
while  the  shape  of  the  staff  may  be  best  preserved  by  giving  it 
such  a  degree  of  solidity  as  shall  produce  compensations  to  the 
action  of  any  one  part  of  its  substance  against  any  other  part  of 
it.  The  filleting  may  be  two  inches  wide  and  ^  inch  thick,  as 
recommended  by  Dr.  Franklin,  and  a  section  across  the  staff  may 
form  a  square  of  2.  or  3  inches. 

Should  the  supposition,  that  certain  woods  do  not  vary  in  their 
longitudinal  dimensions  prove  untrue,  it  will  not  affect  the  credit 
to  be  given  to  the  instrument  in  question,  provided  the  variation 
is  different  in  its  degree  from  that  occurring  cross  wise. 

I  am  pleased  with  the  ingenuity  of  Mr.  Rittenhouse's  idea,  which 
was  perfectly  new  to  me;  but  I  fear  the  variations  of  no  two 
hygrometers,  on  his  plan  of  construction  can  be  depended  upon  as 
at  all  corresponding,  which  is  certainly  one  objection  to  it;  and  I 
think,  a  second  objection  to  it  is,  that  the  degrees  of  variation  in 
the  same  instrument,  must  be  far  from  being  equable  in  their  meas- 
urement, compared  with  the  degrees  of  change  taking  place  in 
the  atmosphere. 

I  have  ordered  a  box  of  magnets  from  Messrs.  Nairne  &  Blunt, 
similar  to  that  which  was  in  the  possession  of  Dr.  Franklin,  which 
will  accompany  the  hygrometer,  its  case  being  formed  out  of  the 
same  piece  of  wood  above  described. 

During  the  last  summer  I  made  use  of  a  thermometer  with  a  fine 
tube,  in  which  I  found  it  difficult  in  some  situations  readily  to  mark 
the  station  of  the  quicksilver.  I  placed  white  paper  behind  the 
tube  with  some  advantage,  till  it  occurred  to  me  to  put  a  stripe  of 
thick  black  paint  upon  the  back  of  the  tube,  the  breadth  of  which 
was  about  %  only  of  the  tube's  circumference.  The  optical  effect 
of  this  was  curious  enough;  for  though  the  place  of  the  black  paint 
could  scarcely  be  seen  when  the  thermometer  was  viewed  side- 
ways; yet  in  front  the  whole  of  the  glass  appeared  as  dark  as  ink. 
The  result  was  that  the  quicksilver  losing  no  rays  of  light,  and 
the  tube  within  having  much  less  luminous  reflection  than  before, 
I  could  in  many  situations  of  the  light  and  of  the  thermometer, 
discover  the  thread  of  quicksilver  to  much  greater  advantage  than 
usual.  I  take  the  liberty  to  add  to  my  packet  through  Coll.  Smith, 


26    JANUARY    1787 

a  thermometer  on  which  this  operation  has  been  performed.  I  find 
that  another  device  practiced  upon  thermometers  with  the  same 
view,  has  been  to  flatten  the  bore  in  which  the  thread  of  the 
quicksilver  lies,  in  order  to  increase  the  breadth  of  the  thread  to 
the  eye;  the  advantage  of  which  operation  I  have  never  had  an 
opportunity  of  ascertaining;  but  I  know  that  some  who  have  used 
it,  have  since  laid  it  aside.  The  most  advantageous  view  that  can 
be  had  of  the  thread  of  the  thermometer,  is  certainly  by  bringing 
in  light  upon  the  tube  from  the  back  of  its  scale,  or  using  a  scale 
that  is  transparent,  or  by  marking  the  degrees  upon  the  tube  it- 
self; but  as  it  is  not  always  practicable  thus  to  bring  in  the  light 
from  behind,  I  think  that  to  some  persons  and  in  some  cases  the 
contrivance  of  the  paint  abovementioned  may  be  of  use.  Indeed 
I  am  not  sure  whether  it  may  not  in  some  measure  be  combined  with 
the  use  of  the  slit  in  the  scale,  so  as  to  allow  of  both  advantages 
in  the  instrument  at  different  moments.  I  have  sometimes  thought 
also,  that  if  the  polish  were  removed  from  some  parts  of  the  glass 
tube,  it  might  produce  some  good  effect.  But  my  time  does  not 
allow  me  to  try  many  experiments. 

If  I  suspend  the  execution  of  what  respects  the  hygrometer  you 
have  desired  to  be  sent  to  you,  till  you  repeat  your  directions  on 
the  subject,  I  hope  you  will  not  be  put  to  any  disappointment  by 
the  liberty  I  take  in  this  particular. 

With  very  great  respect  &  esteem,  I  have  the  honour  to  be  your 
Excellency's  most  obedient  and  most  humble  servant, 



Fig.  I.  (being  one  side  of  the  instrument) 
A  A  piece  of  about  12  inches  long  and  2  broad  cut  crosswise  to  the 

27    JANUARY    1787 

grain  of  the  wood,  which  slides  freely  between  the  pieces  of  wood  BB 
forming  grooves  for  it. 

C  Is  a  screw  for  adjusting  the  piece  of  wood  A  to  the  frame  of  the  in- 
strument, so  that  the  index  may  point  to  the  proper  division  when 
first  made. 

Fig.  II.  (being  the  other  side  of  the  instrument.) 

a  Is  a  slit  to  admit  the  pin  e  to  move  freely,  which  pin  by  being  fast  in 
the  piece  of  wood  A  moves  with  it,  as  it  shortens  or  lengthens,  and 
by  pressing  against  the  short  end  of  the  index  D9  causes  it  to  move 
up  or  down  according  as  the  weather  is  moist  or  dry.  The  result  is 
shewn  on  the  divided  arch  at  the  other  end  of  the  index. 

RC  (DLC).  Enclosure  (DLC).  This  letter  was  enclosed  in  Vaughan's  to  TJ 
of  5  Apr.  1788;  see  also  Vaughan  to  TJ,  16  Feb.  1787  and  TJ  to  Vaughan,  2 
July  1787. 

The  American  Commissioners  to  John  Jay 

SIR  London  Jany.  27th.  1787.1 

We  had  the  honour  of  transmitting  to  Congress,  Copies  of  the 
Commission  and  Instructions,  which  in  pursuance  of  the  Authority 
delegated  to  us,  were  given  to  Mr.  Barclay,  to  conduct  a  negotiation 
with  Morocco.2 

Mr.  Barclay  has  conducted  that  Business  to  a  happy  Conclusion, 
and  has  brought  with  him  Testimonials  of  his  prudent  Conduct, 
from  the  Emperor  of  Morocco  and  his  Minister,  so  clear  and  full, 
that  we  flatter  ourselves  Mr.  Barclay  will  receive,  the  Approbation 
of  Congress.  Mr.  Barclay  has  received  somewhat  more  than  four 
Thousand  Pounds  sterling,  for  the  Expences  of  Presents  and  all 
other  Things.  Colonel  Franks,  who  accompanied  Mr.  Barclay  in 


27    JANUARY     1787 

his  tedious  Journeys,  and  difficult  Negotiations,  in  the  Character 
of  Secretary,  will  be  dispatched  to  Congress,  and  will  have  the 
honour  of  delivering  this  Letter,  together  with  the  Treaty,  the 
Emperors  Letter  to  Congress,  and  a  variety  of  other  Papers,  rela- 
tive to  this  Mission,  a  Schedule  of  which  is  annexed. 

The  Resolution  of  Congress,  vacating  Mr.  Lambs  Commission 
and  Instructions,  has  been  forwarded  to  him,  and  we  have  re- 
peatedly advised  him  to  return  to  New  York.  That  Gentleman  has 
received  somewhat  more  than  three  thousand  Pounds  Sterling  of 
the  public  Money  for  which  he  is  accountable  to  Congress. 

We  beg  Leave  to  recommend  Mr.  Barclay  and  Colonel  Franks, 
to  the  favourable  Consideration  of  Congress. 

It  is  no  Small  Mortification  not  to  be  able  to  communicate  any 
Intelligence  concerning  the  Treaty  with  Portugal.  The  Chevalier 
De  Pinto  is  equally  uninformed. — His  own  confidential  Domestick 
dispatched  to  Lisbon  last  Spring  has  been  constantly  waiting  on  the 
Minister  for  an  Answer,  but  has  obtained  none,  and  is  not  yet  re- 
turned to  London.  The  Treaty  between  France  and  England,  has 
probably  excited  Parties  and  Surprize  in  Portugal,  and  the  System 
of  Men  and  Measures  is  not  yet  Settled.  The  Apologies  are  the 
Queens  Absence  in  the  Country  and  the  Prime  Ministers  Indis- 

The  Article  of  Money  is  become  so  scarce  and  prescious  that 
we  shall  be  obliged  to  suspend  all  further  Proceedings  in  the 
Barbary  Business,  even  for  the  Redemption  of  Prisoners  untill  we 
shall  be  honoured  with  fresh  Instructions  from  Congress. 

With  great  Respect  we  have  the  Honour  to  be,  Sir,  your  most 
obedient  and  most  humble  Servants, 
London  Jan.  27.  1787.  JOHN  ADAMS 

RC    (DNA:    PCC,   No.   84);   in   John  instance  of  the  Commissioners*  letter  to 

Adams'    hand,    with    one    alteration    by  Taher  Fennish,   following— can  only  be 

TJ;   sigrned   and  dated  by  Adams   only;  attributed  to  his  haste  in  assembling  the 

endorsed  by  Charles  Thomson:    "Letter  dispatches   which   David   Franks  was  to 

24    Jany.     1787    Mr.    J.    Adams."     Tr  carry  to  America    (see  T,T's  two  letters 

(DNA:     PCC,    No.     104).     Enclosures:  to   Franks,    8   Feb.    1787).   Though  the 

Barclay  to  American   Commissioners,   2  date    is    uncertain,    TJ    very    likely  re- 

Oct.  1786   (and  its  enclosures),  7  Nov.,  viewed    the    letter    on    or    immediately 

and   15  Nov.   1786.  after   2   Feb.    1787,   the   date  on  which 

This  letter  is  printed  in  Dipl.  Corr.^  Franks     returned     from     London    with 

1783-89,    H,    693-4,    as    addressed     by  Adams'  letter  of  25  Jan.  1787,  in  which 

Adams    only,    while    C.    F.    Adams    in  the  present  letter  was  enclosed. 
Works  of  John  Adams ,  vin,  525,  desig- 
nates   it    as    from    the     Commissioners.  1  This   date    was    added  by  the  clerk 

From  TJ's  singrle  correction  in  the  text  in  the  office  of  foreign  affairs  who  tran- 

it    is    evident    that    the    letter    was    re-  scribed  the  Tr  in   PCC,  No.    1O4. 
viewed  by  him;  his  failure  to  siprn  it—  2  TJ  substituted  this  word  for  Adams' 

an  omission  that  happened  also  in  the  incorrect  "Algiers." 


The  American  Commissioners 
to  Taher  Fennish 

To  His  Excellency,  SIdi  Hadq  Taher  Ben  Abdelhack  Fennish, 
in  the  Service  of  His  Majesty  the  Emperor  of  Morocco 

We  have  recieved  with  high  satisfaction  the  letter,  which  your 
Excellency  by  the  command  of  His  Majesty  the  Emperor  of  Moroc- 
co, did  us  the  honor  to  write  us,  on  the  first  day  of  the  blessed 
month  Ramadan  twelve  hundred  and  transmitted  to  us,  by  the 
Honorable  Thomas  Barclay  Esqr.,  who  was  sent  to  your  court, 
in  order  to  negociate  an  amicable  treaty  of  peace  and  commerce, 
between  His  Majesty  the  Emperor  of  Morocco  and  all  his  dominions, 
and  those  of  the  United  States  of  America.  We  are  happy  to  learn 
that  this  matter  has  been  fortunately  concluded  to  the  satisfaction 
of  all  parties.  The  contents  of  the  treaty  we  have  learned  from  the 
said  envoy,  the  honorable  Thomas  Barclay  Esqr.  to  whom  His 
Imperial  Majesty  delivered  it  together  with  a  letter  to  the  United 

It  is  with  the  most  respectful  satisfaction  that  we  learn  from 
your  Excellency,  that  the  conduct  of  our  said  Envoy,  the  Honorable 
Thomas  Barclay  Esqr.  has  the  entire  approbation  of  His  Imperial 
Majesty,  and  that  he  has  behaved  with  integrity  and  honor  since 
his  arrival  in  His  Imperial  Majesty's  Dominions  and  above  all  that 
His  Imperial  Majesty  has  been  graciously  pleased  to  give  him  two 
honorable  favourable  and  unparalleled  audiences,  signifying  His 
Majesty's  perfect  satisfaction  at  his  conduct. 

We  pray  your  Excellency,  if  you  think  proper,  to  express  to  His 
Imperial  Majesty  the  high  sense  we  entertain  of  His  Majesty's 
friendship  to  the  United  States  of  America  and  of  his  goodness  to 
the  said  Honorable  Thomas  Barclay. 

And  we  request  of  your  Excellency  to  accept  of  our  sincere  thanks 
for  the  kind  assistance  you  have  given  to  the  said  envoy  in  the 
course  of  these  negociations.  With  much  pleasure  we  learn  that 
your  Excellency  is  charged  with  the  affairs  of  our  country,  by  His 
Imperial  Majesty,  at  his  Court  and  doubt  not  that  your  Excellency 
will  do  all  that  lies  in  your  power  to  promote  the  friendly  inter- 
course that  is  so  happily  begun. 

We  shall  transmit,  without  delay,  to  the  Honourable  the  Con- 
gress of  the  United  States  an  account  of  all  these  proceedings  and 
entertain  the  fullest  assurance  that  they  will  recieve  in  due  time 
the  approbation  of  that  August  Assembly. 

May  the  Providence  of  the  one  Almighty  God,  whose  Kingdom 


2  7    JANUARY     1787 

is  the  only  existing  one  protect  your  Excellency.  With  great  Respect 
we  have  the  Honour  to  be  Your  Excellency's  most  obedient  &  most 
humble  servants, 
London.  Jan.  27.  1787.  JOHN  ADAMS 

Tr  (DLC);  in  William  Short's  hand,  to  read  as  it  does  above  in  the  final 
with  only  Adams'  dating1  and  signature  paraprraph.  These  corrections  were  so 
recorded.  FC  (MHi:  AMT);  undated;  numerous  that  TJ  caused  Short  to 
in  Adams'  hand,  with  several  variations  make  a  fair  copy— which,  however,  he 
in  phraseology  not  noted  here.  The  neglected  to  sign  (see  note  to  Coin- 
differences  between  the  text  prepared  missioners  to  Jay,  preceding1,  and  Car- 
by  Adams  and  that  copied  by  Short  michael  to  TJ,  25  Mch.  1787). 
resulted  from  TJ's  effort  to  make  the  This  letter  was  included  by  mistake 
latter  conform  to  expressions  used  by  among  the  American  despatches  carried 
Taher  Fennish  in  his  communication  of  by  Franks  to  Le  Havre  on  8  Feb.,  but 
28  June  1786;  for  example,  where  TJ  discovered  the  error  in  time  (see 
Adams  had  written  "May  the  Provi-  TJ  to  Banister,  7  Feb.  1787;  TJ's  two 
dence  of  God  Almighty,  protect  your  letters  to  Franks,  8  Feb.  1787;  and 
Excellency,"  TJ  altered  the  expression  Franks  to  TJ,  10  and  11  Feb.  1787). 

To  Milliard  d'Auberteuil 

SIR  Paris  Jan.  27.  1787. 

I  duly  received  the  letter  you  did  me  the  honour  to  write,  and 
the  verses  therein  inclosed  on  the  subject  of  the  M.  de  la  Fayette. 
I  have  taken  measures  to  present  the  public  with  this  acceptable 
present;  but  the  newspapers  here  are  slow  in  complying  with  the 
applications  addressed  to  them.  It  is  not  for  a  stranger  to  decide 
on  the  merit  of  poetry  in  a  language  foreign  to  him.  Were  I  to 
presume  to  do  it  in  this  instance,  I  should  certainly  assign  to  this 
composition  a  high  degree  of  approbation. 

I  wish  it  were  in  my  power  to  furnish  you  with  any  materials 
for  the  history  on  which  you  are  engaged.  But  I  brought  no  papers 
of  that  kind  with  me  from  America.  In  a  letter  you  did  me  the 
honour  of  writing  me  some  time  ago,  you  seemed  to  suppose  it 
possible  you  might  go  to  America  in  quest  of  materials.  Should 
you  execute  this  idea,  I  should  with  great  pleasure  give  any  assist- 
ance in  my  power  to  obtain  access  for  you  to  the  several  deposits  of 
materials  which  are  in  that  country.  I  have  the  honour  to  be  with 
great  respect  Sir  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servant, 


CEPTABLE PRESENT,  the  evidence  and  result  of  his  doing-  so  have  not  been  found. 


To  Gelhais 

MONSIEUR  Paris  27me.  Janvier  1787. 

Un  quartier  du  loyer  de  la  maison  de  M.  le  comte  de  Langeac 
etant  echu  ce  mois  ci,  je  lui  ai  prevenu  des  titres  de  la  demande  que 
vous  avez  eu  la  complaisance  de  m'adresser.  Mais  il  m'a  montr6  un 
arret  de  surseance  par  lequel  les  reclamations  de  ses  creanciers 
centre  lui  sont  suspendues.  A  cet  arret,  emandant  de  Pautorite 
supreme  du  pais,  c'est  de  mon  devoir  de  me  conformer  aussi.  Je 
lui  ai  pay6  done  le  loyer  comme  &  Pordinaire.  J*ai  Phonneur  de  vous 
renvoyer  le  titre  que  vous  m'avez  confie",  et  j'aurois  etc*  tres  charme* 
si  les  circonstances  m'auroient  permis  de  me  preter  plus  efficacement 
§.  vos  justes  demandes.  J'ai  Phonneur  d'etre  avec  une  consideration 
tre*s  distinguee,  Monsieur,  votre  tre*s  humble  et  tr6s  obeissant 
serviteur,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Enclosure  not  found.  See  TJ  to  De  Lang-eac,  12  Oct. 
1786;  TJ  to  Gelhais,  7  Dec.  1786. 

From  De  Langeac 

ce  27  Janvier  1787 

Le  nomm6  savisse  est  venu  me  trouver,  monsieur  pour  me 
prier  d'interceder  vos  bont6s  pour  lui,  qu'il  est  bien  facile*  davoir 
perdft;  vous  aves  surement  de  bonnes  Raisons  pour  vous  en  plaindre 
et  le  renvoyer,  mais  je  serois  bien  flatte*  et  bien  reconnoissant  si 
£  ma  consideration  et  sur  la  priere  que  je  vous  en  f ais  vous  voulies 
bien  lui  pardonner.  Si  vous  ne  voules  vous  rendre  absolument  £ 
mes  solicitations  je  vous  demande  en  grace  pour  mon  compte 
particulier  de  trouver  bon  quil  continue  &  faire  votre  jardin.  J'ai 
confiance  en  sa  maniere  de  soigner  Les  arbres.  C'etoit  une  de  mes 
conditions  en  louant  ma  maison  et  votre  homme  d'affaires  m'en 
donna  dans  le  terns  parole  de  votre  part  et  je  m'en  rapportai  £  tout 
ce  quil  me  dit  en  votre  nom  sans  croire  quil  fut  nScessaire  de  le 
faire  inserer  dans  le  bail  par  devant  notaire  n'y  dans  le  Sous  seing 
prive  particulier.  C'est  ainsi  que  j'en  ai  agis  pour  le  cautionement 
et  les  autres  precautions  d'usage  que  mes  gens  d'affaires  vouloient 
me  faire  prendre  et  dont  jai  crti,  Monsieur,  n'avoir  pas  besoin  avec 
vous.  Si  vous  n'aves  pas  des  Raisons  trop  fortes  pour  ne  pas 
pardonner  au  nomme  savisse  je  vous  demande  avec  instances  de 
m'en  faire  le  Sacrifice  le  connoissant  depuis  longtems  pour  un 
gar§on  honn£te  fidel,  laborieux  et  attach6. 


2  7    JANUARY    1787 

J'ai  Ihonneur  d'etre  avec  la  plus  parfaite  consideration  Monsieur 
Votre  tre"s  humble  et  tres  obeissimt  serviteur, 


RC  (MHi);  endorsed.  Not  recorded  Account  Books  from  the  time  of  leasing 

in  SJL.  ***<•*  Hotel  dc  JLantveuc  do  nut  give  the 

SAVISSE:  The  name  of  the  gardener  mmie  uf  tin*  pardoner,  and  evidently  TJ 

is  doubtful;  it  may  be  us  given,  or  it  did  not  yivAd  to  DC  Langeac's  appeal, 

may  be  "foresse,"  "favesse,"  "soresse,"  On  TJ's  r<  turn  in  July  the  gardener's 

"savesse,"  or  a  variation  of  these  with  pltici*  apju'ars  to  have  been  taken  by 

the  first  "e"  replaced  by  an  "i."  TJ's  one  Nomcme. 

From  Schweighauser  8c  Dobree 

[Nantes^  27  Jan.  1787.  Recorded  in  sjr,  as  received  31  Jan.  1787. 
Not  found,  but  see  TJ's  reply,  12  Feb.  1787.  Enclosure:  Copy  of  the 
resolution  of  Congress  of  16  Oct.  1786  directing  TJ  to  adjust  the  claim 
of  Daniel  Schweighauser  against  the  United  States  "in  such  manner  as 
he  shall  judge  most  for  the  interest  and  honor  of  the  said  states;  and 
that  the  property  of  the  United  States  in  the  custody  of  the  .  .  .  claimant, 
be  applied  towards  the  discharge  of  the  balance,  if  any,  which  shall  be 
found  due"  (JGC,  xxxt,  878-9).] 

To  Segond 

Paris  Jan.  27.  1787. 

I  have  duly  received  the  letter  with  which  you  ha\e  been  pleased 
to  honour  me,  complaining  of  the  nonpaimcnt  of  interest  on  the 
sum  due  to  you  from  the  United  States.  I  feel  with  great  sensibility 
the  weight  of  these  complaints;  but  it  is  neither  in  my  province,  nor 
in  my  power,  to  remedy  them.  I  am  no  ways  authorised  to  inter- 
fere with  the  money  matters  of  the  U.S.  in  Europe.  These  rest  al- 
together between  the  Commissioners  of  the  treasury  of  the  U.S.  at 
New  York,  and  their  bankers  in  Europe.  Being  informed  however 
from  Mr.  Grand  that  the  funds  appropriated  to  the  paiment  of 
the  foreign  officers  were  exhausted,  I  took  the  liberty  of  repre- 
senting strongly  to  the  Commissioners  the  motives  which  should 
urge  them  to  furnish  new  supplies.  They  assured  me,  in  answer, 
that  they  would  do  it  the  first  moment  it  should  be  in  their  power. 
I  am  perfectly  persuaded  they  will:  however  I  shall  immediately 
forward  to  them  the  letter  you  have  been  pleased  to  address  to  me: 
and  will  observe  to  you  that  it  is  to  them  alone,  or  to  Congress,  to 
whom  you  can  make  any  future  applications  with  effect. 


2  8    JANUARY     1787 

I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  much  respect,   Sir,  your  most 
obedient  &  most  humble  servant,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC);  at  foot  of  text:  "Le  Chevalr.  de  Segond." 

From  Edmund  Randolph 

SIR  Richmond  January  28.  1787. 

When  I  came  lately  into  office,  I  found  two  letters  from  your 
excellency  to  my  predecessor  unanswered.  I  cannot  ascertain  the 
dates,  being  at  present  unable  to  have  recourse  to  them;  but  the 
subject  of  this  address  will  point  to  the  letters  themselves. 

The  executive  are  much  indebted  to  you  for  your  humane  atten- 
tion to  Mercier:  and  I  am  authorized  to  assure  you,  that  your  dis- 
bursements shall  be  repaid  by  this  commonwealth.  His  family  is 
unknown  to  us;  but  I  have  circulated  in  the  place  of  his  former 
residence  such  information  of  his  distress,  as  will  reach  the  ears 
of  his  relations,  if  he  has  any  there. 

Altho'  a  special  vote  was  not  taken  in  council  concerning  the 
cancelling  of  the  Marquis's  signature  to  Mr.  Littlepage's  note,  the 
propriety  of  the  step  seemed  to  be  universally  assented  to.  For 
myself,  I  should  have  been  really  mortified,  had  it  remained  attached 
to  the  obligation.  It  was  presented  to  the  treasurer  and  Mr.  Benja- 
min Lewis;  the  former  of  whom  said,  that  he  had  never  received 
a  shilling  towards  discharging  it,  and  the  latter,  that  he  should  not 
pay  a  shilling  for  that  purpose.  A  formal  protest  is  not  sent;  be- 
cause it  is  presumed,  that  Mr.  Littlepage  will  acquiesce  in  my 
statement  of  the  facts.  Every  effort  in  our  power  shall  be  made  for 
the  remittance  of  the  funds,  to  be  applied  to  the  purchase  of  arms. 
We  sincerely  thank  you  for  your  exertions;  and  if  it  would  not 
add  too  much  to  the  trouble  already  given,  we  beg  your  excellency 
to  direct  an  inquiry  to  be  made  for  the  bayonets,  which  by  mistake, 
we  suppose,  were  omitted,  when  the  late  importation  of  arms  was 
sent  off.  I  mention  this  omission  from  the  report  of  Colo.  Meri- 
wether,  our  military  assistant,  who  possibly  may  not  have  minutely 
examined  the  Cases:  and  they  are  not  now  within  my  own  reach. 

I  beg  you  to  put  yourself  to  no  inconvenience,  if  you  should  wish 
to  take  a  credit  for  the  money  advanced  for  the  directors  of  the 
public  buildings.  I  have  pressed  the  treasurer,  however,  to  replace 
it  in  your  hands  by  the  first  oppurtunity.  I  trust  this  -will  be  shortly 


28    JANUARY     1787 

I  have  the  honor  sir  to  be  with  the  highest  respect  and  esteem 
yr,  excellency's  mo.  ob.  &  very  hbl.  serv., 


RC   (DLC).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence. 

TJ's  TWO  LETTERS  ...  TO  MY  FR&HKCKSSOK  were  those  to  the  ffovemor  of  Vir- 
ginia  of  9  Aug.  and  12  Aug.  1786,  to  the  first  of  which  TJ  added  a  postscript 
dated  13  Augr.  pertaining:  to  MEHCXEU. 

From  Edmund  Randolph 

DEAR  SIR  Richmond  January  28.  1787 

The  new  arrangement,  to  which  my  aversion  to  the  law  has 
lately  given  birth,  throws  me  into  a  new  scene,  which  leaves  me  at 
leisure  to  testify  my  respect  for  you,  by  transmitting  any  intelli- 
gence, occurring  here,  worthy  of  your  notice. 

At  present,  however,  political  action  has  ceased,  and  this  state 
is  in  perfect  tranquillity;  the  assembly  having  risen  about  a  fort- 
night ago,  and  the  public  mind  being  at  rest  on  the  subject  of 
paper-money.  It  has  been  defeated,  indeed,  on  the  first  erection  of 
its  crest.  But  the  year  may  possibly  not  pass  away,  before  the 
number  of  its  enemies  will  be  found  to  be  diminished.  What  if 
a  certain  popular  leader  should  espouse  it?  And  the  same  men,  who 
refused  to  expedite  the  administration  of  justice,  clogged  as  it 
now  is,  should  return  in  the  delegation?  I  suggest  this  as  a  suspicion 
only.  It  is  to  be  developped  by  time  alone, 

Our  capitol  rears  its  head,  to  the  approbation  of  most  people: 
but  I  tremble,  lest  we  should  have  committed  some  blunder  in 
proportion.  The  danger  of  this  I  mentioned  in  my  letter  to  you  of 
July  last:  but  from  the  indolence  of  our  superintendant  he  has 
never  finished  the  draught,  which  I  desired  for  your  inspection.  The 
outward  walls  are  raised  above  the  windows  of  the  first  story,  and 
we  have  obtained  a  vote  of  6000£  on  the  contingent  fund,  towards 
this  work.  This  sum  may  truly  be  called  depreciated  paper,  war- 
rants on  this  fund  being  exchanged  for  cash  at  one  half.  From  this 
circumstance  we  shall  have  our  eyes  fixed  on  the  accommodation 
of  the  legislature  in  this  building  at  their  next  cession  having 
experienced  their  hardiness  in  supplying  us,  and  foreseeing  the 
probable  effect  of  rousing  their  pride  to  finish  a  house,  in  which 
they  themselves  sit. 

Being  engaged  in  preparing  for  an  official  visit  to  the  naval 
offices  below,  I  shall  for  the  present  only  beg  you,  to  inform  Mr. 


2  8    JANUARY    1787 

Mazzei  that  I  have  remitted  him  money — wrote  to  him  in  the 
summer — am  settling  with  Mr.  Webb — and  shall  give  him  a  full 
detail  very  soon. 

You  will  oblige  me  too  by  offering  my  best  respects  to  Mr. 
Short,  and  to  be  assured  that  I  am  dear  sir  with  the  greatest  sin- 
cerity yr.  friend  and  serv:  EDM:  RANDOLPH 

RC   (MHi);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-Pro- 
vence.  The  CERTAIN  POPULAR  LEADER  was  Patrick  Henry. 

To  John  Stockdale 

SIR  Paris  Jan.  28.— 87. 

I  will  thank  you  to  send  me  by  the  Diligence  Sterne's  works 
complete,  5.  vols.  12mo.  published  by  Cadell  1780.  I  name  this 
edition  because  it  brings  all  his  works  into  the  smallest  compass 
of  any  one  I  have  seen.  If  you  know  of  any  edition  still  smaller  I 
would  prefer  it,  elegantly  bound. 

A  friend  here  has  desired  me  to  procure  there  two  peices  of 
Pope,  viz,  'Happy  the  man  whose  wish  and  care  &c.'  and  'Vital 
spark  of  heavenly  flame  &c.'  set  to  musick  for  the  harpsichord,  if 
they  have  been  ever  set  to  music,  as  I  think  they  have.  "Will  you 
be  so  good  as  to  have  enquiry  made  at  some  of  the  music  shops, 
and  forward  them  to  me  by  the  Diligence,  or,  if  not  too  bulky, 
by  the  post.  I  shall  set  out  on  my  journey  the  15th.  of  February, 
within  which  time  I  shall  hope  to  receive  these  articles.  I  have 
never  heard  whether  you  sent  the  books  to  Virginia  which  I  desired 
long  ago.  I  remember  you  had  to  get  some  of  them  from  Scotland. 

I  am  Sir  your  very  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC   (DLC);  endorsed. 

To  Anthony  Vieyra 

[28  Jan.  1787] 

Mr.  Jefferson  has  the  honour  of  presenting  his  compliments  to 
Mr.  Vieyra  and  is  sorry  to  have  been  out  of  the  way  when  he  did 
him  the  honour  to  call  on  him  yesterday.  He  returns  him  the  copy 
of  his  book  which  he  had  been  so  kind  as  to  leave  with  him,  and 
which  Mr.  Jefferson  has  gone  over  with  much  satisfaction,  and 
with  a  conviction  of  the  great  erudition  of  it's  author. 


29    JANUARY     178 

PrC  (MoSHi);  not  dated;  at  foot  of  text:  4*M,  Antoniuh  Vioyra  UL.B.  &c."  The 
.te  has  been  supplied  from  S.TL,  and  from  internal  evidence    (see  Vieyra  to  TJ, 


15  Aug.  1787). 

From  Abigail  Adams 

MY  DEAR  SIR  London  Junry.  29th.  1787 

I  received  by  Col.  Franks  your  obliging  favour  and  am  very 
sorry  to  find  your  wrist1  still  continues  lame;  I  have  known  very 
salutary  effects  produced  by  the  use  of  British  oil  upon  a  spraind 
joint.2  I  have  sent  a  servant  to  see  if  I  can  procure  some.  You  may 
rest  assured  that  if  it  does  no  good:  it  will  not  do  any  injury. 

With  regard  to  the  Tumults   in   my   Native   state  which  you 
inquire  about,  I  wish  I  could  say  that  report  had  exagerated  them.  It 
is  too  true  Sir  that  they  have  been  carried  to  so  allarming  a  Height 
as  to  stop  the   Courts   of  justice   in   several    Counties.    Ignorant, 
wrestless  desperadoes,  without  conscience  or  principals,  have  led 
a  deluded  multitude  to  follow  their  standard,  under  pretence  of 
grievences  which  have  no  existance  but  in  their  immaginations. 
Some  of  them  were  crying  out  for  a  paper  currency,  some  for  an 
equal   distribution    of   property,    some    \\ere    for    annihilating  all 
debts,  others  complaning  that  the  Senate  was  a  useless  Branch  of 
Government,  that  the  Court  of  common  pleas  was  unnecessary, 
and  that  the  sitting  of  the  General  Court  in  Boston  was  a  grievance. 
By  this  list  you  will  see  the  materials  which  compose  this  rebellion, 
and  the  necessity  there  is  of  the  wisest  and  most  vigorus  measures 
to  quell  and  suppress  it.  Instead  of  that  laudible  spirit  which  you 
approve,  which  makes  a  people  watchfull  o\cr  their  Liberties  and 
alert  in  the  defence  of  them,  these  mobish  insurgents  are  for  sap- 
ping the  foundation,  and  distroying  the  whole  fabrick  at  once.— 
But  as  these  people  make  only  a  small  part  of  the  state,  when 
compared  to  the  more  sensible  and  judicious,  and  altho  they  create 
a  just  allarm  and  give  much  trouble  and  uneasiness,  I  cannot  help 
flattering  myself  that  they  will  prove  sallutary  to  the  state  at  large, 
by  leading  to  an  investigation  of  the  causes  which  have  produced 
these  commotions.  Luxery  and  extravagance:j  both  in  furniture  and 
dress  had  pervaded  all  orders  of  our  Countrymen  and  women,  and 
was  hastning  fast  to  sap  their  independance  by  involving  every 
class  of  citizens  in  distress,   and   accumulating   debts  upon  them 
which  they  were   unable  to  discharge.4  Vanity   was   becoming  a 
more  powerfull  principal  than  patriotism.  The  lower  order  of  the 


29    JANUARY    1787 

community  were  prest  for  taxes,6  and  tho  possest  of  landed  property 
they  were  unable  to  answer  the  demand,  whilst  those  who  possest 
money  were  fearfull  of  lending,  least  the  mad  cry  of  the  mob6 
should  force  the  Legislature  upon  a  measure  very  different  from 
the  touch  of  Midas.7 

By  the  papers  I  send  you,  you  will  see  the  beneficial  effects  al- 
ready produced.  An  act  of  the  Legislature  laying  duties  of  15  per 
cent  upon  many  articles  of  British  manufacture  and  totally  pro- 
hibiting others — a  number  of  Vollunteers  Lawyers  physicians  and 
Merchants  from  Boston  made  up  a  party  of  Light  horse  com- 
manded by  CoL  Hitchbourn,  Leit.  Col.  Jackson  and  Higgenson, 
and  went  out  in  persuit  of  the  insurgents  and  were  fortunate  enough 
to  take  3  of  their  principal  Leaders,  Shattucks  Parker  and  Page. 
Shattucks  defended  himself  and  was  wounded  in  his  knee  with  a 
broadsword.  He  is  in  Jail  in  Boston  and  will  no  doubt  be  made 
an  example  of.8 

Your  request  my  dear  sir  with  respect  to  your  Daughter  shall 
be  punctually  attended  to,  and  you  may  be  assured  of  every  at- 
tention in  my  power  towards  her. 

You  will  be  so  kind  as  to  present  my  Love  to  Miss  Jefferson, 
compliments  to  the  Marquiss  and  his  Lady.  I  am  really  conscience 
smitten  that  I  have  never  written  to  that  amiable  Lady,  whose 
politeness  and  attention  to  me  deserved  my  acknowledgment.9 

The  little  balance  which  you  stated  in  a  former  Letter  in  my 
favour,  when  an  opportunity  offers  I  should  like  to  have  in  Black 
Lace  at  about  8  or  9  Livres  pr.  Ell.  Tho  late  in  the  Month,  I  hope 
it  will  not  be  thought  out  of  season  to  offer  my  best  wishes  for  the 
Health,  Long  Life  and  prosperity  of  yourself  and  family,  or  to 
assure  you  of  the  Sincere  Esteem  &  Friendship  with  which  I  am 
Your's  &c.  &c.,  A.  ADAMS 

RC    (DLC);    addressed  in  David   S.  not  doubt  but  in  the  end  the   Commo- 

Franks*    hand;    endorsed.    Recorded    in  tions   will   prove   Salutary   to   the   state 

SJL  as  received  2  Feb.  1787.  Dft  (MHi:  at   large    by    {controuling}    Luxery    and 

AMT);  with  many  variations   in  phra-  extravagance,"  &c. 

seology  and  some  modifications  in  sub-  *  Preceding-  eleven  words  not  in  Dft. 

stance.  For  comment  on  this  letter,  see  »  Dft  adds  "and  Debts." 

note  to  TJPs  reply,  22  Feb.  1787.  «  Dft  reads:  "the  cry  of  the  people.** 

f  Dft  has  the  following  paragraph  at 

1  Dft  reads  "arms."  this  point,  omitted  in  RC:  "The  disturb- 

2  At  this   point,   instead   of   the   two  ances    which    have    taken    place    have 
following  sentences,  Dft  reads:   "which  roused  from  their  Lethargy  the  Supine 
I   would  recommend   to   your   use.   One  and   the    Indolent    animated    the    Brave 
thing  you  may  be   assured  of  which  is  and  taught  wisdom  to  our  Rulers." 
that  it  will  not  do  harm."  s  This    paragraph    in    Dft    reads    as 

3  Instead    of    the    passage    beginning  follows:   "You  will  see  by  the  papers  I 
"I   cannot  help   flattering   myself"    and  send  that  [a  party]  of  Vollunteers  from 
ending  at  this  point,  Dft  reads:    "I   do  Boston   commanded  by   Col.   Hitchburn 


29    JANUARY     1787 

with  Mr.  Jackson  whom  you  remember  peace  and   Rood  order  restored."  (i^e 

to  have  seen  in  France  and  Mr.  Higrgren-  omitted  sentence  m  this  passage  repeats 

son    formerly    a    Member    of    Congress  with    slxtfht    variation     in    phraseology' 

Let  Cols,  went  out  in  persuit  of  Shut-  the    statement    about    the    Act    of  the 

tucks    and   his    party    whom    -with    two  General  Court  laying-  a  duty  of  15  per 

other    leaders    they    took    after    some  cent,   on    British   Roods.) 
resistance     in     which     Shattucks     was  »  Dft    ends    at    this    point   with  the 

wounded    in    his    knee    with    a    broad  following1    deletion    and    complimentary 

Sword.  The  other  two  submitted  with-  close:   "(hut  I  have  such  a  Number  of 

out  resistance.  .  ,  .  It  is  not  unlikely  that  Correspondents  in  America*  all  of  whom 

some    examples   must   be    made    before  think}    Believe    me    dear    Sir   with  the 

the    riots    will    be   totally    quelled    and  highest  esteem  Your  &c  &c  A  Adams." 

From  William  Cunningham 

Le  Havre,  29  Jan.  1787.  Is  a  native  of  New  York,  where  his  wife  and 
parents  reside;  requests  assistance  in  procuring  passage  on  "the  ship 
Les  Deriux  Freres  which  is  to  sail  for  New  York  on  the  10th.  of  Next 
Month."  Has  applied  to  Ruellan  to  obtain  passage,  but  "he  says  it  is 
impossible  even  to  go  as  a  foremast  hand  without  paying  160  Livres 
which  is  not  in  my  power  to  Comply  with."  Was  mate  of  the  ship 
Marianne,  James  Martin,  master,  from  Virginia  laden  with  tobacco 
consigned  to  Ruellan.  Ship  has  been  seized  for  debts  contracted  by  her 
former  captain  and  all  "Hands  .  .  .  discharged  from  the  Ship  on  the 
20th.  instant."  Has  been  absent  for  fifteen  months,  and  "having  been 
Cast  away  and  Lost  the  Vessell  I  then  Commanded  .  .  .  has  reduced  my 
Circumstances*"  Charles  Thomson,  secretary  of  Congress,  is  an  intimate 
friend  of  his  father.  "When  the  Ship  may  arrive  off  the  Port  of  N  York 
and  no  pilot  offers  I  am  Capable  of  taking  Charge  of  her  to  the  City." 

RC  (DLC);  1  p.  Recorded  in  SJI.  as  received  1  Feb.  1787. 

To  R.  8c  A.  Garvey 

GENTLEMEN  Paris  Jan.  29.  1787. 

I  have  now  the  honour  to  inclose  you  a  paper  from  the  Douane 
equivalent  to  the  Acquit  a  caution  which  they  have  mislaid.  They 
insist  that  the  variation  between  the  Acquit  described  in  this 
paper,  and  that  described  in  your  letter  proceeds  from  an  error 
in  the  latter,  and  that  no  such  Acquit  a  caution  as  you  describe  has 
been  transmitted  to  them.  I  wish  however  the  error  may  not  be  with 
them:  tho7  they  took  a  good  degree  of  pains  in  searching.  If  this 
paper  does  not  suffice  to  discharge  you,  I  must  give  you  the  trouble 
of  writing  to  me  again,  as  I  shall  still  have  time  enough  before 
my  departure  to  have  it  rectified  if  it  can  be  done. 

Will  you  be  so  good  as  to  inform  me  whether  any  Diligence  plies 
regularly  between  Rouen  and  Havre,  at  what  days  and  hours  it 


29    JANUARY    1787 

departs  from  and  arrives  at  each  post,  and  the  price  of  a  place.  This 
information  becomes  necessary  to  me  since  the  establishment  of  the 
packets  at  Havre,  as  I  may  have  occasion  to  send  couriers  to  Havre, 
and  to  receive  them  from  there.  I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  much 
esteem  &  respect,  Gentlemen,  your  most  obedt.  humble  servt., 


PrC     (DLC).    The    enclosed    "paper  schedule   of  the  diligence,  with  blanks 

from  the  Douane"  has  not  been  identi-  to  be  filled  in;  this  copy,  with  the  blanks 

fied.  TJ   also  enclosed  with  liiis  letter  completed,  was  returned  to  TJ  as   an 

a   memorandum    (MHi),    outlining   the  enclosure  in  Garvey's  letter  of  5   Feb. 

information  he   desired  concerning  the  1787. 

From  Thomas  Haddaway 

Le  Havre,  29  Jan.  1787.  With  "these  few  illiterate  Lines"  he  is  com- 
pelled by  necessity  to  ask  TJ's  assistance  in  getting  to  America.  Was 
mate  on  the  brig  Sally,  Shuball  Coffin,  master,  from  Nantucket.  Is  will- 
ing to  work  Ms  passage  across,  but  has  been  told  "to  procure  an  order 
from  you."  Is  a  native  of  Boston.  Assures  TJ  that  he  will  "ever  while 
Life  Be  ready  and  Willing  to  Compensate  .  .  .  for  your  Goodness."  He 
has  little  cash,  and  "Lodgings  are  High  and  Diet  likewise."  Wishes 
reply  to  be  directed  to  Captain  James  Martin,  care  of  Ruellan. 

RC  (DLC);  1  p.;  in  the  hand  of  "William  Cunningham.  Recorded  in  SJL  as 
received  1  Feb.  1787. 

From  Rochambeau 

Paris  ce  29.  Janvier 

Le  Cte.  de  Rochambeau  est  au  desespoir  de  ne  pouvoir  se  rendre 
zl  Pinvitation  de  Monsieur  Jefferson  pour  le  vendredi  2.  de  ce  mois.1 
II  doit  Stre  ce  jour  la  £  Versailles  pour  la  ceremonie  de  Tordre  du 
Saint  Esprit.  II  a  Phonneur  de  lui  faire  mille  tendres  complimens, 
et  de  lui  faire  part  que  sa  belle  fille  vient  d'accoucher  heureusement 
d'un  gargon. 

RC    (PU);   addressed  in  part:    *ea  la  Weelen,   Rochambeau  Father  and  Son, 

Bassein   de   Chaillot,  a  Paris";   without  New   York,    1936,   p.    182,    183).   TJ's 

date,    but    obviously    written    in     1787  invitation  to  which  this  is  a  reply  has 

since  that  was  the  only  year  in  which  not  been  found. 
Feb.    2    fell    on    a    Friday    during    the 

period  of  TJ's  stay  in  France.  Also,  it  1  Thus  in  MS,  an  error  for  "du  mois 

was   in    1787   that   Rochambeau's    only  prochain." 
grandson      was      born       (Jean-Edmond 


From  Rosaubo 

29  Jan.  [1787].  Declines  TJ's  dinner   in\italion   for  the        __ 
Friday,  because  of  his  prior  engagement  with  the  Marquis  cle  la  Quiche! 

RC  (MHi);  1  p.;  x«  French;  datfd  only:  *-ce»  luiuly  29  Janvier"  (see  note  to 
Rochambeau  to  TJ,  this  duu*};  adtlr^ssrd.  T.Ps  imitation  to  which  this  is  a  reply 
has  not  been  found. 

From  William  Stephens  Smith 

London  January  29th,  1787. 

No  my  dear  Sir  it  Ls  not  me.  It  is  impossible  that  my  heart 
would  ever  permit  me  to  pen  a  line  to  you,  charged  with  the  re- 
flection which  that  line  single  and  alone  seems  formed  to  admit  of. 
When  in  haste  I  said  I  had  no  more  letters  in  my  file  unanswered 
and  therefore  should  not  trouble  you  farther,  I  intended  to  hold 
up  this  Idea,  that  I  could  only  spare  the  time  for  the  necessary 
business  contained  in  your  favours.  When  that  was  done,  I  hoped 
you  would  attribute  my  stoping  short  to  want  of  time.  I  seriously 
feel  for  your  misfortune,  and  have  sent  tip  prayers  for  your  re- 
covery.— The  harpsicord  is  finished  and  inclosed  is  Dr.  Burney's 
Letter  on  the  subject.  It  shall  be  dispatched  by  the  first  Vessel. 
Mr.  Franks  takes  charge  of  the  Instrument  which  Jones  has  made 
for  you.  You  will  find  his  Letter  explanatory  packed  with  it.  Your 
other  slipers  and  a  pair  of  shoes  for  Mr.  Short  accompany  it.  I  do 
not  like  the  appearances  in  the  eastern  States,  nor  the  construction 
you  put  on  the  raising  of  troops  in  them  to  fight  the  Shazuanese. 
I  hope  there  will  not  be  any  necessity  for  spilling*  of  Blood,  for 
there  is  no  knowing  where  it  will  end.  If  there  is  an  appearance  of 
it,  may  we  not  shelter  ourselves  from  the  horror  and  inconvenience 
of  internal  Commotion  by  turning  the  tide  on  these  Britons  by  a 
formal  declaration  of  War.  They  are  at  the  botom  of  it,  and  merit 
our  highest  indignation.    But   the   subject   distresses   me   beyond 
measure,  and  I  still  think  the  good  sense  of  the  people  will  render 
harshness  and  severity  unnecessary. — On  the  receipt  of  yours  of 
the  20th.  ulto.  which  I  began  to  answer,  I  set  out  as  a  pilgrim 
doing  pennance,  and  walked  to  Hammersmith,  and  sent  the  Acer 
rubrum  and  the  Liriodcndron  tulipefer  but  the  Quercus  Phellos 
is  not  to  be  had  in  Europe.  After  this  walk  I  felt  a  little  as  if  I  had 
got  rid  of  the  crime  which  so  strangely  beset  me,  that  nothing  but 
an  exertion  to  serve  you  could  have  shaken  off.  Forget  and  forgive 


29    JANUARY    1787 

my  errors  and  accept  of  my  thanks  for  the  map.  I  will  guard  it 
with  great  attention,  and  give  particular  directions  on  the  subject 
of  its  publication.  It  is  very  valuable  and  shall  be  done  in  the  best 
manner  possible. 

I  am  very  sorry  that  there  are  so  many  errors  in  Neles  map.  If 
you  think  best  to  send  it  back,  it  shall  be  immediately  attended  to. 
The   second   copying   press   shall  be   strictly  enquired   after.    Its 
direction  must  have  been  to  Mr.  Garvey  at  Rouen,  but  I  will  be 
more  particular  when  I  can  get  a  sight  of  Mr.  Woodmason.  I  have 
not  yet  been  able  to  get  the  measure  you  ask  for  and  Franks  is  in 
a  terrible  fret  to  be  off,  and  Mr.  A.  has  not  been  behind  hand  in 
furnishing  me  with  employment,  but  I  will  not  loose  sight  of  it. — 
The  Letters  which  you  sent  are  all  put  in  the  proper  channels  to 
reach  their  respective  address.  And  now  my  dear  sir  having  replyed 
fully  (  to  your  two  favours  of  the  20th.  of 
Deer,  and  of  the  15th.  inst.  I  will  only  mention  that  I  was  happy  in 
cultivating  the  acquaintance  of  Monsieur  Tronchin  who  presented 
your  Introductory  Letter  of  May  17.  1786.  I  was  much  pleased 
with  him  and  shall  pursue  your  advise  respecting  him — and  now 
shall  in  confidence  say  a  little  of  myself  and  if  you  can  with  good 
conscience  grant  it  take  the  liberty  of  asking  your  protection  and 
Countenance  to  my  pursuits.  Mr.  Franks  convey's  to  Congress  Mr. 
Adam's  request  to  be  recalled  from  this  Court,  or  their  permission 
to  return  after  the  expiration  of  his  present  Commission,  and  at 
the  same  time  recommends  and  solicits  for  your  humble  servant 
the  appointment  of  Charge  des  affairs  and  as  much  higher  as  they 
think  proper.  Letters  from  you  to  your  friends  in  and  out  of  Con- 
gress would  be  very  flattering  to  me,  and  have  great  weight  in 
procuring  the  advance  sought  for.  I  need  say  no  more,  confident 
that  you  will  do  every  thing  to   serve  me,  consist  ant  with  the 
interest  of  our  Country.  Mr.  Adams's  intention  had  better  not  be 
spoke  of  in  Europe,  tho1  it  will  be  no  secreet  when  the  Letters  ar- 
rive in  america  as  he  has  wrote  private  and  positive  Letters  to  his 
friends  of  his  determination  of  retiring.  I  am  Dr.  Sir  with  great 
respect  &  esteem  Your  obliged  Humble  Servt., 

W.  S.  SMITH 

RC     (DLC);    endorsed.   Recorded   in  that  of   22   Jan.    1787.   For  the  signifi- 

SJL  as  received  2  Feb.  1787.  Enclosure:  cance  of  the  expression  "(  1.  2.  3.  4.  5. 

Charles  Burney  to  TJ,  20  Jan.  1787.  6.  7.   8.   9.    10),"  see  Smith  to  TJ,  21 

May  1786;  Adams  to  TJ,  6  June  1786, 

For   the    significance    of   THAT  LINE,  note    2;    and  TJ   to   Madison,    30   Jan. 

see   TJ   to   Smith,   2O   Dec.    1787,   and  1787. 
note.    Jones'   LETTER  EXPLANATORY  is 


To  Zachariah  Loreilhe 

SIR  Paris  Jan.  30.  1787. 

A  letter  from  a  friend  of  mine  in  S.  Carolina  informs  me  that, 
with  that  letter,  he  sends  some  plants,  addressed  to  the  care  of 
Monsr.  Otto,  Charge  des  affaires  of  France  at  New  York,  The  letter 
is  come  to  hand,  but  no  plants.  Fearing  they  may  remain  on  board 
the  Packet  boat  last  arrived  at  L'Orient,  or  neglected  in  some  ware- 
house, I  take  the  liberty  of  asking  your  friendly  enquiries  after 
them,  as  I  value  them  much.  If  by  any  means  you  can  find  them 
out,  and  forward  them  to  me  immediately  it  will  confer  a  great 
obligation  on  Sir  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servt., 


PrC   (MHi);  endorsed.  See  Ramsuy  to  TJ,  8  Nov.  1786. 

To  James  Madison 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Jan.  SO.  1787. 

My  last  to  you  was  of  the   16th  of  Dec.  since  which  I  have 
received  yours  of  Nov.  25.  and  Dec.  4.  which  afforded  me,  as  your 
letters  always  do,  a  treat  on  matters  public,  individual  and  oeco- 
nomical.  I  am  impatient  to  learn  your  sentiments  on  the  late  troubles 
in  the  Eastern  states.  So  far  as  I  have  yet  seen,  they  do  not  appear 
to  threaten  serious  consequences.  Those  states  have  suffered  by 
the  stoppage  of  the  channels  of  their  commerce,  which  have  not 
yet  found  other  issues.  This  must  render  money  scarce,  and  make 
the  people  uneasy.  This  uneasiness  has  produced  acts  absolutely 
unjustifiable:  but  I  hope  they  will  provoke  no  severities  from  their 
governments.  A  consciousness  of  those  in  power  that  their  admin- 
istration of  the  public  affairs  has  been  honest,  may  perhaps  produce 
too  great  a  degree  of  indignation:   and  those  characters  wherein 
fear  predominates  over  hope  may  apprehend  too  much  from  these 
instances  of  irregularity.  They  may  conclude  too  hastily  that  nature 
has  formed  man  insusceptible  of  any  other  government  but  that  of 
force,  a  conclusion  not  founded  in  truth,  nor  experience.  Societies 
exist  under  three  forms  sufficiently  distinguishable.    1.  Without 
government,  as  among  our  Indians.  2.  Under  governments  where- 
in the  will  of  every  one  has  a  just  influence,  as  is  the  case  in  England 
in  a  slight  degree,  and  in  our  states  in  a  great  one.  3.  Under  gov- 
ernments of  force:  as  is  the  case  in  all  other  monarchies  and  in 


30    JANUARY    1787 

most  of  the  other  republics.  To  have  an  idea  of  the  curse  of  existence 
under  these  last,  they  must  be  seen.  It  is  a  government  of  wolves 
over  sheep.  It  is  a  problem,  not  clear  in  my  mind,  that  the  1st. 
condition  is  not  the  best.  But  I  believe  it  to  be  inconsistent  with 
any  great  degree  of  population.  The  second  state  has  a  great  deal 
of  good  in  it.  The  mass  of  mankind  under  that  enjoys  a  precious 
degree  of  liberty  and  happiness.  It  has  it's  evils  too:  the  principal  of 
which  is  the  turbulence  to  which  it  is  subject.  But  weigh  this  against 
the  oppressions  of  monarchy,  and  it  becomes  nothing.  Malo  pericu- 
losam,  libertatem  quam  quietam  servitutem.  Even  this  evil  is  pro- 
ductive of  good.  It  prevents  the  degeneracy  of  government,  and 
nourishes  a  general  attention  to  the  public  affairs.  I  hold  it  that 
a  little  rebellion  now  and  then  is  a  good  thing,  and  as  necessary 
in  the  political  world  as  storms  in  the  physical.  Unsuccesful  re- 
bellions indeed  generally  establish  the  incroachments  on  the  rights 
of  the  people  which  have  produced  them.  An  observation  of  this 
truth  should  render  honest  republican  governors  so  mild  in  their 
punishment  of  rebellions,  as  not  to  discourage  them  too  much.  It 
is  a  medecine  necessary  for  the  sound  health  of  government.  If  these 
transactions  give  me  no  uneasiness,  I  feel  very  differently  at  another 
peice  of  intelligence,  to  wit,  the  possibility  that  the  navigation  of 
the  Missisipi  may  be  abandoned  to  Spain.  I  never  had  any  interest 
Westward  of  the  Alleghaney;  and  I  never  will  have  any.  But  I  have 
had  great  opportunities  of  knowing  the  character  of  the  people  who 
inhabit  that  country.  And  I  will  venture  to  say  that  the  act  which 
abandons  the  navigation  of  the  Missisipi  is  an  act  of  separation  be- 
tween the  Eastern  and  Western  country.  It  is  a  relinquishment  of 
five  parts  out  of  eight  of  the  territory  of  the  United  States,  an 
abandonment  of  the  fairest  subject  for  the  paiment  of  our  public 
debts,  and  the  chaining  those  debts  on  our  own  necks  in  perpetuum. 
I  have  the  utmost  confidence  in  the  honest  intentions  of  those  who 
concur  in  this  measure;  but  I  lament  their  want  of  acquaintance  with 
the  character  and  physical  advantages  of  the  people  who,  right  or 
wrong,  will  suppose  their  interests  sacrificed  on  this  occasion  to 
the  contrary  interests  of  that  part  of  the  confederacy  in  possession 
of  present  power.  If  they  declare  themselves  a  separate  people,  we 
are  incapable  of  a  single  effort  to  retain  them.  Our  citizens  can 
never  be  induced,  either  as  militia  or  as  souldiers,  to  go  there  to 
cut  the  throats  of  their  own  brothers  and  sons,  or  rather1  to  be 
themselves  the  subjects  instead  of  the  perpetrators  of  the  parricide. 
Nor  would  that  country  quit  the  cost  of  being  retained  against  the 
will  of  it's  inhabitants,  could  it  be  done.  But  it  cannot  be  done. 

SO    JANUARY     1787 

They  are  able  already  to  rescue  the  navigation  of  the  Missisipi 
out  of  the  hands  of  Spain,  and  to  add  New  Orleans  to  their  own 
territory.  They  will  be  joined  by  the  inhabitants  of  Louisiana. 
This  will  bring  on  a  war  between  them  and  Spain;  and  that  will 
produce  the  question  with  us  whether  it  will  not  be  worth  our  while 
to  become  parties  with  them  in  the  war,  in  order  to  reunite  them  ; 
with  us,  and  thus  correct  our  error?  And  were  I  to  permit  my 
forebodings  to  go  one  step  father,  I  should  predict  that  the  in- 
habitants of  the  U.S.  would  force  their  rulers  to  take  the  affirmative 
of  that  question.  I  wish  I  may  be  mistaken  in  all  these  opinions. 

We  have  for  some  time  expected  that  the  Chevalier  de  k  Luzerne 
would  obtain  a  promotion  in  the  diplomatic  line,  by  being  appointed 
to  some  of  the  courts  where  this  country  keeps  an  Ambassador, 
But  none  of  the  vacancies  taking*  place  which  had  been  counted 
on,  I  think  the  present  disposition  is  to  require  his  return  to  his 
station  in  America.  He  told  me  himself  lately,  that  he  should  return 
in  the  spring.  I  have  never  pressed  this  matter  on  the  court,  thtf 
I  knew  it  to  be  desireable  and  desired  on  our  part:  because  if  the 
compulsion  on  him  to  return  had  been  the  work  of  Congress,  he 
would  have  returned  in  such  ill  temper  with  them  as  to  disappoint 
them  in  the  good  they  expected  from  it.  He  would  for  ever  have 
laid  at  their  door  his  failure  of  promotion.  I  did  not  press  it  for 
another  reason,  which  is  that  I  have  great  reason  to  beleive  that 
the  character  of  the  Count  de  Moutier,  who  would  go  were  the 
Chevalier  to  be  otherwise  provided  for,  would  give  the  most  per- 
fect satisfaction  in  America. — As  you  are  now  returned  into  Con- 
gress it  will  become  of  importance  that  you  should  form  a  just 
estimate  of  certain   public  characters;   on   which  therefore  I  will 
give  you  such  notes  as  my  knowlege  of  them  has  furnished  me 
with.  You  will  compare  them  with  the  materials  you  are  otherwise 
possessed  of,  and  decide  on  a  view  of  the  whole.  You  know  the 
opinion  I  formerly-  entertained  of  my  jricnd  Mr.  Adams.  Your- 
self and  the  governor  were  the   first  who  shook   that  opinion.  I 
afterwards  saw  proofs  which  convicted  him  of  a  degree  of  vanity, 
and  of  a  blindness  to  it,  of  which  no  germ  had  appeared  in  Congress. 
A  7-months'  intimacy  with  him  here  and  as  many  weeks  in  Lon- 
don have  given  me  opportunities  of  studying  him  closely.  He  is 
vain,  irritable  and  a  bad  calculator  of  the  force  and  probable  effect 
of  the  motives  which  govern  men.  This  is  all  the  ill  which  can 
possibly  be  said  of  him.  He  is  as  disinterested  as  the  being  which 
made  him:  he  is  profound  in  his  views:  and  accurate  in  his  judg- 
ment except  -where  knowledge  of  the  zvorld  is  necessary  to  form  a 

3  0    JANUARY    1787 

judgment.  He  is  so  amiable,  that  I  pronounce  you  will  love  him 

if  ever  you  become  acquainted  with  him.  He  would  be,  as  he  was,  a 

great  man  in  Congress.*  Mr.   Carmichael  is  I  think  very  little 

knorvn  in  America.  I  never  saw  him  and  while  I  was  in  Congress  I 

formed  rather  a  disadvantageous  idea  of  him.  His  letters,  received 

then,  shewed  him  -vain  and  more  attentive  to  ceremony  and  etiquette 

than  we  suppose  men  of  sense  should  be.  I  have  now  a  constant 

correspondence  with  him,  and  find  him  a  little  hypocondriac  and 

discontented.  He  possesses  very  good  understanding  tho*  not  of  the 

first  order.  I  have  had  great  opportunities  of  searching  into  his 

character  and  have  availed  myself  of  it.  Many  persons  of  different 

nations  coming  from  Madrid  to  Paris  all  speak  of  him  as  in  high 

esteem  and  /  think  it  certain  that  he  has  more  of  the  Count  de 

Florid.  B^s  friendship  than  any  diplomatic  character  at  that  court. 

As  long  as  this  minister  is  in  office  Carmichael  can  do  more  than 

any  other  person  tvho  could  be  sent  there.  You  will  see  Franks 

and  doubtless  he  will  be  asking  some  appointment.  I  wish  there 

may  be  any  one  for  -which  he  is  fit.  He  is  light,  indiscreet,  [actjivef 

honest,  affectionate.  Tho'  Bingham  is  not  in  diplomatic  office  yet 

as  he  wishes  to  be  so  I  will  mention  such  circumstances  of  him  as 

you  might  otherwise  be  deceived  in.  He  will  make  you  believe  he 

was  on  the  most  intimate  footing  with  the  first  characters  in  Europe 

and  versed  in  the  secrets  of  every  cabinet.  Not  a  word  of  this  is 

true.  He  had  a  rage  for  being  presented  to  great  men  and  had  no 

modesty  in  the  methods  by  which  he  could  effect  it.  If  he  obtained 

access  afterwards,  it  was  with  such  as  who  were  susceptible  of 

impression  from  the  beauty  of  his  -wife.  I  must  except  the  Marquis 

de  Bouilli*  who  had  been  an  old  acquaintance.  The  Marquis  de 

Lafayette  is  a  most  valuable  auxiliary  to  me.  His  zeal  is  unbounded, 

and  his  -weLight]4*  with  those  in  po-wer  great.  His  education  having 

been  merely  military,  commerce  was  an  unknown  feild  to  him. 

But  his  good  sense  enabling  him  to  comprehend  perfectly  whatever 

is  explained  to  him,  his  agency  has  been  very  efficacious.  He  has  a 

great  deal  of  sound  genius,  is  well  remarked  by  the  king  and  rising 

in  popularity.  He  has  nothing  against  him  but  the  suspicion  of 

republican  principles.  I  think  he  will  one  day  be  of  the  ministry. 

His  foible  is  a  canine  appetite  for  popularity  and  fame.  But  he  will 

get  above  this.  The  Count  de  Vergennes  is  ill.  The  possibility  of 

his  recovery  renders  it  dangerous  for  us  to  express  a  doubt  but  he  is 

in  danger.  He  is  a  great  Minister  in  European  affairs  but  has  very 

imperfect  ideas  of  ours  [and]  no  confidence  in  them.  His  devotion 

to  the  principles  of  pure  despotism  render  him  unaffectionate  to 

SO    JANUARY     1787 

our  governments  but  his  jear  of  England  makes  him  -value  MS  as  a 
make  weight.  He  is  coo/,  reserved  in  political  conversation,  free  and 
familiar  on  other  subjects,  and  a  very  attentive,  aggreeable  person 
to  do  business  -with.  It  is   impossible  to  have   a  clearer,  better 
organised  head  but  age  has  chilled  his  heart.  Nothing  should  be 
spared  on  our  part  to  attach  this  country  to  us.  It  is  the  only  one 
on  which  we  can  rely  for  support  under  every  event.  It's  inhabitants 
love  us  more  I  think  than  they  do  any  other  nation  on  earth.  This 
is  very  much  the  effect  of  the  good  dispositions  with  which  the 
French  officers  returned.  In  a  former  letter  I  mentioned  to  you  the 
dislocation  of  my  wrist.  I  can  make  not  the  least  use  of  it,  except 
for  the  single  article  of  writing,  tho*  it  is  going  on  five  months 
since  the  accident  happened.  I  have  great  anxieties  lest  I  should 
never  recover  any  considerable  use  of  it.  I  shall,  by  the  advice  of 
my  Surgeons,  set  out  in  a  fortnight  for  the  waters  of  Aix  in 
Provence.  I  chose  these  out  of  several  they  proposed  to  me,  because 
if  they  fail  to  be  effectual,  my  journey  will  not  be  useless  altogether. 
It  will  give  me  an  opportunity  of  examining  the  canal  of  Languedoc 
and  of  acquiring  knowlege  of  that  species   of  navigation  which 
may  be  useful  hereafter:  but  more  immediately  it  will  enable  me 
to  take  the  tour  of  the  ports  concerned  in  commerce  with  us,  to 
examine  on  the  spot  the  defects  of  the  late  regulations  respecting 
our  commerce,  to  learn  the  further  improvements  which  may  be 
made  on  it,  and,  on  my  return,  to  get  this  business  finished.  I  shall 
be  absent  between  two  and  three  months,  unless  any  thing  hap- 
pens to  recall  me  here  sooner,  which  may  always  be  effected  in  ten 
days,  in  whatever  part  of  my  route  I  may  be.  In  speaking  of  char- 
acters I  omitted  those  of  Reyneval  and  Henin,  the  two  eyes  of 
M .  de  Vergennes.  The  former  is  the  most  important  character  be- 
cause possessing  the  most  of  the  confidence  of  the  Count,  he  is 
rather  cunning  than  -wise.  His  views  of  things  being  neither  great 
nor  liberal  he  governs  himself  by  principles  which  he  has  learnt 
by  rote  and  is  fit  only  for  the  details  of  execution.  His  heart  is 
susceptible  of  little  passions  but  not  of  good  ones.  He  is  brother  in 
law  to  M.  Gerard  from  whom  he  received  disadvantageous  im- 
pressions of  us  -which  cannot  be  effaced.  He  has  much  duplicity. 
Henin  is  a  philosopher  sincere,  friendly,  liberal,  learned,  beloved 
by  every  body,  the  other  by  nobody.  I  think  it  a  great  misfortune 
that  the  United  States  are  in  the  department  of  the  former.  As 
particulars  of  this  kind  may  be  useful  to  you  in  your  present  situa- 
tion, I  may  hereafter  continue  the  chapter.  I  know  it  safely  lodged 
in  your  discretion. 

30    JANUARY    1787 

Feb.  5. 

Since  writing  thus  far  Franks  is  returned  from  England.  I  learn 
that  Mr.  Adams  desires  to  be  recalled  and  that  Smith  should  be 
appointed  charge  des  affairs  there.  It  is  not  for  me  to  decide  whether 
any  diplomatic  character  should  be  kept  at  a  court  which  keeps 
none  with  us.  You  can  judge  of  Smith's  abilities  by  his  letters.  They 
are  not  of  the  first  order  but  they  are  good.  For  his  honesty  he  is 
like  our  friend  Monroe.  Turn  his  soul  wrong  side  outwards  and 
there  is  not  a  speck  on  it.  He  has  one  joible,  an  excessive  inflam- 
mability of  temper^  but  he  feels  it  when  it  comes  on,  and  has 
resolution  enough  to  suppress  it,  and  to  remain  silent  till  it  passes 

1  send  you  by  Colo.  Franks  your  pocket  telescope,  walking  stick, 
and  chemical  box.  The  two  former  could  not  be  combined  together. 
The  latter  could  not  be  had  in  the  form  you  referred  to.  Having 
a  great  desire  to  have  a  portable  copying  machine,  and  being  satis- 
fied from  some  experiments  that  the  principle  of  the  large  machine 
might  be  applied  in  a  small  one,  I  planned  one  when  in  England 
and  had  it  made.  It  answers  perfectly.  I  have  since  set  a  workman 
to  making  them  here,  and  they  are  in  such  demand  that  he  has 
his  hands  full.  Being  assured  that  you  will  be  pleased  to  have  one, 
when  you  shall  have  tried  it's  convenience,  I  send  you  one  by 
Colo.  Franks.  The  machine  costs  96  livres,  the  appendages  24. 
livres,  and  I  send  you  paper  and  ink  for  12  livres,  in  all  132  livres. 
There  is  a  printed  paper  of  directions:  but  you  must  expect  to 
make  many  essays  before  you  succeed  perfectly.  A  soft  brush,  like  a 
shaving  brush,  is  more  convenient  than  the  sponge.  You  can  get 
as  much  ink  and  paper  as  you  please  from  London.  The  paper  costs 
a  guinea  a  ream. 

RC     (DLCs     Madison    Papers);    un-  3  T J    deleted    the    word    "Congrress" 

signed;    endorsed;    partly   in    code.    PrC  at  the  bottom  of  a  page  and  then  wrote 

(DLC:    TJ    Papers);    accompanied    in  the   code   symbol   for  the   word   at   the 

TJ   Papers,   28:4767   by   a   list    giving  top  of  the  next. 

the  coded  passages  en  clair,  from,  which  *  TJ  omitted  the  code  symbol  for  the 

one    or   two   minor   errors    of   encoding;  letters    in    square    brackets    (supplied), 

have  been  silently  corrected.  but   these   have   been    added   from    the 

list  en  clair. 

*  At  this  point  TJ  deleted  the  clause  5  The   name    was   first   writtten    out, 

**have  their  own  throats   cut  by  them"  then  heavily  deleted;  Ford,  rv,  366,  does 

and  rephrased  it  as  above.  not  indicate  that  the  name  was  in  code 

2  This  and  subsequent  words  hi  italics  and   gives  it  as  "the  Marquis  de  Bon- 
are  written  in  code  and  have  been  de-  clearren";  the  above  reading  is  verified 
coded   by  the    editors,   employing-   Code  by  the  list  en  clair. 

No.   9. 


From  Thomas  Silbey 

Le  Havre,  30  Jan.  1787.  Was  a  carpenter  on  board  the  ship  Man- 
anne,  James  Martin,  master;  "the  Ship  has  been  paid  off  by  Reason  of 
her  being  laid  up";  has  a  wife  and  family  in  Virginia  and  desires  TJ  to 
procure  for  him  a  passage  "in  the  Ship  La  Deriux  Frear"  sailing  10  Feb. 
for  New  York. 

RC  (DLC);  2  p,;  addressed;  endorsed;  postmarked  "HAVRE."  Recorded  in  SJL 
as  received  3  Feb.  1787.  Enclosure  (DLC):  Certificate  by  James  Martin,  dated  SO 
Jan.  1787,  of  Silbey's  service  on  the  Marianne  and  of  his  having  a  family  in  Vir- 

From  Andre  Limozin 

Le  Havre,  31  Jan.  1787.  Has  no  doubt  but  that  TJ  has  been  informed 
packets  are  established  in  that  port  and  that  the  first  will  sail  10  Feb. 
for  New  York.  Offers  to  perform  any  commissions  for  him.  Is  <creally 
astonished  that  there  is  no  Carolina  rice  vSent  from  America  to  our 
Market.  There  is  at  present  a  very  great  demand  here  and  in  all  our 
Neighbourhood  for  that  article  and  not  a  Single  Barrell  remains  unsold." 

RC  (MHi);  2  p.;  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL.  as  received  3  Feb.  1787. 

From  Partout 

[Jan.  1787?] 

The  Cook  returned  and  told  he  would  accept  of  my  terms 
whatever  they  would  be:  I  answerd  he  should  consult  nothing  but 
his  own  convenience:  I  told  him  I  thought  M.  Jefs.  would  be 
disposed  to  give  him  fifty  guineas  a  year  for  teaching  another  the 
cookery.  Aggreed. 

He  observed  a  sufficient  quantity  of  linnen  and  kitchen  utensils 
should  be  furnished  only  for  his  use,  and  in  greater  quantity  than 
in  the  English  cookerey  which  does  not  require  as  many  as  ours. 
I  aggreed. 

He  desired  a  suply  of  bier  or  toddy  or  brandy  for  the  days  when 
he  should  have  an  extraordinary  business.  I  lejft  it  to  Mr.  Jeff  son. 

The  man  comes  for  an  answer  in  half  an  hour.  As  a  number 
of  small  affairs  press  on  me  I  hope  M.  Jepherson  will  excuse  the 
paper,  Style  and  Writer. 

RC     (MHi);    undated,    unaddressed,  lished,  but  he  may  have  been  the  "old 

and  unsigned;  in  an  unidentified  hand;  cook"    of    the     Prince    of    Conde     (see 

endorsed  by  TJ:   "Partout,   cook."  The  Mazzei    to    TJ,    17    Apr.    1787;    TJ  to 

identity  of  Partout  has  not  been  estab-  Mazzei,  6  May   1787)    or  he  may  have 


1    FEBRUARY    1787 

been     the     person     who     engaged    the  apprenticeship     with     patissier"     72/.)- 

patissier   to   instruct  James   in   the    art  The  letter  could  not  have  been  written 

of   pastry-cooking    early   in    Jan.    1787  by    Petit,   who   evidently   wrote    only   a 

(an  entry  in  Account  Book  for  10  Jan.  labored  French. 
1787    reads:     "[pd    Petit]    for    James's 

From  George  Wythe 

G,  W.  TO  MR.  J.  Williamsburgli,  januar.  1787. 

"Would  not  the  figures  to  which  one  must  advert  in  studying 
geometry,  formed  of  wood,  metal,  or  ivory,  be  more  instructive 
than  those,  which  are  delineated  on  paper?  If  you  think  so,  and  if 
such  figures  can  be  procured  where  you  are,  i  wish  to  know  the 
cost  of  them,  that  i  may  remit  money  to  pay  for  them,  when  i  will 
beg  the  favour  of  you  to  send  them  to  me. 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed:  <4Wyth  George."  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  31  May 
1787  at  Nantes. 

To  Cunningham  and  Haddaway 

GENTLEMEN  Paris  Feb.  1.  1787. 

I  am  sorry  to  be  obliged  to  inform  you  that  I  am  not  able  to 
procure  an  order  for  your  being  permitted  to  work  your  passage 
back  to  America,  nor  able  otherwise  to  comply  with  your  desires, 
being  neither  invested  with  the  power,  nor  furnished  with  the 
means  of  doing  it.  I  imagine  you  have  come  under  particular  con- 
tracts with  your  captains,  which  doubtless  they  •will  either  perform, 
or  make  satisfaction  for.  Capt.  Coffin  is  here,  and  returns  in  the 
packet.  I  will  speak  to  him,  and  recommend  you  to  his  attention. 
Perhaps  also  if  you  apply  to  Mr.  Limozin,  who  acts  as  our  Consul 
at  Havre,  he  may  be  able  to  advise  you  how  to  get  back.  I  am 
Gentlemen  your  most  obedient  humble  servt., 


PrC  (DLC);  at  foot  of  text:  "Messieurs  Thomas  Haddaway  &  William.  Cuningr- 

To  John  Jay 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  1.  1787. 

My  last  letters  were  of  the  31st.  of  Decemb.  and  9th.  of  Janu- 
ary, since  which  last  date  I  have  been  honoured  with  yours  of 


1    FEBRUARY     1787 

December  the  13th,  and  14th*  I  shall  pay  immediate  attention  to 
your  instructions  relative  to  the  S.  Carolina  frigate.  I  had  the  hon- 
our of  informing  you  of  an  improvement  in  the  art  of  coining  made 
here  by  one  Drost,  and  of  sending  you  by  Colo.  Franks  a  specimen 
of  his  execution  in  gold  and  silver,  I  expected  to  have  sent  also  a  coin 
of  copper.  The  inclosed  note  from  Drost  will  explain  the  reason 
why  this  was  not  sent.  It  will  let  you  see  also  that  he  may  be 
employed;  as  I  suppose  he  is  not  so  certain  us  he  was  of  being 
engaged  here.  Mr.  Grand,  who  knows  him,  gives  me  reason  to 
believe  he  may  be  engaged  reasonably.  Congress  will  decide 
whether  It  be  worth  their  attention* 

In  some  of  my  former  letters  I  suggested   an  opportunity  of 
obliging  this  court  by  borrowing  as  much  money  in  Holland  as 
would  pay  the  debt  due  here,  if  such  a  loan  could  be  obtained;  as 
to  which  I  was  altogether  ignorant.  To  save  time,  I  wrote  to  Mr, 
Dumas,  to  know  whether  he  thought  it  probable  a  loan  could  be 
obtained,  enjoining  him  the  strictest  secrecy,  and  informing  him 
I  was  making  the  enquiry  merely  of  my  own  motion  and  without 
instruction.   I   inclose   you   his   answer.   He   thinks  purchasers  of 
the  debt  could  be  found,  with  a  sacrifice  of  a  small  part  of  the 
capital,  and  a  postponement  be  obtained  of  some  of  the  first  reim- 
bursements. The  proposition  for  an  immediate   adoption  of  this 
measure  by  me,  was  probably  urged  on  his  mind  by  a  desire  to 
serve  our  country  more  than  a  strict  attention  to  my  duty  and  the 
magnitude  of  the  object.  I  hope  on  the  contrary  that,  if  it  should 
be  thought  worth  a  trial,  it  may  be  put  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  Adams 
who  knows  the  ground,  and  is  known  there,   and  whose  former 
succesful  negociations  in  this  line  would  give  better1  founded  hopes 
of  success  on  this  occasion. 

I  formerly  mentioned  to  you  the  hopes  of  preferment  entertained 
by  the  Chevalr.  de  la  Lucerne.  They  have  been  baffled  by  events, 
none  of  the  vacancies  taking  place  which  had  been  expected.  Had  I 
pressed  his  being  ordered  back,  I  have  reason  to  believe  the  order 
would  have  been  given.  But  he  would  have  gone  back  in  ill  humour 
with  Congress,  he  would  have  laid  for  ever  at  their  door  the  failure 
of  a  promotion  then  viewed  as  certain,  and  this  might  have  excited 
dispositions  that  would  have  disappointed  us  of  the  good  we  hoped 
from  his  return.  The  line  I  have  observed  with  him  has  been  to  make 
him  sensible  that  nothing  was   more  desired  by   Congress  than 
his  return,  but  that  they  would  not  willingly  press   it  so  as  to 
defeat  him  of  a  personal  advantage.  He  sees  his  prospects  fail, 
and  will  return  in  the  approaching  spring,  unless  something  un- 


1    FEBRUARY    1787 

expected  should  turn  up  in  his  favor.  In  this  case  the  Count  de 
Moutier  has  the  promise  of  succeeding  to  him,  and,  if  I  do  not 
mistake  his  character,  he  would  give  great  satisfaction.  So  that 
I  think  you  may  count  on  seeing  the  one  or  the  other  by  midsummer. 

It  had  been  suspected  that  France  and  England  might  adopt 
those  concerted  regulations  of  commerce  for  their  West  Indies,  of 
which  your  letter  expresses  some  apprehensions.  But  the  expres- 
sions in  the  4.  5.  7.  11.  18.  and  other  articles  of  their  treaty,  which 
communicate  to  the  English  the  privileges  of  the  most  favored 
European  nation  only,  has  lessened  if  not  removed  those  fears. 
They  have  clearly  reserved  a  right  of  favoring  specially  any  nation 
not  European,  and  there  is  no  nation  out  of  Europe  who  could  so 
probably  have  been  in  their  eye  at  that  time  as  ours.  They  are 
wise.  They  must  see  it  probable  at  least  that  any  concert  with 
England  will  be  but  of  short  duration:  and  they  could  hardly  pro- 
pose to  sacrifice  for  that  a  connection  with  us  which  may  be 

SVe  have  been  for  some  days  in  much  inquietude  for  the  Count 
de  Vergennes.  He  is  very  seriously  ill.  Nature  seems  struggling 
to  decide  his  disease  into  a  gout.  A  swelled  foot  at  present  gives  us 
a  hope  of  this  issue.  His  loss  would  at  all  times  have  been  great: 
but  it  would  be  immense  during  the  critical  poise  of  European  af- 
fairs, existing  at  this  moment.  I  inclose  you  a  letter  from  one  of 
the  foreign  officers  complaining  of  the  nonpaiment  of  their  interest. 
It  is  only  one  out  of  many  I  have  received.  This  is  accompanied 
by  a  second  copy  of  the  Moorish  declaration  sent  me  by  Mr.  Bar- 
clay. He  went  to  Alicant  to  settle  with  Mr.  Lamb:  but,  on  his 
arrival  there,  found  he  was  gone  to  Minorca.  A  copy  of  his  letter 
will  inform  you  of  this  circumstance,  and  of  some  others  relative 
to  Algiers,  with  his  opinion  on  them.  "Whatever  the  states  may 
enable  Congress  to  do  for  obtaining  the  peace  of  that  country,  it 
is  a  separate  question  whether  they  will  redeem  our  captives,  how, 
and  at  what  price?  If  they  decide  to  redeem  them,  I  will  beg  leave 
to  observe  that  it  is  of  great  importance  that  the  first  redemption 
be  made  at  as  low  a  price  as  possible,  because  it  will  form  the 
future  tariff.  If  these  pyrates  find  that  they  can  have  a  very  great 
price  for  Americans,  they  will  abandon  proportionably  their  pur- 
suits against  other  nations  to  direct  them  towards  ours.  That  the 
choice  of  Congress  may  be  enlarged  as  to  the  instruments  they 
may  use  for  effecting  the  redemption,  I  think  it  my  duty  to  inform 
them  that  there  is  here  an  order  of  priests  called  the  Mathurins, 
the  object  of  whose  institution  is  to  beg  alms  for  the  redemption  of 


1    FEBRUARY    1787 

m  be  obtLed  for  the  redemption  of  our  prisoners  at 
I  obtained  conferences  with  the  General  and  with  some 
s  of  the  order.  The  General,  with  all  the  tenevo^nce  and 
Srdiality  possible,  undertook  to  act  for  us  if  we  should  desire  it 
He  told  me  that  their  last  considerable  redemption  was i  of  about 
300  prisoners,  who  cost  them  somewhat  upwards  of  1SOO  livres 
apeice.  But  that  they  should  not  be  able  to  redeem  ours  as  cheap 
aTthey  do  their  own;  and  that  it  must  be  absolutely  unknown  that 
the  public  concern  themselves  in  the  operation,  or  the  price  would 
be  greatly  enhanced.  The  difference  of  religion  was  not  once 
mentioned,  nor  did  it  appear  to  me  to  be  thought  of.  It  was  a  silent 
reclamation  and  acknowlegement  of  fraternity  between  two  re- 
ligions of  the  same  family,  which  historical  events  of  antient  date 
had  rendered  more  hostile  to  one  another  than  to  their  common 
adversaries.  I  informed  the  general  that  I  should  communicate  the 
good  dispositions  of  his  order  to  those  who  alone  had  the  authority 
to  decide  whatever  related  to  our  captives.  Mr.  Carmichael 
informs  me  that  monies  have  been  advanced  for  the  support  of 
our  prisoners  at  Algiers  which  ought  to  be  replaced*  I  infer  from 
the  context  of  his  letter,  that  these  advances  have  been  made  by 
the  court  of  Madrid.  I  submit  the  information  to  Congress. 

A  treaty  of  commerce  is  certainly  concluded  between  France  and 
Russia.  The  particulars  of  it  are  yet  secret. 

I  inclose  the  gazettes  of  France  and  Leyden  to  this  date,  and  have 
the  honor  of  assuring  you  of  those  sentiments  of  perfect  esteem  & 
respect  with  which  I  am  Sir  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble 
servant,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC    (DLC).  Tr    (DNA:    PCC,   No-  pour  fabriequier  les  plus  belles  monnoyes 

1O7,  I).  Enclosures:    (1)   J.  P,  Droz  to  qull  ayt  encore  peutStre  gxiste*,  et  aussi 

[Ferdinand  Grand],  16  Jan.   1787,  ad-  avec  beaucoup  moins  de  fraix";  that  he 

vising:  that  he  is  no  longer  permitted  to  thought  it  would  sufEce  In   the    report 

make  "la  pieces  d'or  que  vous  me  de-  to  make  an  estimate  of  the  cost  of  mak- 

mandez;"   without  running   the   risk    of  ing-  the  machine  in  France  for  shipment 

displeasing:  government  and  requesting  to  America;  that  it  was  extremely  diffi- 

him  to  inform  TJ;  that  he  has  not  had  cult  to  determine  a  proper  price  for  the 

time   to   work   on    the   report   promised  coinage  of  specie   and   all   he   could    do 

on  his   request  concerning:  **la  fabrica-  would  be  to  give  assurance  that  it  could 

tSon    des    monnoyes";    that    he    is    re-  be  done  at  a  price  below  that  prevailing 

solved  more  than  ever  to  accept  suitable  in  France;  that  he  would  be  willing  to 

offers  of  employment,  even  if  this  meant  take  charge  of  the  machines,  the  coins, 

emigrating  to  a  foreign  land;  that,  there-  and  the  engraving,   but  wished   not   to 

lore,    if    Congress    wished    to    make    a  be  connected  with  the  melting  and  alloy 

reasonable   proposal,    he    would   set   up  of  gold  and  silver  since  he  would  have 

tor  tnem  Routes  les  machines  necessaire  enough  to  do  with   setting  up   the  ma- 


1    FEBRUARY     1787 

chines,  laminating,  cutting-,  adjusting 
the  blanks,  and  striking?  and  that  he 
would  soon  have  all  o£  the  information 
necessary  to  complete  "le  petit  memoire" 
and  he  would  bring1  it  and  confer  "with 
him  immediately  (Tr  in  DNA:  PCC, 
No.  107,  I,  •with  the  obviously  erroneous 
caption:  "Monsr.  Droz  to  Mr.  Jeffer- 
son"; the  addressee  was  very  probably 
Grand,  since  it  was  through  him  that 
TJ  communicated  with  Droz  in.  1787 
and  later;  see  TJ  to  Grand,  23  Apr. 
1790).  (2)  Dumas  to  TJ,  23  Jan.  1787. 
(S)  Fizeaux  &  Cie.  to  TJ,  1  Jan.  1787. 
(4)  Segond  to  TJ,  17  Jan.  1787.  (5) 
The  "second  copy  of  the  Moorish  decla- 
ration" was  enclosed  in  Barclay  to  TJ, 
4  Dec.  1786  (see  note  there).  (6)  Bar- 
clay to  Commissioners,  6  Jan.  1787. 

The  gold  and  silver  specimens  of  the 
experimental  "ecu  de  Calonne"  exe- 
cuted by  Jean  Pierre  Droz  in  1786  and 
conveyed  to  America  BY  COLO.  FHANXS 
are  not  preserved  among  the  Papers  of 
the  Continental  Congress  and  evidently 
have  not  survived;  see  illustration  of  a 
specimen  in  silver  in  this  volume.  Droz, 
whose  name  TJ  probably  attempted  to 
render  phonetically  by  spelling1  DROST 
or  Drozt,  was  born  at  La  Chaux-de- 
Fond,  Canton  of  Neuchatel,  Switzer- 
land, and  died  in  Paris  in  1823.  He  was 
an  engraver  of  medals,  coiner,  and  in- 
ventor of  the  machine  for  striking  the 
two  faces  and  edge  of  a  coin  at  a  single 
stroke  (see  TJ  to  Jay,  9  Jan.  1787, 
and,  for  TJ's  subsequent  efforts  to 
bring  Droz  to  America,  TJ  to  Grand, 

23  Apr.    179O;   Grand  to  TJ,   25  Aug. 
179O;   TJ  to   Short,   25   Apr.,  29  Aug., 

24  Nov.  1791;  TJ  to  Pinckney,  14  June 
1792,  2O  Apr.  1793;  TJ  to  Washington, 
30  Dec.   1793).  Grand,  Matthew  Boul- 
ton,  and  TJ  were  present  at  the  Hotel 
des  Monnaies  when  Droz  gave  a  demon- 
stration  of  his   machine.   Sir  John   Sin- 
clair later  claimed  the  credit  for  having 
brought    Boulton    and    Droz    together: 
"the     improved     machines     for     coining 
money,   invented   by   Monsieur   Droz,    a 
native  of  Switzerland  .  .  .  were  at  that 
•time  unknown  in  England.   I  prevailed 
on  M.  Droz  to  explain  his  plans  to  Mr. 
Boulton   of  Birmingham,   and  was  thus 
the  means   of  introducing  this   superior 
mode  of  coinage  into  the  British  Mint" 
(Correspondence   of   ...  Sir  John  Sin- 
clair,  London,   1831,  I,  xxxii).  Thus  it 
is   possible  that   Sinclair  was  with   TJ, 
Grand,  and  Boulton  at  the  time  of  the 
demonstration.    James    Watt,   Boulton's 
partner  who  was  with  him  in  Paris  late 
in  1786,  was  also  among  those  present 

(H.   W.    Dickinson,   Matthew   Boulton, 
Cambridge,    1937,   p.    124,    136,    206). 
An   account  of  the  Hotel  des  Monnaies 
in  Sebastien  Mercier's  Tableau  de  Paris 
(Amsterdam,    1788),   p.    145,    contains 
the  follow  reference  to  Droz;   "J'ai  re- 
gret que  1'on  n'ait  point  fait  usage   de 
Pinvention  du  sieur  Droz  de  Neufchatel, 
graveur  intelligent.  Ill  avoit  perfectionnS 
une    machine    qui,    d'un    seul    coup    de 
balancier,  marquoit  la  piece  et  la  tranche 
en    merne-temps.    Elle    avoit    la    double 
utility  d'offrir  une  monnoie  d'une  beaute" 
parfaite,  et  de  dejouer  les  faux-monno- 
yeurs,  qui  se  seroient  trouves  dans  1'im- 
possibilitS      de      1'imiter.      Ce      dernier 
avantage    est   bien    supSrieur    a    Fautre; 
car  il  n'y  a  rien  de  plus  rare  et  de  plus 
heureux   en    politique,    que    de    pouvoir 
preVenir    et    e"pargner    le    crime    a    des 
malheureux."    When    the    French    gov- 
ernment failed  to  employ  Droz's  method, 
Boulton,  who  was  as  enthusiastic  about 
the    invention     as    TJ,    "engaged    Mr. 
Droz    at    a   very    great   expence    to    en- 
grave the   original  puncheons   and  ma- 
trices for  the  proposed"  copper  coinage 
of   halfpenny    pieces    in    England    "and 
to     superintend    the     execution     of    it" 
(Dickinson,   Boulton,   p.    137).   Despite 
the  fact  that  Boulton  paid  Droz  a  "high 
salary,"    he    was    nevertheless     able    to 
report    to     a    committee    of    the    privy 
council  that  he  could  execute  the  half- 
penny coinage  at  a  cost  not  above  half 
that  incurred  by  the  royal  Mint  in  pro- 
ducing   the    coin    then    current    and    to 
endeavor    to    produce    "more    excellent 
coin  than  had  ever  been  seen,  and  estab- 
lishing   an    effectual    check    upon    those 
who    counterfeit    it"     (same,    p.     137). 
Boulton    applied    stearn    power    to    the 
machines   and  introduced   a  number   of 
improvements;  Droz's  split  collar  in  six 
parts  for   forming   the   edge    of   a   coin 
was  found  to  be  difficult  to  manage  and 
faulty  in   execution;   Droz  himself  was, 
according   to  "Watt,    "of   a  troublesome 
disposition"  though  a  "good  die  sinker," 
and  he  was  dismissed    (same,  p,  2O6). 
Possibly  Droz's   chief   influence   on   the 
development     of     better     coinage     was 
exerted    through    the    stimulus    that    he 
gave  to  Boulton.  "Much  ingenuity,  time 
and  great  expence  were  required  to  per- 
fect the  application  of  the  steam  engine 
to  coining,1'  wrote   James   Watt  of  his 
partner,  "in  all  of  which  Mr.  B[oulton] 
acted  the   principal  part   and   gave   life 
to  the  whole."    (Same,  p.  206.) 

i  This  word  interlined  in  substitution 
for    "well,"   deleted. 


From  Louis  Le  Pelletier 

MONSIEUR  *«*•  le  ler'  fevrier  1787 

JTai  Thonneur  de  vous  adresser  une  expedition  des  procSs  verbaux 
des  deux  stances  des  15  et  28  7bre:  dernier  de  la  reception  et  de 
Inauguration  du  buste  de  M.  le  Marquis  de  la  fayette,  a  PhStel  de 
ville  de  Paris,  de  Penregistrement  fait  de  la  lettre  par^laquelle  Mr. 
le  Baron  de  Breteiiil  a  annoncg  au  Corps  de  Ville  les  intentions  du 
Roi  sur  cet  objet,  de  la  lettre  que  vous  avez  Scrite,  Monsieur,  et 
enfin  de  la  deliberation  prise  par  les  Etats  de  Virginie. 

J"ai  6t&  bien  touch6  de  1'indisposition  qui  vous  a  empSchg  de 
nous  transmettre  vous  m£me  ce  gage  intgressant  de  Fopinion  et 
des  sentimens  de  vos  compatriotes-  Soyez  prSs  d7eux  PinterprSte  de 
tous  ceux  qui  nous  animaient  en  ce  moment,  des  voeux  que  nous 
formerons  toujours  pour  que  Pam^rique  Septentrionale  et  les 
Etats  de  Virginie  voient  accroitre  leurs  forces  en  6loignant  de 
leurs  mceurs  et  de  leurs  foyers  ce  qui  a  ports  le  germe  de  la 
destruction  parmi  les  plus  grands  Etats.  C'est  en  conservant  cette 
simplicity  cette  puretg  primitive  qui  sont  les  bases  et  les  garants 
de  la  prosp€rite  publique  que  vous  atteindrez  au  d6gr6  de  splendeur 
que  vous  promettent  vos  sages  constitutions  et  dont  votre  alliance 
avec  notre  auguste  Monarque  est  le  gage.  Assurez  de  Pattachement 
inimuable  de  cette  Capitale  tous  ces  hommes  vertueux  qui  ont 
travaill£  si  efficacement  £  la  gloire  et  au  bonheur  de  leur  patrie, 
et  recevez,  Monsieur,  les  m&tnes  t6moignages  qui  vous  sont  dfts 
personnellement  S.  tant  de  titres.  Soyez  persuade  que  J'eprouve  une 
satisfaction  bien  veritable  en  joignant  Pexpression  de  tous  mes 
sentimens  £  ceux  dont  Je  suis  dans  cette  circonstance  Torgane 
auprSs  de  vous. 

«Pai  Honneur  d'etre  avec  un  respectueux  attachement  Monsieur, 
de  votre  Excellence,  Le  tr&s  humble  et  tres  ob6issant  serviteur, 


RC    (Vi);  in  a  clerk's  hand,  signed  Randolph's  letter  of  transmittal  to  the 

by   I*   Pelletier.   Enclosure    (Vi):    MS  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Delegates,   15 

copy    consisting    of    thirty   pagres   in    a  Oct.   1786.  Le  Pelletier's  letter  and  its 

clerk's  hand,  signed  by  Veytard,  greffier  enclosure  were  evidently  handed  to  TJ 

rn^/    bearing  at  its  head  the  word  by  De  Corny  and  were  enclosed  by  TJ 

tPT  of  7 


1    FEBRUARY    1787 

ing-  already  dispatched  the  "Duplicata"  the  stile  in  which  the  Marquis'  bust  was 

that  Le  Pelletier  transmitted,  and  being  in  augur  ate  d"    (see   Le   Pelletier  to  TJ, 

in  the  midst  of  preparations  for  his  tour  15  Feb.  1787;  TJ  to  De  Corny,  18  Feb. 

of  Southern  France,  TJ  instructed  Short  1787;  TJ  to  the  Pr€vot  des  Marchands, 

to   send   this   parchment   copy   to   Gov.  Sec.,  18  Feb.  1787;  De  Corny  to  TJ,  2O 

Randolph.   Short  did  so   by  the   March  Feb.    1787;   Short  to   Gov.   of  Virginia, 

packet,    and    Randolph    received    it    in  21  Mctu  1787;  Madison  to  TJ,  23  Apr. 

Philadelphia    where    he    was    attending  1787;  JHD,  Oct*  1787,  1828  edn.,  p.  3; 

the  Federal  Convention.  He  in  turn  for-  CVSP,  iv,  290;    see   also  Vol.    10:    414- 

warded  it  to  Lt.  Gov.  Beverly  Randolph,  16). 
describing  it  as  "only  ...  a  repetition  of 

From  Puisaye 

MONSIEUR  ler.  De  Fevrier  1787. 

II  est  des  situations  bien  douloureuses  dans  la  vie,  il  est  aussi 
quelques  consolations.  Au  milieu  des  maux  qui  m'accablent,  j'en  ai 
trouv6  dans  la  lecture  des  Lettres  d'un  Cultivateur  americain. 
Ecras6  sous  le  poids  du  malheur,  j'ai  cru  que  Vos  heureuses 
Contr6es  pouroient  devenir  Pour  moi  un  azile  ou  je  finirois  en 
paix  le  Reste  d'une  Carriere  dont  tous  les  instants  Furent  marqu6s 
par  L'infortunne. 

Je  suis  n6  d'une  des  plus  anciennes  families  nobles  de  ma 
province,  j'ai  embrassg  comme  mes  ayeux  le  parti  des  armes.  J*en 
ai  parcouru  Les  devoirs  avec  honneur  et  je  puis  dire  que  je  m'y 
suis  distingu6.  «Fai  eu  le  desir  de  faire  usage  de  mes  talends  et  de 
contribuer  de  mon  Sang  &  La  liberty  de  L'amerique;  sans  doutte, 
Par  une  suitte  de  ma  mauvaise  fortunne,  je  n'ai  pu  6ffectuer  Ce 
desir.  Peut  6tre  Serois-je  heureux  maintenant,  jaurois  du  moins 
merite  a  quelque  titre  d'etre  admis  au  rang  de  Vos  Concytoyens. 
JPai  men6  jusqu'ici  une  Conduitte  6xempte  de  tout  Reproche.  Mes 
peres  m'avoient  Laissg  une  fortunne  SuflGisante  pour  mettre  ma 
viellesse  a  Fabri  du  Besoin.  Avec  tout  cela,  Monsieur,  je  suis  sur  le 
point  dTEprouver  La  misere  et  toutes  les  humiliations  auxquelles 
La  naissance,  Dont  je  suis,  gxpose  celui  que  la  fortunne  persecute, 
dans  un  pays  ou  ce  pr6jug6  est  dans  toute  sa  force. 

Le  detail  des  circonstances  qui  me  privent  des  Ressources  que 
jetois  en  droit  d'attendre  pour  prix  de  mes  services  seroit  trop  long 
pour  trouver  place  ici.  II  r6sulte  en  partie  de  Raisons  qui  font  hon- 
neur &  mon  caractere,  d'un  autre  C6t£  j'appartiens  &.  la  maison  de 
Rohan  et  cela  fait  Beaucoup. 

La  privation  de  ma  fortunne  Rgsulte  d'un  procSs  intante  sur 
la  qualit^  de  ma  possession,  elle  m'avoit  6t6  transmise  Comme 
Noble,  je  la  Possedois  £  Ce  titre.  Dans  la  Discussion  elle  £  €t& 


1    FEBRUARY    1787 

Roturiere.  Vous  ignores  ces  distinctions;  j'ai  6t6  condamn6  & 
la  Restitutions  des  deux  tiers  envers  mes  coheritiers,  en  14.  annees 
de  jouissances  de  ces  deux  tiers,  ce  qui,  joint  aux  frais  d'un  proems 
qui  dure  depuis  dix  ans,  rgduit  Ce  qui  me  restera  a  peu  pres  §. 
rien.  Voila,  Monsieur,  L'£tat  de  mes  affaires.  Vo^ons  maintenant 
si  je  suis  Propre  au  nouveau  genre  d'existance  que  je  me  propose 

J'ai  41  an  accomplis,  je  jouis  d'une  santg  robuste,  je  suis  fort, 
vigoureux  et  actif.  J'entends  L'oeconomie  Ruralle  de  mon  paYs,  je 
suis  sobre  en  toutes  manieres,  je  vis  &  La  campagne,  Depuis  cinq 
ans  je  me  livre  au  travail  le  plus  p6nible.  Comme  je  ne  Pai  jamais 
fait  par  besom,  je  n'y  ai  jamais  mis  de  suitte,  mais  il  est  ngces- 
saire  &  mon  Bonheur,  et  je  lui  dois  sans  doutte  la  bonne  santg  dont 
je  jouis,  Je  scai  manier  la  Beche,  la  hache,  La  Verloppe,  je  forge 
et  travaille  le  fer  et  L'acier.  Grossierement,  je  peux  construire  un 
chariot  de  tout  point,  le  conduire,  le  charger,  d6charger,  etc*  Je 
scai  ferrer  un  cheval,  le  saigner,  le  m^dicamenter  au  Besoin,  j'en 
connois  tous  les  D^ffauts  et  presque  toutes  les  maladies.  Je  scai 
faire  la  plus  grande  partie  des  outils,  du  charpentier  et  du 
mar6chal,  tous  les  ustencilles  de  la  campagne,  soit  de  Bois,  de  fer, 
ou  d'acier.  J*al  une  teinture  de  Geometrie  pratique  et  de  m6caniques. 
Voila  tous  mes  talens.  Je  ne  scai  ny  Labourer,  ny  faucher,  et  je 
n'entends  rien  au  commerce.  En  fondant  le  Superflu  des  mes  6ffets, 
en  vendant  le  peu  de  fonds  qui  me  restera,  ce  sera  Beaucoup  si  je 
parviens  ^  Rassembler  une  somme  de  quatre  &  c^q  mille  livres 
tournois.  Voila  toute  L'gtendue  de  mes  f  acult6s. 

Actuellement,  Monsieur,  je  Reclame  votre  asistance  et  vos 
conseils.  Dois-je  adopter  votre  patrie?  Suis-je  Propre  a  devenir 
am6ricain?  Quel  sort  puis-je  me  faire  dans  ce  nouvel  6misphere? 
Quels  sont  Les  obstacles  que  J'ai  ^  surmonter.  II  s'en  pr^sente 
naturellement  deux,  la  langue,  et  Le  nom  frangais  qui,  dit-on,  n'est 
pas  accueilli  ches  vous  aussi  favor ablement  que  Les  autres  nations, 
mais  je  suis  n€  allemand. 

Je^pourois  mendier  des  secours  dans  ma  patrie,  j'aime  k  croire 
que  j*en  obtiendrois,  mais  je  ne  veux  £tre  k  charge  £  personne.  Je 
Rougirois  de  charger  un  autre  que  moi  du  soin  de  mon  existance. 
Comme  homme  fai  droit  a  la  pitfc  de  mes  semblables,  ^  Leurs 
bons  offices  et  a  leurs  conseils.  Je  ne  veux  rien  de  plus  J'en- 
trevois  un  terme  a  mes  malheurs,  j'ai  Besoin  d'un  guide  pour 
me  conduire  dans  la  Route  que  je  dois  suivre  pour  y  attein- 
dre.  Cest  a ^  vous,  Monsieur,  que  je  m'adresse,  me  refuser^s 
Vous,  non.  J'ai  des  titres,  je  suis  malheureux.  Vous  pouves  me 


1    FEBRUARY    1787 

parler  franchement,  je  prfcvois  une  grande  partie  des  difficult^, 
elles  ne  m'effrayent  point,  j'ai  du  courage,  de  la  patience,  de 
1'gnergie.  Je  me  soumettrai  &  tout.  Je  laisserai  derriere  moi  toute 
espece  de  pr6juge,  depuis  Longtemps  j'en  suis  6xempt.  Je  pr£- 
sume,  avec  raison,  que  J'ai  Besoin  d*un  noviciat,  que  je  dois 
travailler  pour  autrui  avant  de  travailler  pour  moi,  cela  me  paroit 
indispensable,  ne  fut-ce  que  pour  apprendre  la  langue. 

Au  reste.  Monsieur,  il  Vous  importe  de  savoir  que  je  ne  pr6- 
senterai  nulle  part  que  ce  soit  sans  des  titres  qui  rgpondront  de 
ma  conduitte  et  qui  apprendront  que  j'ai  toujours  cheri  et  pratiqug 
L'honneur  et  la  vertu. 

Puissids  vous,  Monsieur,  mettre  quelque  inter6t  &  me  conduire 
dans  votre  patrie.  Peut  gtre  un  jour  auriSs  Vous  la  satisfaction  de 
jouir  de  ma  Reconnoissance  et  de  mon  Bonheur. 

J'attends  de  vos  nouvelles  avec  la  plus  grande  impatience. 

J'ai  L'honneur  d'etre  avec  Respect  Monsieur  Votre  tres  humble 
et  tres  obeissant  serviteur,  DE  PUISAYE 

RC  (MoSHi);  at  foot  of  text:  (SMon  adresse  est.  A  Mr.  de  Puisaye  encien  Cpne, 
de  Cavallerie  a  Beaufossg  proche  le  MSle  sur  Sarte  en  norm  an  die  au  Mele  sur 
sarte"?  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  7  Feb.  1787. 

To  John  Stockdale 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  1.  1787. 

You  have  two  or  three  times  proposed  to  me  the  printing  my 
Notes  on  Virginia.  I  never  did  intend  to  have  them  made  public, 
because  they  are  little  interesting  to  the  rest  of  the  world.  But  as  a 
translation  of  them  is  coming  out,  I  have  concluded  to  let  the 
original  appear  also.  I  have  therefore  corrected  a  copy,  and  made 
some  additions.  I  have  moreover  had  a  map  engraved,  which  is 
worth  more  than  the  book.  If  you  chuse  to  print  the  work  I  will 
send  you  the  corrected  copy,  and  when  it  shall  be  nearly  printed 
I  will  send  the  plate  of  the  map.  I  would  not  chuse  that  it  should 
be  put  under  a  patent,  nor  that  there  should  be  a  tittle  altered, 
added,  nor  omitted.  It  would  be  necessary  to  have  a  small  half 
sheet  map  engraved  of  the  country  of  Virginia  as  when  first  dis- 
covered. This  map  is  only  to  be  found  in  Smith's  history  of  Virginia, 
a  thin  folio,  now  very  rare.  I  was  not  able  to  find  that  work 

here,  but  surely  it  can  be  found  in  London.  An  exact  copy  of  the 
map  is  all  that  would  be  wanting.  I  leave  this  place  about  the  1 1th. 
or  12th.  Be  so  good  as  to  let  me  know  whether  you  chuse  to  print 


1    FEBRUARY    1787 

this  work  under  the  conditions  before  named.  If  I  receive  your 
answer  in  the  affirmative  before  I  set  out,  I  will  send  you  ^im- 
mediately the  copy.  It  is  an  octavo  of  391.  pages.  The  American 
Atlas  is  come  safe  to  hand,  I  am  Sir  your  very  humble  servt., 


ES.  It  is  not  necessary  to  observe  that  as  I  have  been  at  the  expence 
of  engraving  the  large  map,  I  should  expect  to  be  paid  for  those 
you  should  have  occasion  for,  a  shilling  a  peice. 

PrC  (DLC);  endorsed. 

To  the  Commissioners  of  the  Treasury 

GENTLEMEN  Paris  Feb.  1,  1787. 

Colo,  Franks,  who  acted  as  Secretary  to  Mr.  Barclay  on  his 
mission  to  Marocco,  having  occasion  for  money  for  his  journey,  I 
furnished  him  with  fifty  pounds  sterling  by  draught  on  the  fund 
appropriated  to  those  purposes,  for  which  I  now  inclose  you  his 
receipt.  Mr.  Barclay  settled  his  account  to  the  time  of  his  being 
at  Madrid  on  his  return,  of  which,  I  presume,  one  or  both  those 
gentlemen  will  render  you  account. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  sentiments  of  the  most  perfect  esteem 
&  respect  Gentlemen  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servant, 


PrC  (DLC).  Enclosure  not  found. 

To  Mary  Barclay 

Paris  Feb.  2.  1787, 

You  could  not  have  obliged  me  more,  my  dear  Madam,  than 
by  the  friendly  application  you  have  made.  The  thousand  livres 
shall  be  delivered  into  the  hands  of  any  person  you  will  be  so  good 
as  to  direct  to  call  for  them;  or  to  any  person  you  please  in  Paris 
at  a  moment's  warning.  My  last  letter  from  Mr.  Barclay  was  dated 
Alicant  Jan.  6.  He  was  well,  and  was  to  set  out  in  two  days  for 
Madrid,  from  whence  he  had  some  expectations  of  going  to 
Corunna.  I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  very  sincere  esteem  & 
respect  Dr.  Madam  your  most  obedt.  humble  servt., 


The  FRIENDLY  APKucATiON,  if  in  writing,  has  not  been  found. 


From  G.  W.  F.  Dumas 

The  Hague ,  2  Feb.  1787.  Is  "toujours  en  peine  de  3  choses":  the  heal- 
ing of  TJ's  hand;  the  fate  of  a  letter  he  sent  some  time  ago  through 
Du  Muy  for  Lafayette;  and  the  fate  of  two  letters,  especially  the  second, 
that  he  wrote  to  TJ  and  entrusted  to  Ambassador  Brantzen.  He  writes 
at  the  H6tel  de  France,  <cun  moment  avant  que  Mr*  1'Ambr.  ferme  son 
paquet  et  expSdie  Son  Courier." 

RC  (DLC);  2  p.;  in  French;  endorsed.  at  least  one  enclosure  was  Dumas'  letter 

Recorded    in    SJL,    as    received    9    Feb.  to  Jay  of  26  Jan.   1787    (brief  extract 

1787.   The  postscript  to   TJ's  letter   of  in    Dumas    Letter    Book,    Rijksarchief, 

9  Feb.   in  reply   to   this    suggests  that,  The   Hague;   photostat  in  DLC). 
though  not  indicated  in  the  text  of  the  The  letter  for  LAFAYETTE  was  one  of 

present  letter,  Dumas  had  accompanied  8  Dec.   1786;  the  letter  of  5  Jan.   1787 

this   with   certain    papers   for   America;  to    TJ    was    entrusted    to    BRANTZEN; 

since    TJ    was    Dumas'    usual    medium  possibly    the    second   letter    referred    to 

for   dispatching   his   communications  to  was  that  of  23  Jan.   1787. 
Jay  and   Congress,  it  is   probable  that 

From  Mademoiselle  de  Lausanne 

Paris ,  2  Feb.  1787.  As  a  token  of  appreciation  of  services  "y°ur  lord- 
ship has  rendered  us,"  she  sends  TJ  a  letter  from  Eliza  Livingston  which 
she  received  in  reply  to  the  letter  TJ  forwarded  for  her;  asks  to  have  it 
returned.  In  executing  a  "work  she  has  undertaken  at  the  suggestion  of 
her  friends,  she  needs  a  "collection  of  journals  and  strange  gazettes"; 
has  no  way  to  procure  those  from  America;  asks  TJ  to  lend  them  to  her 
as  they  come  out,  as  well  as  other  'Svorks  which  it  produces  whatever 
they  may  be,  but  the  mathematics  and  marine";  would  send  for  them  at 
the  beginning  of  every  month;  anything  entrusted  to  her  would  be  re- 
turned and  the  "news  should  be  retaken,  the  all  with  the  greatest  ex- 
actness." Hopes  TJ  will  grant  her  request  because  this  would  give  her 
renewed  opportunities  of  expressing  her  esteem  for  him. 

RC  (MHi);  4  p.;  at  foot  of  text:  "Mile  de  Lauzanne  rue  Ste  avoye  No  12";  en- 
dorsed; TJ  used  the  final  blank  page  for  making  arithmetical  calculations.  Not 
recorded  in  SJL.  The  enclosed  letter  from  Eliza  Livingston  to  Mile,  de  Lausanne 
has  not  been  identified. 

From  Alexander  McCaul 

[Glasgow,  Z  Feb.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  14  Feb.  1787. 
Not  found,  but  see  TJ  to  McCaul,  4  Jan.  and  19  Feb.  1787.] 


To  Francois  Soules 


I  send  you  the  papers  M.  de  Crevecoeur  sent  to  Normandy  for. 
The  account  of  the  destruction  of  Wyoming  begins  page  40.  You 
may  rely  certainly  on  the  author's  facts,  and  you  will  be  easily  able 
to  separate  from  them  his  reflections.  You  can  best  judge  whether 
an  account  of  that  interesting  settlement,  condensed  into  a  few 
lines  might  not  form  an  agreeable  episode  in  your  history,  and 
prepare  the  mind  more  awfully  for  it's  final  catastrophe.  I  will 
thank  you  to  return  these  papers  as  soon  as  you  are  done  with 
them  that  I  may  restore  them  to  the  hands  of  M.  de  Crevecoeur 
before  my  departure  which  will  now  be  in  a  few  days.  I  have  the 
honor  to  be  Sir  your  most  obedt.  humble  servt., 


PrC  (DLC);  without  indication  of 
the  year,  but  date  is  established  from 
an  entry  in  SJL  for  2  Feb,  1787.  En- 
closure: St.  John  de  CrSvecoeur's  manu- 
script Suaquehanna.)  a  document  of  48 

pages,  of  which  THE  ACCOUNT  .  .  .  OF 

WYOMING  BEGINS  PAGE  40  (see  TJ  tO 
SoulSs,  19  Jan.  1787;  Howard  C.  Rice, 
Le  Cultivateur  Americain  [Paris,  1933], 
p.  154,  230). 

From  Andre  Limozin 

Le  Havre,  3  Feb.  1787*  Has  had  no  letter  from  TJ  since  his  own  of 
31  Jan.;  encloses  a  letter  from  "Mr.  Oster  of  Richmond  by  my  ship  Le 
Bailly  de  Suffren  Captn.  Cleret,"  which  left  Portmouth,  Va.,  4  Jan, 
1787  with  cargo  of  315  hogsheads  of  tobacco  "for  Mr.  Robert  Morris's 
account.  She  had  a  fine  Passage. ...  an  exceeding  good  fine  fast  sailing 
Ship.^  Has  received  a  letter  from  Barclay  at  Alicant  asking  his  ideas 
^relating  to  what  would  be  the  most  profitable  to  the  American  trade 
in  France  Knowing  perfectly  well  that  I  have  a  great  experience  in  busi- 
ness."" Will  forward  his  ideas  to  Barclay  under  cover  to  TJ  as  soon  as 
his  health  improves. 

RC  (MHi);  4  p.j  endorsed.  Recorded 
in  SJL  as  received  6  Feb.  1787.  The 
enclosed  letter  from  Martin  Oster, 
French  consul  at  Richmond,  has  not 
been  found,  but  it  was  probably  in 
reply  to  that  from  TJ  to  him  of  19  Nov. 
1786.  No  such  letter  is  recorded  in  SJL 
as  having  been  received  with  Limozin's, 

the  only  other  on  that  date  being 
Wythe's  letter  of  22  Dec.  1786.  Despite 
this  omission  in  SJL,  the  present  letter 
probably  covered  letters  from  both 
Oster  and  Wythe,  for  TJ*s  acknowl- 
edgement on  8  Feb.  1787  refers  to 
"your  favor  of  the  3d.  inst.  and  .  . 
the  letters  it  covered." 


To  Christian  Frederick  Michaelis 
and  Others 

SIR  Feb.  4.  1787 

The  American  Philosophical  Society  having  heretofore  done 
themselves  the  honour  of  naming  you  one  of  their  members,  the 
President  has  been  pleased  to  transmit  to  me  the  Diploma  made 
out  in  the  forms  used  by  the  society,  and  authenticated  by  their 
seal.  I  do  myself  the  honour  of  forwarding  it  to  you  and  at  the 
same  time  of  assuring  you  of  the  sentiments  of  esteem  &  respect 
with  which  I  have  the  honour  to  be  Sir  Your  most  obedient  & 
most  humble  servant,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

RC  (MWA);  without  indication  of 
addressee;  in  William  Short's  hand, 
signed  by  TJ.  PrC  (DLC) ;  dated  "Paris 
Feb.4.1787";  at  foot  of  text  Short  copied 
off  the  following1  list  of  names  of  per- 
sons to  whom  the  letter  was  addressed, 
each  with  its  appropriate  certificate  of 
membership  in  the  American  Philo- 
sophical Society: 

"MM.    1.  Christian  Frederick  Michaelis. 
M.D.  of  Gottenberg-  [17853 

2.  Forbern  Bergman.  Prof.  Math. 

Stockholm  [1773] 

3.  Lavoisier,     of    the     Acad.     of 

Sciences.  Paris   [1775] 

4.  Abb6  [Felice]  Fontana— Direc- 

tor of  the  Great  Duke's 
Cabinet  of  natural  history 

5.  Tim.    Baron    de    Kleing^tedt. 

Councillor  of  State  to  the 
Empress  of  Russia  [1773] 

6.  Abbe   [Jean  F.]   de  Rosier  of 

the  Acad.  of  Sciences  at 
Lyons  [1775] 

7.  Le  Roux   [1775] 

8.  Christian    Magee.    L.L.D.    of 


9.  Gerbier.      [Thibert      Garbier] 

chez  Messrs,  lea  Abbes 
Chalut  et  Arnaud  [1786] 

10.  Chevalier     Grenchon      [Gran- 

chain]    of   Paris   [1786] 

11.  Gastellier.  [RenS  G.  Gastelier] 

M.D.  at  Montgaris  [Mon- 
tar^is]  [1786] 

12.  Grival.       [Guillauine      Grivel] 

Paris    [1786] 

13.  Doctor    Noel     [Nicolas     Noel] 

Paris   [1786] 

14.  Abbg      [Jean      L.]      Soulavie. 

France    [1786] 

15.  Peter     Berffius     M.D.      Prof. 

Nat.  hist.  Stockholm  [before 

16.  Christian   Meyer,   Astronomer 

to  his  Serene  Highness  the 
Elector  Palatine  [17771 

17.  Signor  Famitz  of  Naples   [be- 

fore 1769] 

18.  Major      Frederick      F.S.      de 

Brahm,  Triers   [1784] 

19.  Charles       Magnus       Wrangrel 

D.D.     of     Sweden     [before 

20.  Duke     de     la     Rochefoucault 


21.  Count  de  Buffon  [before  1769] 

22.  M.  de  Condorcet  [1775] 

23.  [Isaac]      Jamineau,      English 

Consul    at    Naples    [before 

24.  Dsmbenton   [1775] 

25.  Count  Guichen.  [1785]," 
Entry  in  SJL  reads:   "American  Phil. 

Society,   new  members   of,  here,   circu- 

TJ  evidently  received  Vol.  n  of 
Transactions  of  the  American  Philo- 
sophical Society  between  23  Dec.  1786 
and  the  date  of  the  present  circular 
(see  TJ  to  Franklin,  23  Oct.  1786). 
Franklin's  letter  of  transmittal  of  8  Oct. 
1786  only  mentions  "several  Diplomas 
for  foreign  g'entlemen"  without  speci- 
fying the  number.  Vol.  H  of  the  Trans- 
actions lists  only  the  names  of  those 
given  above  under  numbers  1,  2,  3,  4, 
5,  6,  7,  18,  24,  and  25  (p.  xxvii-xxviii) ; 
those  whose  names  appear  under  num- 
bers 8,  15,  17,  19,  21,  and  23  are  listed 
among  foreign  members  in  Vol.  I 
(1770)  of  Transactions  (p.  xxii).  The 
name  of  CHRISTIAN  MAGEE  appears  as 
given  in  same,  but  this  must  have  been 
a  confusion  with  CHRISTIAN  MEYER;  the 


5    FEBRUARY    1787 

not  aooear  in  American  Hulosophical  Society  is   sup- 

^c^P^  Plied  from  the   list  in    same,   together 

*whicid$<Kte7vhe™2&  former  rest-  with  full  names   when   ^ven.    For   tiie 

dent  ^d7or7J  members   are  listed,  confusion  in  respect  to  T£s  own  certtt- 

buf  the  name   of  the   latter   does    (p.  cate  of  membership,  see .Vol.  *:    544-6 

4<H>.  The  year  in  which  each  of  the  See  Lavoisier  to  TJ,  S  McK  1787,  and 

above   was    elected   a  member    of   the  Daubenton  to  TJ,  15  Feb.  1787. 

From  Henry  Champion 

SrR  L'Orient  5th.  feby,  1787 

Mr.  Loreilhe  being  now  at  Bordeaux,  your  Letter  of  the  30th. 
past  came  to  my  hand,  respecting  the  Plants  sent  you  from  S. 
Carolina  care  of  Mr.  Otto.  They  must  certainly  be  Ship'd  on  board 
the  Courier  de  LTEurope  Captain  Seonville  which  was  the  last 
Packet  arrived  from  New  York,  but  as  that  Vessel  arrived  at  the 
Island  of  Groix  twelve  miles  from  hence,  the  Captain  had  his 
orders  to  proceed  with  all  possible  dispatch  to  Havre  de  Grace 
from  whence  the  Packet  is  now  to  depart.  He  only  sent  on  shore 
the  Passengers,  and  Letters,  consequently  the  roots  have  been  left 
on  board.  I  have  enquired  of  the  Commissary  who  has  charge  of 
that  department,  but  he  has  seen  nothing  directed  to  your  Ex- 
cellency. I  am  convinced  your  Excellency  will  find  them  at  Havre 
de  Grace.  I  am  Your  Excellencys  Most  obt.  &  Most  Huml.  Serv., 


RC  (MHO;  endorsed:  **Lore!lh€."  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  11  Feb.   from 
"Champion  Henry  ,w 

From  Degaseq,  with  Enclosure 

MONSIEUR  rue  des  Prouvaires  &  Paris  ce  5.  fevrier  1787. 

Vous  aves  vu  sans  doute  Dans  le  Mercure  de  france  No.  34,, 
du  26  aout  1786  un  extrait  d'un  ouvrage  de  Mr.  Payne  centre 
P£tablissment  du  papier  monoie  dans  vos  6tats  unis.  Comme  le 
redacteur  du  Mercure  a  prgtendu  que  chaque  ligne  de  cette  ouvrage 
portoit  avec  elle  un  caractere  d<§videuse  qull  n'gtait  pas  permis  de 
contester,  fay  era  devoir  lui  prouver  le  contraire.  A  raison  de 
la  publicity  de  cet  extrait,  et  de  la  sensation  qu'il  a  faite  dans  le 
public,  j'ay  demande  vainement  que  ma  reponse  fut  inseree  dans 
ce  m8me  journal.  Comme  cette  mature  interesse  directement  les 
Etats  utus,  j'ay  ITionneur  de  vous  Tadresser,  parceque  si  vous  nV 
trouv^s  pas  d'inconvenient,  personne  n'a  plus  de  quality  que  vous, 
pour  exiger  que  cette  piece  soit  rendue  publique. 

5    FEBRUARY    1787 

J'ay  Phonneur  d'etre  avec  le  plus  profond  respect,  Monsieur, 
Votre  trfcs  humble  et  trSs  Obeissant  serviteur, 

ancien  Cer.  au  pnt,  De  guienne 

RC  (DLC).  Not  recorded  in  SJL. 


Dans  ce  moment  interessant  oil  toutes  les  nations  de  Peurope  s'occu- 
pent  de  Padministration  de  leurs  finances,  nous  avons  cru  necessaire  de 
repondre  a  Pextrait  d'un  ouvrage  de  Mr.  Payne  contre  Petablissement  du 
papier  monoie  dans  les  Stats  unis,  insert  dans  le  Mercure  de  france  No. 
34.  du  26.  aout  1786. 

U argent,  dit  M.  Payne,  d'apres  un  bon  alleinand,  est  de  Par -gent ,  et 
le  papier  du  papier.  Mais  qu'elle  idge  attache-t-il  £  cette  expression?  Si 
on  considere  Pargent  et  le  papier  conrme  une  matiere  de  convention 
il  y  a  certainement  une  tres  grande  difference  de  Pune  &  Pautre.  Si  on 
les  considere  comme  un  signe  repr€sentatif ,  et  empreints  du  m£me  sceau 
de  Pautorite",  ils  auront  une  6gale  valeur,  et  produiront  le  m£me  effet 
dans  la  circulation  et  dans  les  moyens. 

II  ne  s'agit  que  de  determiner  le  vrai  point  de  vue  sous  lequel  on  doit 
envisager  le  papier  monoie.  Si  son  Emission  devenoit  un  abus,  attendu  la 
facility  de  le  fabriquer,  Petat  ressembleroit  alors  parf aitement  zl  Palchi- 
miste  dont  parle  M.  Payne,  qui  auroit  trouv6  la  pierre  philosophale, 
puisque  cette  grande  decouverte  auroit  les  m£mes  inconvenients  que 
Pabus  du  papier  monoie,  en  raison  de  la  profusion  illimitee  de  Por  qui  en 
seroit  le  resultat. 

On  ne  pr^supposera  pas  qu'un  etat,  quelqu'il  soit,  6tablisse  sans  cause 
une  nouvelle  propri6t6  factice  telle  que  le  papier  monoie,  oil  tel  autre 
engagement.  II  faut  de  necessity  absolue  que  ce  soit,  oil  pour  se  liberer 
d*une  dette  deja  contracted,  et  dont  la  circulation  des  effets  representatifs 
le  generoit,  oft  pour  supplier  a  la  raretS  des  especes  courantes,  et  f aciliter 
par  cette  creation  d'un  numeraire  fictif  les  moyens  d'echanges  pour 
toutes  especes  de  productions. 

Or,  dans  ces  deux  cas,  on  est  bien  Sloigne"  de  voir  les  suites  funestes 
qu*a  pretendu  demontrer  M.  Payne  dans  la  creation  du  papier. 

Le  papier  monoie  est  un  engagement  cFetat  reprSsentant  une  somme 
plus  ou  mains  considerable  cTespeces  couranteSj  pour  avoir  cours  comme 
elles,  sans  avoir  besoin  cTechanges  en  especes  sonantes  dans  Pachat  des 
productions^  si  ce  rfest  pour  le  plus  oft  le  mains  de  leur  valeur  au-dessus 
de  celle  dudit  papier. 

L'etat  qui  fait  la  mise  dehors  d'un  tel  papier  repond  de  sa  valeur 
comme  de  tout  autre  engagement.  II  n'y  a  de  difference  du  premier  au 
dernier  qu'en  ce  que  Pun  ne  produit  point  d'interet  dans  Pechange  oft 
dans  Pagiotage,  et  que  Pautre  au  contraire  gprouve  tous  ces  inconveni- 

Ce  papier  monoie  est  done  comme  tout  autre  papier,  oft  est  €crite  une 
obligation  d*une  valeur  quelconque  de  la  part  du  gouvernernent  qui  Pa 
contracte^  et  signg. 


5    FEBRUARY    1787 

Cest  de  plus  une  promesse  de  payement  en  especes,  et  il  €quivant 
dans  tous  les  cas  a  une  semblable  promesse,  puisqu'on  acqmert  avec 
ledit  papier  tout  ce  qu'on  peut  acqu6rir  avec  le  numeraire  quil  reprS- 
sente.  Certainement  M.  Payne  Iui-m6me  ne  contesteroit  pas  qua  le  gou- 
vernement  qui  le  donne  n'est  pas  en  etat  de  le  paier,  ou  ne  veut  pas  le 
paier;  et  alors  il  vaut  done  invinciblement  la  somme  pour  laqueUe  il  est 

donne".  .  ,_  .     .        , 

M.  Payne  auroit  raison  dans  son  sisteme  de  proscription  du  papier 
die's  un  gouvernement  insolvable,  mais  peut-il  et  oseroit-il  dire  que  le 
sien  seroit  dans  cette  hipothese?  H  n'y  a  de  gouvernement  insolvable  que 
celui  qui  veut  et  qui  peut  I'atre  impunement  par  sa  constitution,  tel  qu'un 
€tat  despote.  C'est  la  seulement  qu'on  peut  dire  avec  v€rite  qu'il  est  une 
grande  difference  entre  des  papiers  pris  et  donnSs  comme  engagements 
de  particulars  d  particuliers^  et  des  paplers  mis  en  circulation  par  cet 
$tat  comme  argent. 

Mais,  ches  un  peuple  ou  toutes  les  volont^s  sont  libres,  et  concourent 
au  m6me  but,  celui  du  bonheur  public,  il  est  impossible  que  Pengage- 
ment  d'un  particulier,  quel  qu'il  soit,  vaille  celui  de  l'6tat,  en  quelque 
forme  qu'il  puisse  6tre  concu.  II  est  incroyable  qu'on  ait  pu  avancer  une 
telle  proposition. 

II  est  Evident  que  quand  un  6tat  est  obere*,  sa  liberation  doit  necessaire- 
ment  sortir  du  travail  et  de  1'industrie  de  son  peuple.  Le  meilleur  moyen 
pour  y  parvenir  sera  done  celui  qui  augmentera  ce  travail  et  cette  in- 


Or,  ttne  masse  considerable  de  proprigtes  factices  telles  que  sont  les 
engagements  publics  portant  interet,  devient  necessairement  une  sur- 
charge sur  le  sol  et  sur  Pindustrie.  C'est  par  consequent  une  surcharge 
sur  le  produit  anmiel  de  Pun  et  de  Pautre.  Cette  masse  est  done  infini- 
ment  nuisible  et  la  plus  contraire  au  travail  du  peuple. 

Dimhmer  cette  propriety,  changer  les  engagements  d'€tat  qui  la  con- 
stitue,  en  creer  d'autres  qui  sans  f aire  aucun  tort,  ni  aucunes  injustices, 
retranchent  ou  dgtruisent  en  entier  cette  masse  de  proprigte"  factice, 
c'est  evidement  augmenter  le  travail  du  peuple  et  dans  la  culture  et  dans 
Pindustrie.  C*est  par  consequent  travailler  doublement  &  liberer  P6tat, 

Tels  sont  dans  le  premier  cas  les  effets  que  produit  le  papier  monoie, 
car  supposons  que  cet  6tat  doive  trente  milions  pour  lesquels  ses  engage- 
ments circulent  dans  le  public,  et  necessitent  une  surcharge  annuelle  de 
taxe  de  quinze  cent  mille  livres  pour  les  interets.  Supposons  encore  qu'on 
cree  30.  milions  de  papier  monoie  pour  solder  lesdits  effets,  et  que 
1  employ  en  soit  exactement  appliqug  &  la  solde  susdite. 

Nous  disons  qu'alors  Pgtat  se  met  gvidement  au  pair  de  sa  depense, 
et  qu  il  gagne  de  plus  le  1,500,000*  d'interets  annuels  qu'il  avoit  a  paier. 
fl^^I^fl^L81  ?f*  ^  ?f  assgl?age  P°ur  continuer  la  mgme  taxe 

t  pour 

A        t)/\  "T  '          '    — ~~" "  — IV-fcl*   ^-v   -IA^^J-VS    VAC;  JL  a.nt;jLCliia,C    dette 

de  30.  milions  et    ce  qui  est  plus  avantageux  encore,  libgrg  mgme  du 
moyen  avec  lequel  il  1'avoit  acquitg 

Ce  dernier  point  est  inestimable.  En  ce  qu^  fait  de  1'emission  du 
papier  monoie  un  veritable  emprunt  -oiager  de  1'gtat  a  1'gtat  lui-m€me, 


5    FEBRUARY    1787 

sans  aucun  interet,  sans  aucune  surcharge  ni  pour  le  peuple  ni  pour  le 
gouvernement,  et  sans  aucune  crainte  pour  sa  perpetuity  puisque  dans 
un  6tat  sage  et  libre,  on  en  verra  6videmment  Pextinction  annuelle  et 
successive  et  que  la  volontg  d'un  despote  ne  la  perpetuera  pas  a  son  gr6. 
Cette  circonstance  est  impossible  dans  un  tel  gtablissement,  parceque 
^extinction  dudit  papier  une  fois  legalement  etablie,  comme  son  admis- 
siony  il  suffiroit  du  premier  manquement  &  la  loi  pour  lui  ravir  irrevo- 
cablement  la  confiance  publique. 

On  ne  peut  se  dissimuler  que  quand  une  nation  est  parvenue  a  un 
certain  periode  d'accablement  par  la  multiplicite  de  ses  alienations  en 
proprietes  f actices  il  faut  ou  qu'on  ait  recours  £  de  moyens  violents  et 
douloureux,  tels  que  la  reduction  des  dites  propriety's,  ou  si  ces  moyens 
qui  n'affectent  qu'une  partie  des  individus  de  F6tat,  sont  injustes,  il  faut 
bien  prendre  celui  de  Paugmentation  des  taxes  qui  les  affectent  tous;  oil 
enfin,  si  personne  ne  veut  etre  victime  dans  ces  circonstances,  il  faut 
user  forcement  de  resourses  extraordinaires  pour  retablir  le  parfait 
equilibre  et  rendre  a,  la  nation  toute  sa  force,  et  t6ute  sa  vigueur. 

Dans  le  second  cas  oil  le  papier  monoie  seroit  6tabli  seulement  pour 
supplier  a  la  rarete*  des  especes,  il  rempliroit  egalement  le  but  propose", 
parce  qu'il  tiendroit  lieu  du  numeraire  re"el  pendant  le  temps  de  son  ad- 
mission. Qu'est-ce  qui  pouroit  empecher  en  effet  Fengagement  d'un  6tat 
comme  celui  d'un  particulier  d'avoir  cours  dans  Fechange?  Ce  ne  pouroit 
etre  que  Finsolvabilite  r€elle  du  debiteur,  ou  la  possibility  pr6jug€e 
certaine  de  son  insolvabilite".  Or  on  demande  si  dans  un  6tat  sage  et  libre, 
et  qui  n'a  point  de  dette,  comme  nous  le  supposons,  il  peut  y  avoir  un 
doute  quelconque  sur  sa  solvability?  Et  si  la  certitude  existe,  qu'est-ce 
qui  peut  empecher  le  cours  public  de  ce  numeraire  fictif? 

Ce  rfest  point  de  Por  et  de  Vargent^  dira-t-on,  ce  n'est  que  du  papier.  Et 
la  valeur  d'un  papier  quelconque  rCest  pas  en  lux-mSme^  mais  settlement 
dans  Fobligation  ou  est  la  personne  qui  Fa  contract^  de  le  paier*  Mais 
F6tat  qui  Pa  contract^  et  signe,  ne  vaut-il  pas  un  particulier?  Oseroit-on 
repondre  negativement?  Est-ce  parce  que  le  dit  papier  ne  se  paie  pas 
journellement  en  argent?  Mais,  s'il  est  pai€  en  Equivalent,  en  objets  r€els 
dont  Fargent  n'est  que  la  representation,  qu'importe,  puisque  Feffet  est 
absolument  le  m8me.  Peut-on  dire  alors  que  le  papier  circulant  de  cette 
maniere  rfarrive  pas  sans  cesse  et  a  la  place  et  a,  la  personne  ou  et  de 
laquelle  Fargent  doit  §tre  tir€>  puisqu'6tant  ainsi  sagement  constituS,  il 
arrive  const ament  a  sa  representation. 

Nous  scavons  qu*un  peuple  dans  F6tat  des  choses  ne  peut  pas  se  passer 
d'or.  C'est  aujourdhuy  ches  les  nations  diverses  un  bien  ou  un  mal 
necessaire  pour  la  facility  des  ^changes.  Mais  nous  soutenons  affirmative- 
ment  qu'il  ne  peut  jamais  etre  qu'un  objet  de  convention  entre  les 
hommes,  que  Fargent  comme  le  papier  monoie,  ou  tel  autre  signe  repre1- 
sentatif  des  objets  reels,  ne  sera  jamais  qu'une  propri6t6  factice  et  non 
une  propriete  r6elle,  qui  n'existe  que  dans  le  sol,  et  dans  les  bras  de  ces 
m£mes  hommes. 

Nous  avons  evidement  demontr€  que  le  papier  monoie  peut  supl6er 
dans  un  6tat  ainsi  constitu^  a  la  raretg  des  especes  pendant  un  temps 
limite",  et  qu'il  doit  avoir  cours  comme  elles,  et  avec  une  egale  confiance. 
Nous  ajoutons  encore  que  F6mission  d'un  tel  papier  ou  de  tel  autre 


5    FEBRUARY     1787 

numeraire  fictif  ne  pent  concourir  en  rien  a  repousser  les  metaux 
€tat  quelconque.  . 

Que  For  solt  oft  ne  soit  pas  une  des  productions  du  sol,  il  n  en  es 
moins  vrai  qu'une  nation  ne  le  conserve  oft  ne  le  fait  venir  ches  ell< 
par  Fabondance  od  la  disette  des  autres  productions  du  sol  et  de 
dustrie  necessaires  a  Fexistence,  qu'eUe  se  procure  dans  son  sol  IT 
et  par  les  bras  de  ses  individus.  Quand  une  nation  vend  plus  aux  a 
nations  qu'elle  n'achete  d'elles,  alors,  comme  les  metaux  servent  a  ace 
la  Balance  des  ^changes  respectifs,  il  f aut  necessairement,  si  cette 
ance  lui  est  favorable  qu'on  lui  apporte  ch€s  elle  les  metaux  destii 
la  repr£senter- 

De  la  il  rSsulte  Svldement  que  si  les  6tats  unis  ou  Tun  d'eux  vei 
auac  autres  plus  qu'ils  n'achStent,  les  m6taux  viendront  forcement 
eux,  et  que,  quoiqu'on  fasse  il  est  impossible  qu'ils  en  sortent. 

On  conclut  enfin  que  quoique  le  papier  monoie   ainsi  6tabli   & 
doive  avoir  pendant  sa  dure"e  une  valeur  egale  au  numeraire  r€el 
repr€sente,  il  n*en  est  pas  moins  vrai  qu'il  a  besoin  de  loix  coac 
pour  lui  donner  cours,  et  en  empecher  les  abus.  N'en  a-t-il  pas  f  allu 
For  et  Fargent  dans  leur  introduction  primitive,  et  n'en  f  aut-il  pas  en 
Ainsi  done  il  ne  s'ensuit  pas  de  ce  que  le  papier  monoie  €tabli  co 
nous  Favons  dit,  ait  et  doive  avoir  r£ellement  la  mSme  valeur  qu 
metaux,  qu'il  n'ait  aussi  besoin  de  loix  coactives  pour  avoir  conrs 
tous  les  individus  quelconques.  Mais  il  s'ensuit  tr£s  demonstrative 
qu'il  n'a  nullement  besoin  de  ces  loix  pour  les  hommes  sages   et 
patriotes.  Et  c'est  1st  ce  qui  nous  fait  conclure  en  dernier  analise 
remission  du  papier  monoie  pour  supl€er  k  la  raret6  des  especes, 
ferme  tous  les  avantages  possibles  sans  inconvenients. 

D'apr^s  tout  ce  que  nous  venons  de  dire,  nous  ne  concevons  pas 
ment  le  r€dacteur  du  Mercure  a  pu  trouver  le  caractere  d'evidence 
chacune  des  lignes  de  Fouvrage  de  M.  PayTae  contre  Fintroductio 
papier  monoie  dans  les  €tats  unis  de  Famerique. 

MS   (BLC:  TJ  Papers,  24:   4O95-8);  in  Oegaseq's  hand. 

From  Anthony  Garvey 

SlR  Rotten  5  February  _  . . 

I  have  Received  the  Honour  of  your  Excellency's  letter  witt 
acquit  which  is  in  rule. 

There  is  a  regular  Dilly  that  Gos  from  hence  to  Havre  (S< 
day  Excepted)  It  returns  likewise  every  day  (Saturday  Except 
The  fare  is  16*  4  for  a  Place. 

M.  Boylstons  Claim  for  return  of  the  duty  Paid  on  his  oi 
the  more =  favourable,  that  with  the  neat  proceeds  of  his  said  ca 
he  bought  Sugars  at  Havre  which  he  sent  to  Boston    Sie 
opperation  of  the  Kind  that  ever  was  practised 

5    FEBRUARY    1787 

May  I  beg  the  favour  of  your  Excellency  to  order  the  Inclosed 
to  be  forwarded  to  M.  Barclay  by  first  occasion,  I  have  the  honour 
to  be  Your  Excellencys  most  humble  &  most  obedient  Servant, 


RC  (MHi);  endorsed:  Garvey,  the 
Diligence  to  Havre."  Enclosures:  (1) 
A  completed  f  orm  that  had  been  set  by 
TJ  and  probably  enclosed  in  his  to 
Garvey  of  29  Jan.  1787,  the  hours  of 
arrival  and  departure  being  in  Garvey's 
hand  and  the  remainder  of  the  text  in 
TJ*s,  reading1  as  follows:  "Le  moment 

du  depart  de  Paris  a  11  heures  preciser 
dn  Matin.  Le  moment  de  Parrive'e  a 
Rouen  a  8  heures  du  Matin.  Le  moment 
du  depart  de  Rouen  1O  heures  du  Soar. 
L.e  moment  de  l'arrive*e  a  Havre  a  Midy" 
(MHi).  (2)  The  enclosure  for  Barclay 
has  not  been  identified. 

From  Madame  de  Tott 

[Early  Feb.  1787?] 

II  est  tres  vrai,  Monsieur,  que  depuis  que  j'ai  eu  1'honneur  de 
vous  voir,  J'ai  6t6  plusieurs  Jours  Sans  Souffrir.  II  y  en  a  eu 
quelqu'uns  ou  J'ai  eu  des  ressentiments  assez  Vif s  de  mes  premieres 
scuff  ranees ,  particuliSrement  hier.  Je  n'en  pouvois  pas  deviner  la 
cause  mais  Je  crois  que  L'exp£dition  pour  L'am6rique  tn'est  une 
suffisante.  Vous  6tes  tr£s  occupe,  Vos  prieres  sont  n£c6ssairement 
moins  ferventes  pendant  quelques  Jours.  Voil&  Pexplication  de  mes 
souffrances  dTiier,  qu'en  dites  Vous  Monsieur?  Cette  Solution  ne 
Vous  parroit-elle  pas  probante?  Quand  a  La  question  g^ographique 
J^espere  y  Repondre  d'une  maniere  assez  Satisfaisante  quand 
J'aurai  Le  bonheur  de  Vous  Voir.  Permettez  moi  en  attendant  de 
Vous  Remercier  de  Votre  charmante  petite  Lettre,  de  Vous  dire 
combien  Je  suis  touch6e  de  L'inter8t  que  Vous  Voulez  bien  prendre 
a  ma  sante  et  de  Vous  Supplier  de  Venir  Recevoir  Le  plutot  pos- 
sible L'assurance  de  tous  Les  Sentiments  de  Reconnoissance,  d'at- 
tachement  et  d'admiration  avec  Lesquels  Je  serai  toute  ma  Vie 
Votre  tr£s  humble  et  tr£s  Obeissante  Servante, 


RC  (MHi)j  endorsed  by  TJ:  "de 
Tott.  Mde.  la  Comtesse";  undated,  but 
since  Madame  de  Tott  was  ill  in  Janu- 
ary 1787  and  since  TJ  was  obliged  to 
write  a  great  many  letters  for  America 
early  in  February  (which  may  account 

for  the  allusion  to  ''L'expgdition  pour 
L'amerique"  that  kept  TJ  very  occu- 
pied), it  is  possible  that  this  was  •written 
about  that  time  (see  Madame  de  Tesse 
to  TJ,  21  and  23  Jan.  1787). 


To  John  Adams 

~         CTT,  Paris  Feb.  6,  1787. 


Your  favors  by  Colo.  Franks  have  come  safely  to  hand.  He  will 
set  out  from  hence  the  8th.  inst.  the  packet  being  to  sail  from 
Havre  the  10th.  I  inclose  you  the  copy  of  a  letter  lately  received 
from  Mr.  Barclay,  and  of  the  paper  it  inclosed.  In  a  letter  from 
Mr.  Carmichael  is  a  postscript  dated  Dec.  25.  in  the  following 
words  'since  writing  the  preceding,  the  Portuguese  Ambassador 
has  pressed  me  to  hint  that  the  present  moment  is  favorable  to 
push  our  treaty  with  his  court.'  In  the  body  of  the  letter  he  sais 
*the  Ct*  d'Expilly  has  promised  me  to  continue  his  attention  to  our 
prisoners  during  his  stay  at  Algiers,  and  I  have  also  engaged  the 
Consul  of  Spain  who  remains  there  on  his  return  to  take  care  of 
them.  Advances  have  been  made  for  their  support  which  ought  to 
be  refunded.*  I  suppose  that  these  advances  have  been  made  by  order 
of  Mr.  Lamb,  and  that,  his  powers  being  at  an  end,  it  will  be 
incumbent  on  us  to  take  measures  on  that  subject.  The  Count 

de  Vergennes  is  extremely  ill.  His  disease  is  gouty.  "We  have  for 
some  days  had  hopes  it  would  fix  itself  decidedly  in  the  foot.  It 
shews  itself  there  at  times,  as  also  in  the  shoulder,  the  stomach 
&c.  Monsr.  de  Calonnes  is  likewise  ill;  but  his  complaints  are  of  a 
rheumatic  kind  which  he  has  often  had  before.  The  illness  of  these 
two  ministers  has  occasioned  the  postponement  of  the  Assembly 
of  the  Notables  to  the  14th.  and  probably  will  yet  postpone  it. 
Nothing  is  yet  known  of  the  objects  of  that  meeting.  I  send  you  a 
pamphlet  giving  a  summary  account  of  all  the  meetings  of  a 
general  nature  which  have  taken  place  heretofore.  The  treaty  be- 
tween Russia  and  this  country  is  certainly  concluded;  but  it's  con- 
tents are  not  yet  known.  I  shall  set  out  for  the  waters  of  Aix  on  the 
15th.  instant,  so  that  I  am  unable  to  say  when  and  whence  I  shall 
have  the  honour  of  addressing  you  again.  But  I  take  measures  for 
the  conveying  to  me  on  my  road  all  letters,  so  that  should  any 
thing  extraordinary  require  it,  I  can  at  all  times  be  recalled  to 
Paris  in  a  fortnight.  I  shall  hope  to  hear  from  you  at  times  as  if 
I  were  in  Paris.  I  thank  you  much  for  the  valuable  present  of  your 
book.  The  subject  of  it  is  interesting  and  I  am  sure  it  is  well 
treated.  I  shall  take  it  on  my  journey  that  I  may  have  time  to 
study  it.  You  told  me  once  you  had  had  thoughts  of  writing  on  the 
subject  of  hereditary  aristocracy.  I  wish  you  would  carry  it  into 
^  execution.  It  would  make  a  proper  sequel  to  the  present  work.  I  wish 


6    FEBRUARY    1787 

you  all  possible  happiness  and  have  the  honour  to  be  with  senti- 
ments of  sincere  esteem  &  affection,  Dear  Sir,  your  most  obedient 
&  most  humble  servant,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

RC  (MHi:  AMT);  endorsed.  PrC  Jan.  1787;  and  draft  of  Commissioners 

(DL.C),  Enclosure:  Barclay  to  Com-  to  Jay,  27  Jan,  1787.  The  first  of 

missioners,  6  Jan.  1786.  these  was  received  on  £  Feb.  1787,  and 

Adams'  FAVOBS  BY  COLO.  FRANKS  presumably  the  others  arrived  at  the 

evidently  included  Adams  to  TJ,  25  same  time.  Franks  also  evidently 

Jan.  1787;  draft  of  Commissioners  to  brought  a  copy  of  Adams*  VALUABLE 

Barclay,  25  Jan.  1787  (missing);  draft  .  .  .  BOOK,  Defence  of  the  Constitutions 

of  Commissioners  to  Taher  Fennish,  27  of  the  United  States  (London,  1787). 

From  Mary  Barclay 

SIR  St,  Germain-en-Laye  6  febry.  1787 

I  am  infinitely  obliged  and  thankful!  for  your  friendly  and  ready 
compliance  with  the  request  in  my  last,  and  as  I  have  not  a  proper 
person  to  send  for  the  money  have  taken  the  liberty  to  draw  on 
you  at  sight,  should  there  be  any  thing  improper  in  this  mode, 
I  beg"  you  will  attribute  it  to  my  ignorance  in  matters  of  this  kind, 
and  believe  me  to  be  with  sincere  respect  and  esteem  Sir  your  most 
obedt.  humble  Servant,  M  BARCLAY 

RC  (MHi);  endorsed:  "Barclay  Mrs."  Not  recorded  in  SJL.  Mrs.  Barclay's  letter 
containing  the  request  has  not  been  found,  but  see  TJ  to  her,  2  Feb.  1787, 

To  William  Drayton 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  6.  1787. 

I  had  the  honour  of  addressing  you  on  the  6th.  of  May  last  by 
Mr.  McQuin,  and  of  sending  you  by  the  same  gentleman  some 
seed  of  the  Sulla,  or  Spanish  St.  foin.  I  hope  it  has  succeeded,  as 
some  seeds  of  the  same  parcel  which  I  sowed  in  my  garden  have 
vegetated  well  and  gave  me  an  opportunity  of  seeing  that  it  is  a 
most  luxuriant  grass.  It's  success  in  the  climate  of  Malta  seems  to 
ensure  it  with  you.  The  present  serves  to  inform  you  that  I  send  with 
it,  to  the  care  of  your  delegates  in  Congress,  some  acorns  of  the 
Cork  oak.  I  am  told  they  must  not  be  covered  above  two  inches 
deep.  Their  being  pierced  by  the  worm  will  not  affect  their  power 
of  vegetating.  I  am  just  setting  out  on  a  journey  to  the  South  of 
France.  Should  any  objects  present  themselves  in  the  course  of  my 
journey  which  may  promise  to  forward  the  views  of  the  society,  I 
shall  with  great  pleasure  avail  you  of  them,  and  take  every  possible 


7    FEBRUARY    1787 

occasion  of  assuring  you  of  the  sentiments  of  esteem  &  respect 
with  which  I  have  the  honour  to  be  Sir  Your  most  obedt.  &  most 
humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

TVT-   mrm-  at  foot  of  text:  **Wm-  OF  :MCAY  LAST  had  been  correctly   sent 

He*£    XfrTO    es£?    e*£    in     «x,  to  William  Drayton   (1752-179O)     chief 

mrfeTthS    date    also    shows    that   the  justice    of    Sontt    Carolina    and    double 

ktter  was  addressed  to  "Drayton  W.H."  first  cousin  of  WUliam  Henry  Drayton, 

TJ  erred  in  this:  his  letter  of  THE  6TH.  who  had  died,  in   17  7  y. 

To  John  Banister 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb-  7-  1787- 

A  former  letter  which  I  wrote  to  announce  the  arrival  of  your 
son  in  Paris  in  good  health  has  failed  to  go  by  the  occasion  which 
was  expected.  He  will  have  the  happiness  therefore  of  announcing 
that  good  news  in  person.  I  congratulate  you  on  his  character  which 
is  substantially  good.  He  has  never  I  think  done  an  imprudent 
thing  since  he  left  you,  unless  we  call  by  that  name,  as  I  believe 
we  must,  his  having  for  the  first  time  yeilded  to  the  allurements 
of  Paris  and  spent  during  his  stay  here  a  great  deal  more  than  you 
had  proposed.  He  has  been  sincerely  afflicted  by  it,  and  it  is  that 
which  has  made  him  adopt  the  sudden  resolution  of  leaving  the 
place  and  going  home.  Yet  were  he  my  son,  I  should  be  glad  of  it. 
He  has  bought  lessons  of  which  he  will  profit  thro1  life,  and  be 
able  to  profit  his  children  and  friends.  They  have  done  him  no 
injury  but  to  his  purse.  I  think  it  will  contribute  more  to  his 
future  good  than  the  same  money  in  the  form  of  property.  His 
mind  will  be  oppressed  till  you  relieve  him  by  an  explanation,  which 
I  beseech  you  to  do  in  the  first  moment.  The  post  which  a  parent 
may  take  most  advantageous  for  his  child  is  that  of  his  bosom 
friend.  I  know  your  way  of  thinking  too  well  to  doubt  your  con- 
currence in  this.  I  too  have  transgressed  your  instructions;  but  it 
was  to  relieve  him  from  embarrasment,  not  to  lead  him  into  it.  He 
has  no  suspicion  that  I  write  to  you  on  this  subject;  but  my  duty 
to  both  required  it.  Present  my  friendship  to  Mrs.  Bannister  and 
accept  assurances  of  it  yourself  from  Dr.  Sir  your  mo.  obed.  humble 
servt*>  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC   (DLC);  at  foot  of  text:   "Colo.  Bannister." 

For  the  loan  that  TJ  advanced  to  young  Banister  to  RELIEVE 


To  John  Banister,  Jr.,  with  Enclosure 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  7.  1787. 

I  inclose  you  fifteen  hundred  livres  being  all  the  money  I  have  in 
this  moment.  I  must  beg  the  favor  of  you  to  leave  me  your  accounts 
to  pay  to  the  amount  of  your  balance.  My  reason  is  this.  Being  to 
set  out  on  my  journey  within  a  week,  I  shall  then  have  occasion  to 
draw  money  from  my  banker  for  the  paiment  of  my  own  accounts, 
and  would  wish  to  make  one  draught  of  the  whole.  Nevertheless  if 
it  should  make  any  odds  with  you,  I  will  send  to  him  for  the  balance 
of  what  you  want,  being  desirous  to  accomodate  you  and  to  assure 
you  of  the  esteem  with  which  I  am  Dr.  Sir  Your  sincere  friend  & 
servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

ES.  I  shall  be  at  home  till  8.  o'clock  to-night,  and  shall  hope  to 
see  you  either  before  that,  or  tomorrow  morning.  I  do  not  think 
you  can  safely  postpone  your  setting  out  longer  than  noon  tomor- 
row. I  do  not  say  this  with  respect  to  yourself  but  to  Colo.  Franks 
whose  failure  in  his  passage  would  be  too  important  to  be  risked. 


Annona.  Papaw 

Andromeda  arborea.  Redbud 

Azalea    nudiflora.    Wild    honey- 

Acer  negundo.  Ash  leaved  Maple 

Cornus  florida.  Dogwood 

Chionanthus     virginica.     Fringe 

Cupressus  disticha.  Cypress. 

Crataegus  tomentosa*  Haw. 

Diospyros     virginiana.      Persim- 

Fraxinus  Americana.  Ash 

Gleditsia  triacanthos.  Honey  pod 

Juglans  nigra.  Black  walnut 

White  walnut 

Juniperus  virginica.  Red  Cedar. 

Kalmia.  Green  ivy. 
*Liriodendron  tulipifera.  Poplar. 

Liquidambar    styracifhia.    Sweet 

Lauras  Sassafras.  Sassafras 

February  7.  1787. 
Magnolia  glauca.  Swamp  laurel. 
Magnolia      tripetala.      Umbrella 


Primus  virginiana.  Wild  cherry. 
Phytolacca  decandra.  Poke. 
*Quercus  phellos.  Willow  leaved 


Quercus  virginiana.  Live  oak 
Rhus.  Sumach 

Robinia  pseudo-acacia.  Locust. 
*Bignonia    sempervirens.    Yellow 

*Pyrus      coronaria.      Wild      crab 

A  dozen   plants    (not  seeds)    of 

each  kind,  and  of  each  of  those 

marked*  two  dozen. 
Red  birds  ) 

Opossums  male  &  female  £ 
A  pair  of  the  largest  bucks  horns 

•which  can  possibly  be  found. 

Two  skins  also,  the  one  taken 

when  the  deer  is  red,  the  other 

7    FEBRUARY    1787 

when  he  is  blue,  with  the  jaws        A  pair  of  _the  largest  elk  horns. 
&  teeth  &  the  feet  left  in  the  The    skin    would    also    be    ac- 

ceptable  if  it  could  be  got. 

Method  of  packing  the  plants. 

Take  the  plants  up  by  the  roots,  leaving  good  roots.  Trim  off  all  the 
boughs,  and  cut  the  stems  to  the  length  of  your  box.  Near  the  tip  end 
of  every  plant  cut  a  number  of  notches  which  will  serve  as  a  label, 
giving  the  same  number  to  all  the  plants  of  the  same  species.  Where 
the  plant  is  too  small  to  be  notched,  notch  a  separate  stick  and  tye  it  to 
the  plant.  Make  a  list  on  paper  of  the  plants  by  their  names  and  number 
of  notches.  m 

Take  fresh  moss  just  gathered,  lay  a  layer  of  it  at  the  bottom  of  the 
box  2.  inches  thick.  Then  put  in  a  layer  of  plants,  putting  those  of  the 
same  kind  together  and  laying  them  side  by  side.  Then  put  on  them  a 
layer  of  moss  1.  inch  thick,  then  a  layer  of  plants  and  again  of  moss 
alternately,  finishing  with  a  layer  of  moss  2.  inches  thick,  or  more  i£ 
more  be  necessary  to  fill  the  box.  Large  roots  must  be  separately  wrapped 
in  moss. 

These  plants  must  come  in  some  vessel  bound  to  Havre  or  Honfleur 
and  must  be  addressed  to  the  care  of  Monsieur  Limozin  at  Havre.  It 
will  be  absolutely  useless  to  send  them  to  any  other  port.  They  should 
leave  Virginia  during  the  months  of  November  and  December.  If  they 
come  sooner  the  heat  of  the  season  will  destroy  them:  if  later  they  •will 
not  arrive  in  time  to  be  planted. 

PrC    (DLC);    at  foot    of   text:    "Mr.  plants    indicates     that    TJ    intended    it 

Bannister.1*    Recorded    in    SJL    as     ad-  for  the   son;   also,   it   probably   -was    not 

dressed    to    "Bannister    J,    junr."    En-  an  actual  enclosure  but  may  have  been 

closure    (PrC  in   DLC;   at  foot  of  first  handed  to   young-   Banister   on    the    eve 

page:  "Mr.  Bannister"  )j  although  cata-  of  his  departure  from  Paris.  In  the  PrC 

loaded  in  DLC  as  if  an  enclosure  in  the  in    DLC     the    list     and     the     directions 

preceding:  letter  to  Col.  John  Banister,  occupy    two    separate     pages,    but     the 

the  reference  to  "Mr.  Bannister"  at  the  original  may  have  been  on  a  single  leaf* 
foot    of   the    first   page    of    this    list    of 

To  Anne  Willing  Bingham 

Paris  Feb.  7.  1787. 

I  know,  Madam,  that  the  twelvemonth  is  not  yet  expired;  but 
it  will  be,  nearly,  before  this  will  have  the  honour  of  being  put  into 
your  hands.  You  are  then  engaged  to  tell  me  truly  and  honestly 
whether  you  do  not  find  the  tranquil  pleasures  of  America  prefera- 
ble to  the  empty  bustle  of  Paris.  For  to  what  does  that  bustle  tend? 
At  eleven  o'clock  it  is  day  chez  Madame.  The  curtains  are  drawn 
Propped  on  bolsters  and  pillows,  and  her  head  scratched  into  a 
little  order,  the  bulletins  of  the  sick  are  read,  and  the  billets  of 
the  well.  She  writes  to  some  of  her  acquaintance  and  receives  the 


7    FEBRUARY     1787 

visits  of  others.  If  the  morning  is  not  very  thronged,  she  is  able 
to  get  out  and  hobble  round  the  cage  of  the  Palais  royal:  but  she 
must  hobble  quickly,  for  the  Coeffeur's  turn  is  come;  and  a  tre- 
mendous turn  it  is!  Happy,  if  he  does  not  make  her  arrive  when 
dinner  is  half  over!  The  torpitude  of  digestion  a  little  passed,  she 
flutters  half  an  hour  thro'  the  streets  by  way  of  paying  visits,  and 
then  to  the  Spectacles.  These  finished,  another  half  hour  is  de- 
voted to  dodging  in  and  out  of  the  doors  of  her  very  sincere  friends, 
and  away  to  supper.  After  supper  cards;  and  after  cards  bed,  to 
rise  at  noon  the  next  day,  and  to  tread,  like  a  mill-horse,  the  same 
trodden  circle  over  again.  Thus  the  days  of  life  are  consumed,  one 
by  one,  "without  an  object  beyond  the  present  moment:  ever  flying 
from  the  ennui  of  that,  yet  carrying  it  with  us;  eternally  in  pursuit 
of  happiness  -which  keeps  eternally  before  us.  If  death  or  a  bank- 
ruptcy happen  to  trip  us  out  of  the  circle,  it  is  matter  for  the  buz  of 
the  evening,  and  is  completely  forgotten  by  the  next  morning. 

In  America,  on  the  other  hand,  the  society  of  your  husband,  the 
fond  cares  for  the  children,  the  arrangements  of  the  house,  the 
improvements  of  the  grounds  fill  every  moment  with  a  healthy  and 
an  useful  activity.  Every  exertion  is  encouraging,  because  to 
present  amusement  it  joins  the  promise  of  some  future  good.  The 
intervals  of  leisure  are  filled  by  the  society  of  real  friends,  whose 
affections  are  not  thinned  to  cob-web  by  being  spread  over  a 
thousand  objects. — This  is  the  picture  in  the  light  it  is  presented 
to  my  mind;  now  let  me  have  it  in  yours.  If  we  do  not  concur  this 
year,  we  shall  the  next:  or  if  not  then,  in  a  year  or  two  more.  You 
see  I  am  determined  not  to  suppose  myself  mistaken.  To  let  you 
see  that  Paris  is  not  changed  in  it's  pursuits  since  it  was  honoured 
with  your  presence,  I  send  you  it's  monthly  history.  But  this  relat- 
ing only  to  the  embellishments  of  their  persons  I  must  add  that 
those  of  the  city  go  on  well  also.  A  new  bridge,  for  example,  is 
begun  at  the  Place  Louis  Quinze;  the  old  ones  are  clearing  of  the 
rubbish  which  encumbered  them  in  the  form  of  houses;  new  hos- 
pitals erecting;  magnificent  walls  of  inclosure  and  Custom  houses  at 
their  entrance  &c.  &c.  &c. — I  know  of  no  interesting  change  among 
those  whom  you  honoured  with  your  acquaintance,  unless  Monsr. 
de  Saint  James  was  of  that  number.  His  bankruptcy  and  taking 
asylum  in  the  Bastile  have  furnished  matter  of  astonishment.  His 
garden  at  the  Pont  de  Neuilly,  where,  on  seventeen  acres  of  ground 
he  had  laid  out  fifty  thousand  Louis,  will  probably  sell  for  some- 
what less  money. — The  workmen  of  Paris  are  making  rapid  strides 
towards  English  perfection.  Would  you  believe  that  in  the  course 


7    FEBRUARY    1787 

of  the  last  two  years  they  have  learnt  even  to  surpass  their  London 
rivals  in  some  articles?  Commission  me  to  have  you  a  Phaeton 
made,  and  if  it  is  not  as  much  handsomer  than  a  London  one,  as 
that  is  than  a  Fiacre,  send  it  back  to  me.  Shall  I  fill  the  box  with 
caps,  bonnets  &c?  not  of  my  own  chusing,  but— I  was  going  to  say 
of  Mademoiselle  Bertin's,  forgetting  for  the  moment  that  she  too 
is  bankrupt.  They  shall  be  chosen  then  by  whom  you  please;  or, 
if  you  are  altogether  non  plus-ed  by  her  eclipse,  we  will  call  an 
assembled  des  Notables  to  help  you  out  of  the  difficulty,  as  is  now 
the  fashion.  In  short,  honour  me  with  your  commands  of  any  kind, 
and  they  shall  be  faithfully  executed.  The  packets,  now  established 
from  Havre  to  New  York,  furnish  good  opportunities  of  sending 
whatever  you  -wish. 

I  shall  end  where  I  began,  like  a  Paris  day,  reminding  you  of 
your  engagement  to  write  me  a  letter  of  respectable  length,  an 
engagement  the  more  precious  to  me  as  it  has  furnished  me  the 
occasion,  after  presenting  my  respects  to  Mr.  Bingham,  of  assuring 
you  of  the  sincerity  of  those  sentiments  of  esteem  &  respect  with 
which  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  dear  Madam,  your  most  obedient  & 
most  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC).  The  enclosed  "monthly  history"  has  not  been  identified,  but  it  was 
evidently  a  journal  devoted  to  fashions  (see  Mrs.  Bingham  to  TJ,  1  June  1787). 

For  another  and  contrasting  opinion  by  TJ  of  iCR.  BINGHAIM:  and  His  beautiful 
wife,  see  TJ  to  Madison,  30  Jan.  1787. 

To  the  Governor  o£  Virginia 

Paris  Feb.  7.  1787. 

I  have  the  honour  of  inclosing  to  your  Excellency  a  report  of 
the  proceedings  on  the  inauguration  of  the  bust  of  the  Marquis  de 
la  Fayette  in  this  city.  This  has  been  attended  with  a  considerable, 
but  a  necessary  delay.  The  principle  that  the  King  is  the  sole  foun- 
tain of  honour  in  this  country,  opposed  a  barrier  to  our  desires 
which  threatened  to  be  insurmountable.  No  instance  of  a  similar 
proposition  from  a  foreign  power  had  occurred  in  their  history.  The 
admitting  it  in  this  case  is  a  singular  proof  of  the  king's  friendly 
dispositions  towards  the  States  of  America,  and  of  his  personal 
esteem  for  the  character  of  the  Marquis  de  la  Fayette. 

I  take  this  the  earliest  occasion  of  congratulating  my  country 
on  your  Excellency's  appointment  to  the  chair  of  government,  and 
of  assuring  you  with  great  sincerity  of  those  sentiments  of  perfect 


8    FEBRUARY    1787 

esteem  &  respect  with  which  I  have  the  honour  to  be  your  Excel- 
lency's most  obedient  and  most  humble  servant, 


RC  (Vi);  at  foot  of  text:  «H.E.  Governor  Randolph."  PrC  (DLC).  Enclosure! 
Louis  Le  Pelletier  to  TJ,  1  Feb.  1787,  and  its  enclosure,  both  of  which  were  en- 
closed unsealed  in  TJ  to  Madison,  this  date.  See  also  Short  to  Randolph,  21  Mch. 

To  James  Madison 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  7.  1787. 

I  leave  the  inclosed  open  for  your  perusal  and  that  of  your 
Collegues  and  others  to  whom  you  may  chuse  to  shew  it;  only  tak- 
ing care  that  neither  copies  nor  extracts  be  taken.  Be  so  good,  when 
you  are  done  with  it,  as  to  stick  a  wafer  in  it  and  forward  it  to 
the  Governor. 

I  am  with  sincere  esteem  Dr.  Sir  your  friend  &  servt., 


ES.  I  do  not  know  whether  you  are  acquainted  with  young 
Bannister  who  goes  by  the  packet.  He  is  of  good  understanding 
and  of  infinite  worth.  I  have  letters  and  papers  to  the  15th.  of 
Decemb.  yet  neither  these  nor  those  of  any  person  I  can  meet  with 
inform  us  who  is  President  of  Congress. 

RC  (DLC:  Madison  Papers);  without  indication  of  addressee;  endorsed.  Not 
recorded  in  SJL.  Enclosure:  TJT  to  g-overnor  of  Virginia,  7  Feb.  1787,  and  its  en- 
closures (see  note  there). 

To  David  S.  Franks 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  8.  1787.  8  o'clock  P.M. 

I  discover  that  by  mistake  you  have  among  the  papers  some 
that  are  not  destined  for  America.  I  recollect 

1.  a  letter  intended  for  a  jo[int]  one  from  Mr.  Adams  and  myself 
to  Mr.  Barclay 

2.  another  intended  to  be  joint  to  Fennish  the  Marocco  minister 

3.  one  of  the  ratified  treaties  signed  by  Mr.  Adams  and  myself. 
[One  copy  of  the  last?]  should  go  to  Congress,  the  [other  copy  is?] 
to  be  sent  to  Mr.  Barclay.  Perhaps  there  may  be  other  papers 
but  I  do  not  recollect  [them?].  I  had  put  them  between  the  red 
marocco  cover  [and  the  lid  of  the  box,  intending  when  I  gave  you 
the  box  to  [take  away  these  papers?].  Be  so  good  as  to  search  for 


8    FEBRUARY     1787 

them  and  return  them  to  me  by  post  with  any  others  which  on 
view  you  may  be  sensible  should  have  been  retained.  I  have  written 
by  the  Diligence  which  goes  off  [at  eight  to]night  and  promised 
the  driver  6.  livres  if  he  delivers  the  letter  to  you  before  the  packet 
sails.  Be  so  good  as  to  ask  the  favor  of  Mr.  Limozin  to  pay  it, 
and  I  will  replace  it  with  him.  This  goes  by  post.  Health,  happiness, 
and  a  good  passage  to  you  both,  and  am  Dr.  Sir  your  friend  & 


PrC  (MHi);  MS  faded,  some  words  marocco  [cover]  of  the  treaty  box  and 

being  supplied  by  the  editors  with  refer-  the  lid  of  the  box.  Pray  search  for 

ence  to  the  first  of  the  two  letters  writ-  them  and  return  them  to  me  by  the  first 

ten  to  Franks  on  this  date.  post.  Perhaps  there  may  be  in  the  same 

Franks's  acknowledgment  of  a  letter  place  some  other  papers  not  Intended 

of  the  8th  indicates  that  only  one  was  for  America:  tho  I  recollect  no  others. 

received  (Franks  to  TJ>  11  Feb.  1787),  Health,  happiness,  Sc  a  fair  passage  to 

and  only  one  is  recorded  in  SJL.  But  you  &  am  with  esteem  Dr.  Sir  your 

two  variant  texts  exist,  the  other  (PrC  friend  &  servt,  Th:  Jefferson—  P.S.  Be 

in  DL.C)  reading:  as  follows:  *el  suspect  so  grood  as  to  write  me  a  line  of  your 

that  among-  the  papers  you  took  from  safe  arrival  the  moment  you  land  in 

hence  were  two  letters,  the  one  in-  America,**  The  text  given  above  is 

tended  for  a  joint  one  from  Mr.  Adams  probably  that  which  Franks  received, 

and  myself  to  Mr.  Barclay,  and  the  and  the  absence  of  a  postscript  to  it 

other  intended  to  be  joint  likewise  to  may  be  attributed  to  the  fact  that  TJ 

the  Marocco  minister.  I  think  you  will  was  writing1  in  haste  at  the  very  moment 

find  these  stuffed  in  between  the  red  the  diligence  was  scheduled  to  depart. 

To  John  Jay 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  8.  1787. 

The  packet  being;  to  sail  the  day  after  tomorrow,  I  have  awaited 
the  last  possible  moment  of  writing  by  her,  in  hopes  I  might  be 
able  to  announce  some  favorable  change  in  the  situation  of  the 
Count  de  Vergennes.  But  none  has  occurred,  and  in  the  mean  time 
he  has  become  weaker  by  the  continuance  of  his  illness.  Tho*  not 
desperately  ill,  he  is  dangerously  so.  The  Comptroller  General  M.  de 
Calonnes  has  been  very  ill  also,  but  he  is  getting  well.  These 
circumstances  have  occasioned  the  postponement  of  the  assemblee 
des  notables  to  the  14th.  inst.  and  will  probably  occasion  a  further 
postponement.  As  I  shall  set  out  this  day  sennight  for  the  waters 
of  Aix,  you  will  probably  hear  the  issue  of  the  Ct.  de  Vergenne's 
illness  thro'  some  other  channel  before  I  shall  have  the  honour  of 
addressing  you  again.  I  may  observe  the  same  as  to  the  final 
decision  for  the  effranchisement  of  Honfleur1  which  is  in  a  fair 
way  of  being  speedily  concluded.  The  exertions  of  Monsr.  de 
Crevecoeur,  and  particularly  his  influence  with  the  Duke  d'Har- 

9     FEBRUARY     1787 

court,  the  principal  instrument  in  effecting  it,  have  been  of  chief 
consequence  in  this  matter. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  the  most  perfect  esteem  and  respect, 
Sir,  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servant, 


PrC   (DLC).  Tr   (DNA:   FCC,  No.   1O7,  n). 

i  This  word  interlined  in  substitution  for  "Havre,"  deleted. 

To  Andre  Limozin 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  8.  1787 

I  am  honoured  with  your  favor  of  the  3d.  inst.  and  thank  you 
for  the  letters  it  covered.  This  will  be  handed  you  by  two  American 
gentlemen  Colo.  Franks  and  Mr.  Bannister,  who  propose  to  go 
passengers  in  the  packet,  and  whom  I  beg  leave  to  recommend  to 
your  notice.  I  shall  set  out  this  day  sennight  for  the  South  of 

France  and  probably  shall  be  absent  from.  Paris  two  or  three 
months.  Mr.  Short,  my  secretary  will  remain  here,  will  always 
know  where  I  shall  be,  and  will  forward  to  me  all  dispatches,  so 
that  the  functions  of  my  office  will1  be  attended  to  as  if  I  were 
here;  with  only  a  little  more  delay. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  the  highest  esteem  &  respect  Sir 
your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servt.,  TH.  JEFFERSON 

PrC   (DLC). 

*  This  word  interlined  in  substitution  for  "may,"  deleted. 

To  C.  W.  F.  Durnas 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  9.  1787. 

My  last  to  you  was  dated  Dec.  25.  since  which  I  have  been 
honoured  with  your  several  favors  of  Dec.  29.  Jan.  5.  9.  and  23. 
I  thought  that  your  affairs  could  not  be  more  interesting  than  they 
have  been  for  a  considerable  time.  Yet  in  the  present  moment  they 
are  become  more  so  by  the  apparent  withdrawing  of  so  considerable 
a  personage  in  the  drama  as  the  K.  of  P.  To  increase  this  in- 
terest another  person,  whose  importance  scarcely  admits  calcula- 
tion, is  in  a  situation  which  fills  us  with  alarm.  Nature  is  struggling 
to  relieve  him  by  a  decided  gout;  she  has  my  sincere  prayers  to 
aid  her,  as  I  am  persuaded  she  has  yours.  I  have  letters  and 

papers  from  America  as  late  as  the  15th.  of  December.  The  govern- 


9    FEBRUARY    1787 

ment  of  Massachusets  had  imprisoned  three  of  the  leaders  of  their 
insurgents.  The  insurgents  being  collected  to  the  number  of  three 
or  four  hundred,  had  sent  in  their  petition  to  their  government 
praying  another  act  of  pardon  for  their  leaders  and  themselves  and 
on  this  condition  offering  to  go  every  man  home  and  conduct  him- 
self dutifully  afterward.  This  is  the  latest  intelligence. 

I  thank  you  for  your  attention  to  the  question  I  had  taken  the 
liberty  of  proposing  to  you.  I  think  with  you  that  it  would  be 
adviseable  to  have  our  debt  transferred  to  individuals  of  your 
country,  provided  it  can  be  done  without  any  loss  to  this  country. 
There  could  and  would  be  no  objection  to  the  guarantee  remaining 
as  you  propose,  and  a  postponement  of  the  first  paiments  of  capital 
would  surely  be  a  convenience  to  us.  For  tho'  the  resources  of 
the  U.S.  are  great  and  growing,  and  their  dispositions  good,  yet 
their  machine  is  new,  and  they  have  not  got  it  to  go  well.  It  is 
the  object  of  their  general  wish  at  present,  and  they  are  all  in 
movement  to  set  it  in  a  good  train,  but  their  movements  are  neces- 
sarily slow.  They  will  surely  effect  it  in  the  end  because  all  have 
the  same  end  in  view,  the  difficulty  being  only  to  get  all  the  13. 
states  to  agree  on  the  same  means.  Divesting  myself  of  every 
partiality,  and  speaking  from  that  thorough  knolege  which  I  have 
of  the  country,  their  resources,  and  their  principles,  I  had  rather 
trust  money  in  their  hands  than  in  that  of  any  government  on 
earth:  because  tho*  for  a  while  the  paiments  of  the  interest  might 
be  less  regular,  yet  the  final  reimbursement  of  the  capital  would  be 
more  sure. 

I  set  out  next  week  for  the  South  of  France,  to  try  whether 
some  mineral  waters  in  that  quarter,  much  recommended,  will  re- 
store the  use  of  my  hand.  I  shall  be  absent  from  Paris  two  or  three 
months;  but  I  take  arrangements  for  the  regular  receipt  of  your 
favors  as  if  I  were  here.  It  will  be  better  however  for  you  to  put 
your  letters  to  Mr.  Jay  under  cover  to  Mr.  Short  who  remains  here 
and  will  forward  them.  I  have  thought  it  my  duty  to  submit  to 
Congress  the  proposition  about  the  French  debt,  and  may  expect 
their  answer  in  four  months.  I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  sincere 
esteem  &  respect  Sir  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servt., 


BS.  After  writing  the  preceding  your  favor  of  the  2d.  of  Febru- 
ary is  put  into  my  hand.  It  was  24.  hours  too  late  to  go  by  the 
packet  which  sails  from  Havre  tomorrow.  The  periods  of  the  de- 
parture of  the  packets  from  Havre  are  every  six  weeks,  to  wit 


9    FEBRUARY     1787 

Feb.  10.  Mar.  25.  May  10.  June  25.  Aug.  10.  Sep.  25.  Nov.  10* 
Dec.  25.  I  shall  always  send  a  courier  to  Havre  a  few  days  before. 
You  may  perhaps  find  it  convenient  to  accomodate  your  future 
dispatches  to  these  periods.  As  to  the  1st.  inquiry  you  kindly  make 
in  your  letter  relative  to  my  hand,  it  is  a  little  better  and  very  little. 
The  2d.  relative  to  the  letter  sent  to  the  M.  de  la  f  ayette  his  absence 
disables  me  from  answering.  The  3d.  relative  to  your  letters  sent 
thro  the  channel  of  your  Ambassador  is  answered  by  that  part  of 
the  preceding  letter  which  specifies  the  dates  of  those  I  have  re- 
ceived. I  beg  leave  to  renew  my  assurances  of  esteem  &  respect. 

TH:  J. 
PrC  (DLC). 

From  John  Jay 

DR.  SIR  New  York  9th.  February  1787. 

Since  my  last  to  you  of  the  14th.  December  I  have  been  honored 
with  yours  of  the  26th.  September  last,  which  with  the  Papers  that 
it  enclosed  have  been  laid  before  Congress,  but  neither  on  that 
nor  any  of  your  late  Letters  have  any  Orders  as  yet  been  made. 

The  annual  Election  produces  much  Delay  in  Affairs.  From 
that  Time  to  this  scarcely  any  Thing  has  been  done.  It  was  not 
until  last  Week  that,  seven  States  being  represented,  a  President 
was  elected — the  Choice  fell  on  Major  General  St.  Clair.  They 
have  much  back  Business  to  dispatch — several  Reports  on  im- 
portant Subjects  from  the  different  Departments,  are  to  be  con- 
sidered and  decided  upon.  A  Form  of  Government  so  constructed 
has  Inconveniences,  which  I  think1  will  continue  to  operate  against 
the  public  or  national  Interest  until  some  Cause  not  easy  to  be 
predicted  shall  produce  such  a  Modification  of  it,  as  that  the 
legislative,  judicial  and  executive  Business  of  Government,  may  be 
consigned  to  three  proper  and  distinct  Departments. 

The  Struggles  for  and  against  the  Impost  remain  but  promise 
little.  The  States  in  general  pay  little  Attention  to  Requisitions,  and 
I  fear  that  our  Debts  foreign  and  domestic  will  not  soon  be  provided 
for  in  a  Manner  satisfactory  to  our  Creditors.  The  Evils  to  be 
expected  from  such  Delays  are  less  difficult  to  be  foreseen  than 
obviated.  Our  Governments  want  Energy,  and  there  is  Reason  to 
fear  that  too  much  has  been  expected  from  the  Virtue  and  good 
Sense  of  the  People. 

You  will  receive  herewith  enclosed  a  Letter  from  Congress  to 

9    FEBRUARY     1787 

his  most  Christian  Majesty,  with  a  Copy  of  it  for  your  Information. 
It  is  in  Answer  to  one  received  from  him,  and  should  have  been 
of  Earlier  Date  had  Congress  sooner  convened.  Be  pleased  to 
explain  this  Circumstance  to  the  Minister. 

The  public  Papers  herewith  sent  contain  all  we  at  present  know 
respecting  the  Troubles  in  Massachusetts.  Whether  they  will  soon 
be  terminated,  or  what  Events  they  may  yet  produce,  is  perfectly 
uncertain;  and  the  more  so  as  we  are  yet  to  ascertain,  whether  and 
how  far  they  may  be  encouraged  by  our  Neighbours. 

I  enclose  a  Copy  of  a  Letter  from  Mr.  Otto,  formally  contradict- 
ing the  Report  of  an  Exchange  between  France  and  Spain  for  the 
Floridas.  That  Report  had  excited  Attention,  and  given  Pleasure 
to  Ante-Gallicans. 

Our  Apprehensions  of  an  Indian  War  still  continue,  for  we  are 
at  a  Loss  to  determine,  whether  the  present  Continuance  of  Peace 
is  to  be  ascribed  to  the  Season,  or  their  pacific  Intentions. 

We  have  not  yet  received  the  Morocco  Treaty.  As  soon  as  it 
arrives  I  am  persuaded  that  Congress  will  take  the  earliest  Op- 
portunity of  making  their  Acknowledgments  to  the  friendly  Powers 
that  promoted  it.  Mr.  Lamb  is  still  absent.  He  doubtless  has  re- 
ceived the  Order  of  Congress  directing  his  Return,  either  from 
you  and  Mr.  Adams,  or  directly  from  me. 

Congress  has  not  yet  given  any  Orders  respecting  further 
Negociations  with  the  Barbary  States,  nor  can  I  venture  to  say  what 
their  Sentiments  will  be  on  that  Head.  I  am  equally  at  a  Loss  to 
judge  what  they  will  direct  respecting  Treaties  of  Commerce  with 
the  Emperor  and  other  European  Powers.  For  my  part  I  think  and 
have  recommended,  that  Commissions  and  Instructions  should  be 
sent  you  and  Mr.  Adams  for  those  Purposes.  In  my  Opinion  such 
Treaties  for  short  Terms  might  be  advantageous.  The  Time  is 
not  yet  come  for  us  to  expect  the  best,  The  Distance  of  that  Period 
will  however  depend  much  on  ourselves. 

With  very  sincere  Esteem  and  Regard,  I  am  Dr.  Sir  your  most 
obt.  &  hble  servt,  JOHN  JAY 

,XT               \>r    N°-     121)-    Dft  rrhe    LETTISH    rao*£    MR.    OTTO    that 

(NK-Iselm).    Recorded    in    SJL    as    re-  Jay  forwarded  to  TJ  was  read  in   Con- 

caved 6  Apr.    1787   at  Marseilles.   En-  gpress  only  on  2  Feb.    1787   after  seven 

closures:    (1)    Congress'  congratulatory  states  had  assembled  and  made  it  possi- 

rflf  T?1      1U™*          m  ^P0118*  *  hi«  ble  for  that  body  to  function,   but  two 

of   9   July    1786    announcing   the   birth  weeks  earlier  Jay  had  released  it  to  the 

xxx^i  Pl1SI?CTQ^(TeXt-P^?^d    *"     ?£?*  ETeSS»  thcrcby   causing   Otto   acute    em- 

fcS    li  *1W)£S?%  G^a?ri?e  2*°  barrassment    in    much    the    same    way 

to  Jay,  21  Dec    1786    (printed  in  Bur-  that    Jay    had    distressed    TJ    by    pub- 

neM  ^Letter*  of  Members,  vm,  No.  576,  lishing:     the     latter's     dispatch     of     27 

7>-  May    1786.   This   action   also  provoked 


9    FEBRUARY     1787 

resentment  in   a  Congress    already   em- 
bittered over  his  conduct  of  negotiations 
•with   Gardoqui.    Otto  had   sent  to  Ver- 
gennes   on   23   Apr.    1786   news   of  the 
report    that    Louisiana    was    to    be    ex- 
changed for  a  French  possession  in  the 
West    Indies,    and    on    25    Aug.    1786 
Vergennes    replied    that    such    an    ex- 
change had  never  been  in  question  and 
that,   if  the  report   should   arise   again, 
Otto  would  "be  pleased  to  deny  it  for- 
mally"   (DipL    Corr.,    1783-89,   I,    241; 
Dft    of    Vergennes*    instructions    is    in 
Arch.  AS.  Etr.,  Corr.  Pol.,  E.-U.,  xxxn; 
transcripts  in  DLC,  "where  the  passage 
quoted  reads:    "et  si  Ton  vous  en  parle 
encore,  vous  dementirez  f  ormellement"  ) . 
Otto's    letter    to    Jay    appeared    in    the 
New    York    Journal,    18    Jan.    and    the 
New  York  Packet,   19  Jan.   1787.  Otto, 
greatly  disturbed,  -wrote  at  once  to  Ver- 
gennes    explaining:    the    background    of 
the  episode.  He  said  that  the  false  news 
of    the    exchange    of    Louisiana    for    a 
French  possession  in  the  Antilles   (pub- 
lished in  Pa.   Journ.i    6    Jan.    1787    on 
**the  most  indisputable  authorities  from 
France  and  Spain";  Burnett,  Letters  of 
Members,    vm,    No.    576,   note    7)    had 
scarcely    appeared    when    two    gazettes 
printed  the  same  day  a  pretended  treaty 
by  which  France  was  put  in  possession 
of    the    two    Floridas    on    condition    of 
closing*    the    Mississippi   to   the    Ameri- 
cans   and   of  keeping  there   a   consider- 
able   body    of    troops    to    prevent    any 
invasion  of  Spanish  territory   (the  Ne-uj 
York  Packet  of  16  Jan.   1787  described 
the    article    concerning1   the   Mississippi 
as  being  secret).   Otto   thought   that   it 
was    easy    to    guess    the    authors    and 
object  of  this  fabrication,  but  reported 
that  even  the  best  informed  Americans 
and  those  most  attached  to  France  were 
deceived    by    the    apparently    authentic 
form  of  the  treaty;  that  he  had  vainly 
tried   to    assure   members    of    Congress 
and    principal    citizens    of    New    York 
that   this    'treaty"    was    entirely  forged 
in   England,  but   they   replied   that  the 
news   had   been   repeated    so   often    and 
accompanied    with    so    many    plausible 
circumstances  they  could  not  doubt  its 
authenticity.     He     had     followed     Ver- 
gennes*     instructions     of     the     previous 
August,  but  even  this  had  not  quieted 
the  fears.  At  that  point,  he  stated,  Jay 
had  requested  a  written  extract  of  these 
instructions   relative  to  an  exchange   of 
Louisiana;    he    had    complied    and    Jay 
"n'a  eu  rien   de  plus   presse   que   de   le 
faire  imprirner,"  whereupon  the  clamors 
"ont  cesse  sur  le  champ,"  the  "treaty" 

was  regarded   as   false   on   every  hand, 
and   praise  for   the   wisdom    and    good 
policy  of  France  took  the  place   of  the 
intemperate  criticism  and  suspicion  that 
had  prevailed  such  a  short  time  before. 
(Otto  gave  no  indication  to  Vergennes 
that  his  letter  had  been  written  almost 
a   month    before   Jay    "rushed"    it    into 
printj   that  the  first  publication   of  the 
false  treaty  had  taken   place   only  two 
days  before  Otto's  letter  appeared;   and 
that,  at  the  time  of  his  reporting  to  Ver- 
gennes,  scarcely  twenty-four  hours  had 
elapsed  between  Jay's  hasty  action  and 
the  effective  quieting  of  clamors!)    Otto 
further  stated  that,  while  Jay's  publica- 
tion   of   tb.e    extract   had    produced   the 
most    prompt    and    salutary    effect,    he 
himself  was  so  troubled  with  the  liberty 
Jay    had    taken    that    he    had    frankly 
expressed  his  displeasure  and  had  told 
Jay   that,    because    of   this    episode,    he 
would  be  obliged  in  future  to  maintain 
tsune    reserve    extreme     a    son     egard." 
Jay   justified   himself   by   arguing   that 
the   popular   ferment    was    so    great   as 
to    require    the    weight    of    Vergennes9 
name  to  discredit  the  "fausses  nouvelles 
que  des  Emissaires  Anglois  ne  cessoient 
de    repandre   en   Amerique";   that   there 
would   always  be   found   in   America    a 
very   considerable    party   favorably    dis- 
posed toward  England   and  engaged  in 
trying  to  detach  the  United  States  from 
France;     and    that    in    order    to    make 
France's  cession  of  Louisiana  still  more 
odious,  this  party  had  spread  the  rumor 
that    Louis    XVI,    disappointed    in    his 
hope  of  full  reimbursement  for  Ameri- 
can loans,  had  decided  to  retake  Louisi- 
ana,  gain  a  foothold  on   the   continent, 
and    at   his    leisure    take    possession    of 
Georgia  and   Carolina    as   compensation 
for  his  losses.  Otto  reported  further  that 
Congress   very  strongly  disapproved  of 
the   precipitation   of  Jay,  thinking  that 
he  had  no  right  to  publish  any  informa- 
tion   addressed    to    him.    "Mais,"    con- 
cluded Otto,   **je   n'en   aurai   pas   moins 
desormais    le    plus    grand    soin    de    ne 
faire  a  ce  Ministre  que  des  communica- 
tions verb  ales  toutes  les  fois  que   Vous 
ne   m'aures    pas    ordonne    expressement 
de  traiter  avec  lui  par  ecrit."  Even  so, 
Otto  thought  that  Jay's  grave  apprehen- 
sions    about    the    menace     of    English 
emissaries    appeared    well    founded.    He 
reported    that    he    had    noticed    insinua- 
tions   against   France    or    prejudicial   to 
the  Franco-American  alliance  appearing- 
•with    frequency    in     the    gazettes     after 
the    arrival    of   the    English    consul,    Sir 
John    Temple j    that    at    first    he    disre- 


10    FEBRUARY     1787 

these  publications,  but  as  they  Corr.  Pol.,  E.-U.,  Vol.  xxxn?  transcripts 
more  and  more  insidious  he  in  DLC).  WHen  this  troubled  account 
decided  to  answer  them  moderately  and  with  its  unconvincing  chronology  ar- 
wtthout  trusting  anyone  to  translate  his  rived  in  Paris  on  23  Mch.  1787,  the 
paragraphs;  that  Temple  had  seized  the  astute  minister  to  whom  it  was  ad- 
moment  of  publication  of  the  Angrlo-  dressed  was  already  dead. 
French  treaty  of  commerce  in  order  to  By  a  strange  coincidence  Jay  had 
play  upon  American  fears  of  any  rap-  allowed  about  a  month  to  elapse  before 
prochement  between  those  two  nations,  publishing  either  TJPs  letter  of  27  May 
deploring  the  fate  of  the  United  States  1786  or  Otto's  of  21  Dec.  1786  (see 
as  the  ultimate  victim  of  this  coalition;  Vol.  9:588,  note),  and  in  both  instances 
that  these  adroit  lamentations  came  the  delay  and  the  fact  of  publication 
from  Boston,  Rhode  Island,  and  Phila-  are  alike  unexplained.  It  may  not  be 
delphia,  but  that  he  could  always  recogr-  without  significance  that  one  instance 
nize  "la  plume  ou  du  moms  la  polrtique  brought  acute  embarrassment  to  the 
de  M.  Temple";  that  Temple  affected  American  minister  in  France  and  the 
in  public  and  in  the  presence  of  mem-  other  an  equally  acute  embarrassment 
bers  of  Congress  to  be  most  amicable  to  the  French  charge  in  America,  a  fact 
toward  Otto,  while  speaking-  of  the  that  perhaps  places  in  proper  perspective 
important  consequences  of  the  treaty  Jay's  solicitous  concern  about  the  dan- 
and  inferring:  from  it  that  the  "systeme  gers  to  be  expected  from  the  "Emls- 
de  PEurope  etoit  tout-a-fait  chang-e  et  saires  Ang-lois." 
que  les  forces  reunies  des  deux  nations 

les    plus    puissantes    feroient    desormais  *  In  Dft  Jay  first  wrote,  then  deleted, 

la  loi  %  1'Univers  entier"   (Otto  to  Ver-  "despair." 
g^nnes,   19  Jan.  1787;  Arch.  Aff.  Etr., 

From  John  Banister,  Jr. 

ILe  Havre,  10  Feb.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  14  Feb.  1787. 
Not  found,  but  for  its  contents,  see  TJ  to  John  Dunbar,  15  Dec.  1789.] 

Thomas  Barclay  to  the 
American  Commissioners 

GENTLEMEN  Alicante  10th.  February  1787, 

Since  I  wrote  to  you  from  hence  the  6th.  of  last  month  I  have 
been  much  aflicted  with  the  Rheumatism  in  my  loins  which  con- 
fin'd  me  to  my  bed  with  pains  great  beyond  Discription.  I  am  now 
free  of  them,  and  shall  leave  this  place  in  a  few  Days.  Upon 
further  reflection,  I  thought  it  best  not  to  abandon  the  Idea  of 
meeting  Mr.  Lamb,  and  therefore  I  wrote  to  him  at  Port  Mahon 
that  I  wou'd  go  to  Valencia  and  from  thence  to  Barcelona,  if  he 
won  d  embark  for  this  last  place  and  meet  me  there.  I  informd  him 
that  my  orders  from  Congress  were  to  make  a  settlement  with  all 
the  people  m^Europe  who  are  employed  or  who  have  been  employed 
m  their  Service,  and  that  the  Ministers  at  London  and  Paris  wish 
that  I  may  be  able  to  comply  with  the  Desire,  which  He  com- 

C  132] 

10    FEBRUARY     1787 

municated  to  them  of  having  his  account  settled  here,  and  I  de- 
sir'd  him  to  answer  me  by  one  letter  addressed  for  me  at  Valencia 
and  another  at  Barcelona.  If  his  business  or  health  will  not  permit 
him  to  see  me,  I  will  probably  go  to  Madrid  from  Valencia  or 
perhaps  to  France  from  Barcelona,  but  my  movements  will  in 
some  measure  be  governed  by  the  necessity  I  shall  find  myself 
under  of  going  to  Coruiia.  The  Gentlemen  with  whom  my  business 
lyes  there  have  not  by  any  means  comply'd  with  my  request.  They 
acknowledge  that  there  is  some  property  belonging  to  the  Prizes 
carried  in  by  Captain  Cunnyngham  in  their  hands  but  they  have 
applyed  it  towards  the  discharge  of  Expences  incurred  by  the 
South  Carolina  Frigate  commanded  by  Commodore  Gillon,  and 
with  respect  to  the  public  Effects  left  by  him,  little  can  be  known 
from  what  they  write. 

I  fear  nothing  will  ever  be  recovered  o£  any  consequence  from 
these  effects  or  from  this  ballance.  Yet  having  them  pointed  out 
as  objects  to  be  attended  to,  I  am  unwilling  to  leave  anything  undone 
on  nay  part.  In  the  mean  time  I  shall  communicate  to  the  Secretary 
of  foreign  AiFairs  what  I  have  collected  on  these  subjects,  and 
determine  hereafter  whether  I  shall  pass  to  Coruna  or  not.  I  re- 
ceiv'd  a  letter  from  Mr.  Jefferson  Dated  the  26th.1  of  December, 
in  which  he  says  he  will  write  to  Mr.  Adams  to  join  him  in  de- 
siring Mr.  Lamb  to  settle  his  accounts,  a  Circumstance  that  proves 
very  agreeable  to  me,  However  willing  Mr.  Lamb  may  be  to  do 
it  without  such  a  letter.  I  am  Gentlemen  with  the  greatest  respect 
and  Esteem,  Your  most  obedt.  Servant,  THOS.  BARCLAY 

The  Count  D'Espilly  &c.  saiFd  from  this  Bay  about  ten  Days 
ago  for  Algier. 

RC   ( DLC ) ;  in  an  unidentified  hand,  Barclay  also  -wrote  a  separate  letter  to 

signed  by  Barclay;  endorsed.  Tr  (DLC);  Adams  on  this  date   (MHi:   AMT). 
in   William   Short's  hand.    Recorded  in 

SJX,  as  received  25  Feb.  1787.  Enclosed  1  Thus    in    RC    and   Tr;    the    correct 

in  Barclay  to  TJ  of  this  date,  following;  date  is  27  Dec. 

From  Thomas  Barclay 

DEAR  SIR  Alicante,  10th.  Febry.  1787. 

I  had  the  pleasure  of  receiving  your  obliging  Letter  of  the  27th* 
of  December,  and  if  my  endeavours  to  serve  our  Country  well  have 
the  flattering  effects  you  suppose,  I  shall  think  my  Journey  to 
Morocco  one  of  the  happiest  Incidents  of  my  life.  I  am  very  glad 


10    FEBRUARY    1787 

to  learn  that  you  are  recovering  from  the  Injury  which  your  wrist 
received,  and  hope  it  is  possible  we  may  meet  on  the  road,  but  at 
present  I  am  so  little  my  own  Master,  and  so  much  governed  by 
circumstances  that  I  have  not  even   an  Idea  how  I  shall  Breach 
Paris;  and  on  the  Subject  of  my  movements  I  can  add  nothing  to 
the  annex'd  copy  of  what  I  have  written  to  you  and  Mr,  Adams  by 
this  Day's  post,  but  that  I  shall  endeavour  to  embark  for  America 
in  April  or  May.— I  will  not  now  trouble  you  with  any  thing  on 
the  Subject  of  Messrs.  Schweighauser's  accounts  but  that  the  Sums 
which  they  charge  were  all  certainly  paid  on  the  Alliance  frigate 
at  L'Orient,  but  at  a  time  when  the  Court  of  France  had  taken  the 
care  of  those  advances  on  itself,  and  Mr.  Schweighauser's  Agent 
at  L'Orient  paid  them  not  only  in  direct  opposition  to  the  orders 
of  Dr.  Franklin,  but  to  those  of  Mr.  Schweighauser  himself  and 
those  orders  were  given  before  the  Disbursements  were  paid.  An 
Attachment  was  laid  on  the  Effects  of  the  United  States  at  Nantes 
by  which  I  believe  a  very  heavy  loss  will  fall  on  them,  as  I  think 
a  number  of  new  Arms  imported  from  Holland  are  perish'd  through 
want  of  care.  I  consulted  a  Merchant  at  Nantes  concerning  the 
propriety  of  leaving  the  whole  transactions  to  the  determination 
of  three  or  four  disinterested  men,  and  his  answer  was,  *that  if 
the  dispute  was  between  two  Individuals  there  'would  be  no  doubt 
of  its  being  determined  against  Mr.  Schweighauser.  But  at  present 
there  is  on  one  Side  the  Public  of  America,  and  on  the  other  a 
private  Individual  whose  fortune  might  be  affected  by  the   De- 
termination. And  this  Consideration  will  have  great  weight  with 
any  Arbitrator  we  cou'd  find."  The  papers  relative  to  this  affair 
are  put  up  together  in  my  office  at  St.  Germains,  and  if  any  accident 
shou'd  prevent  me  from  having  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you,  it  will 
be  very  necessary  for  you  to  take  and  examine  them  previous  to 
your  making  a  Settlement.  They  contain  the  Correspondence  be- 
tween Doctor  Franklin  and  Mr.  Schweighauser  which  was   con- 
tinued by  Mr.  Dobre*  after  the  Death  of  his  Father  in  law.  A  List 
of  the  articles  under  attachment  I  left  with  you  previous  to  my 
Departure. —Why  has  not  Mr.   Dobre  as  the  Representative   of 
Mr.  Schweighauser  push'd  the  affair  to  a  legal  Tryal  if  he  can  do 
it.  Are  Goods  under  attachment  to  lye  for  ever  on  hand,  or  untill 
they  perish.  I  suppose  I  have  applied  at  the  least  five  or  six  times 
personally  to  the  Marechal  de  Castries  for  an  order  that  these 
arms  (which  were  attachd  before  the  Peace  was  compleated)  shoud 
be  deliver^!  up  to  me  that  they  might  be  transported  to  America, 
and  I  once  demanded  them  at  Nantes  by  a  Lawyer  in  order  to  lay 


1  O    FEBRUARY     1787 

the  foundation  of  a  Suit  for  Damages.  The  lawyer  went  beyond 
his  orders,  and  summoned  Mr.  Dobre  to  a  tryal  before  the  Consular 
Court.  With  the  summons  the  matter  ended,  neither  Mr.  Dobr£  nor 
myself  appeared  at  that  Court,  and  Monsieur  De  Castries  said 
that  as  I  had  taken  the  affair  out  of  the  hands  of  the  Council  at 
Versailles  by  calling  Mr.  Dobr£  to  an  account  at  Nantes,  it  woud 
not  be  proper  in  him  to  intermedle. 

The  Whole  affair  was  Stated  by  me  to  Doctor  Franklin  and  by 
him  I  believe  to  M.  De  Castries,  but  nothing  was  since  done  in 
it.  I  am  of  opinion  that  Mr,  Dobr£  shou'd  long  since  have  applied 
to  the  Court  of  France  for  the  payment  of  these  advances,  and 
perhaps  the  letter  which  M.  De  Sartine  wrote  when  the  Alliance  was 
lent  by  Dr.  Franklin,  might  entitle  him  to  recover  his  Demand. 
For  M.  De  Sartine  expressly  promised,  as  Doctor  Franklin  in- 
form'd  me,  that  the  Alliance  Disbursments  shou'd  be  paid  by  the 
Court  of  France,  and  I  suppose  the  only  objection  that  wou'd  be 
made,  must  be,  that^  as  the  Court  had  an  Agent  of  their  own  at 
L'Orient,  Mr.  Schweighauser  had  no  business  to  Intermeddle  in 
the  Supplies,  especially  after  he  was  forbid.  I  meant  only  to 
have  touched  slightly  on  this  matter  but  I  have  been  drawn  on. 
And  if  I  do  not  see  you,  it  may  be  all  necessary.  I  shall  trespass  no 
longer  on  your  time  than  to  assure  you  of  the  truth  wherewith 
I  am  Dr.  Sir  Your  obedt.  &  obliged  h'ble  Servant, 


My  Right  Thumb  is  Very  painful  to  me. 

RC  ( I3L.C ) ;  in  an  unidentified  hand,  -with  the  signature  and  postscript  in  Bar- 
clay's hand.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  25  Feb.  1787.  Enclosure:  Barclay  to 
Commissioners,  this  date. 

From  David  S.  Franks 

DEAR  SIR  Havre  le  10th.  Feb.  1787 

We  came  here  late  last  night,  the  roads  and  a  broken  Cariage 
having  retarded  us  on  the  way  longer  than  we  had  any  reason  to 
expect.  On  looking  over  my  Papers  this  morning  I  found  that  the 
ratification  of  the  Treaty  together  with  the  Letter  to  Taher  Fennish 
to  be  sent  to  Moracco  were  in  the  Box.  I  therefore  take  the  offer 
of  Mr.  Limosin  to  send  them  to  you  by  the  first  safe  hand.  Permit 
me  my  dear  Sir  at  parting  to  assure  you  that  my  Heart  feels  every 
Sentiment  of  gratitude  and  attachment  to  you  for  the  many  marks 
of  Friendship  -which  you  have  shewn  me  since  my  stay  in  France 


1  1    FEBRUARY     1787 

and  that  it  will  always  be  my  endeavor  to  merit  the  good  opinion 
I  flatter  myself  you  have  of  me.  I  pray  you  would  be  so  kind  as  to 
present  my  best  Respects  to  Mr.  Short  and  believe  me  Dear  Sir 
Your  Excellys.  most  obt.  obliged  Sert.,  D:  S.  FRANKS 

I  believe  we  shall  sail  in  a  few  hours— beg  you  woud  forward  the 
inclosed  Letter. 

I  do  myself  the  pleasure  of  inclosing  you  a  Note  which  may  by  an 
accident  serve  to  acquit  my  pecuniary  obligations  to  you. 

RC    (DLC);   endorsed.   Recorded  in   SJL   as   received    14,   Feb.   Enclosures    not 

To  Madame  de  Doradour 

[Paris*  11  Feb.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  under  this  date.  Not  found.] 

From  Duler 

Rouen9  11  Feb.  1787-  He  is  grateful  to  TJ,  for  "few  of  my  Country 
men  equal  in  rank  and  fortune  to  you,  would  have  thought  it  worth  their 
while  even  of  answering  my  letter."  Since  mid-January  he  has  been 
employed  by  a  mercantile  establishment,  with  a  salary  of  4,OOO  livres 
a  year.  Asks  if  arrangement  has  been  made  for  payment  of  interest  on 
U*S.  loan  certificates;  receipt  of  his  share  would  benefit  his  family. 

RC  (DLC);  2  p.;  at  foot  of  text  is  Duler's  address i  "at  Messrs.  Elie  Lefebvre 
freres  Rotiaa";  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-Fro- 

From  David  S.  Franks 

DEAR  SIR  Havre  de  Grace  llth.  Feby.  1787 

Before  I  had  received  your  Excellency's  Letter  of  the  8th.  I 
had  made  up  the  inclosed  Packet  and  had  given  it  to  Mr.  Limousin 
who  had  promised  to  send  it  by  the  first  safe  hand  but  as  you 
desire  the  papers  may  be  sent  by  Post  I  now  forward  them  to  you; 
I  mean  the  Copy  ratified  of  the  Treaty  with  the  letter  to  Taher 
Fennish.  That  intended  for  Mr.  Barclay  is  not  among  my  Papers. 
I  have  made  the  most  exact  search  for  it  in  Vain.  I  think  it  must 
be  where  the  Box  containing  the  Treaty  used  to  stand,  nigh  the 
fire  place  in  your  Study. 


1  1    FEBRUARY     1787 

I  do  myself  the  Honor  of  sending  you  a  rough  draft  of  a  Letter 
I  had  written  to  Mr,  Jay;  fortunately  I  have  not  now  any  occasion 
to  send  it,  as  by  contrary  winds  the  Packet  is  detained  and  we  have 
got  (with  much  difficulty)  Permission  to  imbark.  It  appears  that 
after  the  Ships  Books  are  closed  at  5  o'clock  in  the  Evening  of  the 
9th.  of  every  Month,  that  no  person  can  be  admitted  on  board  even 
tho'  the  Vessel  should  be  detained  a  day  or  two  by  any  accident; 
dispatches  from  any  foreign  Minister  coming  under  the  same  Cir- 
cumstances unless  accompanied  by  an  order  from  the  Mar.  de 
Castries  would  be  rejected.  The  Letter  I  intended  for  Mr.  Jay  I 
should  have  been  obliged  to  have  smuggled  into  the  Ship. 

This  Regulation  must  be  productive  of  many  disappointments 
and  must  serve  to  disgust  our  Countrymen  from  embarking  on 
French  Packet  Boats.  Capt.  Daborelle  informs  me  that  at  L'Orient 
no  such  rule  was  followed,  that  before  the  ship  left  the  Coast  any 
Passenger  or  Packet  might  be  put  on  board.  I  thought  it  my  Duty 
to  inform  Your  Excellency  of  this  Circumstance  as  it  might  have 
occasioned  you  some  disappointment.  If  the  French  Ministry  means 
to  encourage  this  Communication  between  the  two  Countries  they 
should  remove  every  natural  impediment  in  their  power,  and  avoid 
throwing  any  Bars  in  the  way.  Bad  Ships  and  but  indifferent  Sea- 
men I  reckon  among  the  former  and  the  regulation  before  mentioned 
and  some  others  among  the  Latter. — The  Ship  we  are  now  going 
to  imbark  in  is  by  no  means  a  bad  one  in  point  of  strength  but  as 
to  sailing  I  suppose  that  no  Ship  in  France  can  be  much  more  dull. 
— We  have  seen  the  Vessel  built  in  America  and  which  is  to  sail 
next  month  for  the  West  Indies.  It  is  hardly  possible  to  form  at 
a  distance  a  proper  Idea  of  the  difference  on  Comparison.  She  is 
the  most  beautiful  Vessel  I  ever  saw. 

Another  Circumstance  I  beg  leave  to  mention  to  Your  Excel- 
lency and  which  will  not  a  little  contribute  to  throw  her  Country- 
men further  at  a  distance  from  sailing  in  French  Packets.  I  mean 
the  impertinence  of  the  Director  Mr.  Ruellan,  whose  conduct  to  us 
under  any  other  Circumstances  would  have  procured  him  a  proper 
Chastisement. — I  am  informed  that  he  has  also  on  several  Oc- 
casions treated  the  American  Crews  in  a  very  arbitrary  and  un- 
becoming manner  and  that  many  of  them  thereby  have  deserted 
from  their  Ship.  He  seems  to  enjoy  an  universal  bad  character. 

We  have  repacked  your  Acorns  as  you  directed  and  with  great 
Care.  I  pray  my  best  Compliments  to  Mr.  Short  and  am  Dear  Sir 
with  much  Respect  &  Esteem  Your  Excellency's  most  obt.  obliged 
Servant,  DAVD.  S.  FRANKS 


1  1    FEBRUARY    1787 

In  all  probability  we  shall  be  detained  some  days  more  as  the 
wind  is  contrary  and  very  violent.  Should  be  glad  of  a  Line  from 
Your  Excellency. 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  possibly  make  use  of  urged  them  to 
SJL  as  received  14  Feb.  1787.  Enclosure  allow  me  to  embark";  that  Limozin 
(DLC)*  Draft  of  Franks  to  Jay,  dated  at  had  used  his  considerable  influence  "to 
Le  Havre  "10th  Feby*  1787  12  oClock,"  as  little  purpose";  that  as  the  packet 
stating  that  he  had  arrived  at  that  port  would  not  leave  until  three  in  the  after- 
"last  night  at  11  oClock  in  Consequence  noon,  Franks  thought  it  his  duty  to 
of  the  advice  and  Permission  of  their  Ex-  inform  Jay  of  the  reason  for  his  "not 
cellencies  Mr.  Adams  and  Mr.  Jefferson  embarking  with  the  Treaty  by  this 
charged  with  the  Treaty  made  by  Mr.  opportunity";  that  he  hoped  Jay  would 
Barclay  with  the  Emperor  of  Morocco"j  be  assured  he  had  done  everything  he 
that  he  had  applied  to  the  master  of  the  could  to  board  the  vessel  "and  that  no 
packet  boat  for  passage  and  had  been  re-  detention  of  the  Pacquet  Boat  -was  re- 
ferred to  the  director  of  the  packet  boats,  quested  or  desired  by  me,  being  in 
who  in  turn  referred  him  to  the  intend-  every  point  at  6  oClock  this  morning 
ant  of  the  marine,  who  sent  him  back  to  ready  to  embark";  and  that  he  would 
the  director  where  he  was  '^peremptorily  write  immediately  to  TJ  and  follow  his 
refused**;  that  he  then  communicated  orders. 

his   credentials   to  both  gentlemen    and  The      beautiful      VESSEL      BUILT      IN 

represented    to    them     "the     ill     conse-  AMERICA     may     have     been     Limozin's 

quences    which   might    anise    from   the  Bailli    dc    Suffren,    a    remarkably    fast 

Treaty   not    going   in   this    Paquet    and  ship  that  had  just  arrived  from  Virginia 

with    all    the    arguments    that    I    could  (see  Limozin  to  TJ,  3  Feb.   1787). 

To  Andre  Limozin 

Sm  Paris  Feb.  11.  1787 

A  friend  in  S.  Carolina  sent  a  letter  and  a  box  of  plants  for  me 
to  Mr.  Otto,  charg6  des  affaires  of  France  at  New  York.  The  letter 
came  by  the  packet  the  Courier  de  PEurope,  and  was  sent  to  me 
from  POrient.  I  presume  Mr.  Otto  sent  the  box  of  plants  by  the 
same  conveiance  but  as  the  packet  received  orders  on  her  arrival 
at  POrient  to  repair  immediately  to  Havre,  she  landed  only  her 
passengers  and  letters,  and  proceeded  to  Havre,  where  I  suppose 
she  is  now  and  that  she  has  there  the  box  of  plants  for  me.  I  leave 
Paris  the  16th.  instant,  and  it  is  very  interesting  for  me  to  receive 
that  box  before  I  go.  You  will  oblige  me  extremely  if  you  can  have 
it  sought  out  in  the  instant  of  receiving  this,  and  forwarded  by  the 
first  Diligence  to  me  here.  I  beg  your  pardon  for  troubling  you  so 
much:  but  these  plants  are  precious,  and  have  already  come  from 
S.  Carolina  to  N.  York,  from  N.  York  to  Lorient,  and  from  Lorient 
to  Havre.  There  is  danger  therefore  of  their  losing  their  vegetative 
power  by  delay,  and  my  departure  renders  that  delay  still  more 
interesting.  I  am  with  very  much  esteem  &  respect  Sir  your  most 
obedient  &  most  humble  servt.  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (MHi);  endorsed. 

t  138} 

To  De  Puisaye 

Paris  Feb.  11.  1787. 

Les  talents  que  vous  possedez,  Monsieur,  doivent  bien  vous 
faire  reussir  en  Amerique,  comine  partout  ailleurs.  Vous  ne  pouvez 
pas  manquer  d'y  trouver  £  quoi  les  occuper.  Vous  avez  bien  prevu 
que  la  manque  de  la  langue  du  pals  vous  fera  eprouver  des  dif- 
ficult6s.  Je  vous  assure  qu'ils  ne  seront  pas  mediocres,  et  je  vous 
parle  de  ma  propre  experience.  II  faudra  aussi  vous  preparer  d'y 
rencontrer  des  usages  bien  differentes  de  celles  de  la  France.  Mais 
le  nom  Frangois,  qu'on  estime  infiniment  en  Amerique,  sera  votre 
passeport,  et  vous  assurera  un  bon  accueil  partout.  II  y  a  en  tout 
terns  des  batimens  particuliers  qui  partent  de  Bourdeaux,  Nantes, 
Lorient  et  Havre  pour  les  differents  ports  des  etats  unis  et  il  y  a 
aussi  un  paquetbote  du  roy  qui  partira  toutes  les  six  semaines  de 
Havre  pour  la  Nouvelle  York.  Les  climats  les  plus  resemblants  & 
ceux  auxquels  vous  etes  accoutum€  sont  ceux  de  la  Nouvelle  York, 
la  Nouvelle  Jersey,  La  Pensylvanie  et  Delaware.  Je  vous  souhaite 
Monsieur  le  succes  le  plus  complet,  et  je  vous  assure  des  sentiments 
de  respect  et  d'estime  avec  lesquels  j'ai  Fhonneur  d'etre  Monsieur 
votre  tres  humble  et  tres  obeissant  serviteur, 


PrC  (MoSHi);  endorsed;  at  foot  of  text:  *'Monsr.  de  Puisaye,  ancien  Capitaine 
de  Cavalerie  a  Beaufosse  proche  le  Mele  sur  Sarte  [en  Normandie,  au]  Mele  sur 

To  Tarbe 

Paris    lime.  Fevr.    1787. 

J'ai  Phonneur,  Monsieur,  d'accuser  la  reception  de  la  lettre  que 
vous  m'avez  fait  celui  de  m'ecrire,  et  de  vous  informer  que  votre 
billet  d'echange  a  et€  present^  et  pay6,  et  que  le  vin  est  arriv6  ^ 
sa  destination.  Je  vous  prie  de  vouloir  bien  agreer  rnes  sinceres 
remerciments  pour  toutes  vos  bont€s  et  les  assurances  des  senti- 
ments d'estime  et  de  respect  avec  lesquels  j'ai  Thonneur  d'etre 
Monsieur  votre  tres  humble  et  tres  obeissant  serviteur, 


PrC  (MoSHi);  endorsed.  Tarbg's  letter  of  22  Jan.  1787,  to  which  the  present  is 
a  reply,  is  recorded  in  SJL  as  having  been  received  on  27  Jan.;  it  has  not  been 


To  Vergennes 

glR  Paris  Feb.  11.  1787. 

My  hand  recovering  very  slowly  from  the  effects  of  it's  disloca- 
tion, I  am  advised  by  the  Surgeons  to  try  the  waters  of  Aix  in 
Provence.  From  thence  I  think  it  possible  I  may  go  as  far  as  Nice. 
As  circumstances  might  arise  under  which  a  passport  might  be 
useful,  I  take  the  liberty  of  troubling  your  Excellency  for  one.  I 
propose  to  set  out  on  Thursday  next. 

I  would  at  the  same  time  ask  an  enfranchisement  for  three  bar- 
riques  of  common  wine,  and  one  of  wine  de  liqueur,  one  of  which 
is  arrived  at  Paris,  and  the  other  three  are  soon  expected  there. 
They  are  for  my  own  use. 

With  my  sincere  prayers  for  the  speedy  reestablishment  of  your 
health,  I  have  the  honor  to  assure  you  of  those  sentiments  of  perfect 
esteem  &  respect  with  which  I  am  your  Excellency's  most  obedient 
and  most  humble  servant,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC    (MoSHi).  This  is  accompanied  chise   d'une   barrique    de    vin    ordinaire 

by  a  faded  PrC  of  a   declaration,  un-  contenant   250    bouteilles,    arrive'e    S.    la 

dated  but  possibly  written  a  day  or  so  douane  de  cette  ville  55.  notre   adresse," 

after  the  present  letter,  in  French  and  and  promised  to   transmit   the  passport 

in  TJ's  hand,  wherein  TJ  certified  that  to    "Monsieur   Richard"    as    soon    as    it 

he  had  requested  of  "M,  le   Comte   de  was  received. 
Verg-ennes   un   passeport  pour  la   fran- 

To  Charles  Burney 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  12.  1787 

I  have  been  honoured  with  your  favor  of  the  20th.  of  January, 
and  am  now  to  return  you  my  sincere  thanks  for  your  very  kind 
attention  to  the  instrument  I  had  desired.  Your  goodness  has  in- 
duced you  to  give  yourself  a  great  deal  more  trouble  about  it  than 
I  would  have  presumed  to  propose  to  you.  I  only  meant  to  intrude 
on  your  time  so  far  as  to  give  a  general  instruction  to  the  workmen. 
Besides  the  value  of  the  thing  therefore,  it  will  have  an  additional 
one  with  me,  of  the  nature  of  that  which  a  good  catholic  affixes 
to  the  relick  of  a  saint.  As  I  shall  set  out  within  three  or  four  days 
on  a  journey  of  two  or  three  months,  I  shall  propose  to  Colo.  Smith, 
if  the  instrument  is  not  already  embarked,  not  to  send  it  till  about 
the  1st.  of  April  when  it  will  be  less  liable  to  be  injured  by  bad 
weather.  A  friend  of  mine  in  America  (the  same  who  im- 
proved the  quilling  of  the  harpsichord)  writes  me  word  he  is 


12    FEBRUARY     1787 

succeeding  in  some  improvements  he  had  proposed  for  the  Har- 
monica. However  imperfect  this  instrument  is  for  the  general  mass 
of  musical  compositions,  yet  for  those  of  a  certain  character  it  is 
delicious. — We  are  all  standing  a  tip-toe  here  to  see  what  is  to  be 
done  by  the  assembly  of  Notables.  Nothing  certain  has  yet  trans- 
pired as  to  the  objects  to  be  proposed  to  them.  The  sickness  of 
the  ministers  continues  to  retard  the  meeting.  I  have  the  honor  to  be 

PrC  (DLC)j  endorsed;  at  foot  of  text:  "Dr.  Burney";  lacks  part  of  complimen- 
tary close  and  signature  (on  which,  see  Vol.  9:  217,  note  1). 

TJ's  FRIEND  ...  IN  AMERICA  was  Francis  Hopkinson;  see  Hopkinson  to  TJ,  28 
June  1786. 

To  Borgnis  Desbordes,  Freres 

GENTLEMEN  Paris  Feb.  12.  1787. 

Mr.  Barclay  the  American  Consul  general  for  France  being  at 
present  out  of  the  kingdom,  I  have  given  orders  to  Mr.  Grand, 
banker  at  Paris,  to  pay  your  draught  for  one  hundred  and  eighty 
six  livres  advanced  by  you  for  the  relief  of  the  shipwrecked 
Americans.  I  thank  you  for  your  attention  to  these  unfortunate 
people.  It  will  rest  with  Mr.  Barclay  to  give  such  future  directions 
as  he  shall  think  proper  for  cases  of  this  kind,  which  properly  fall 
within  the  Consular  department.  A  certainty  that  your  kindness 
will  meet  his  thanks,  and  that  my  interference  in  his  absence  will 
be  approved,  has  engaged  me  to  do  it  without  any  hesitation.  I  am 
just  setting  out  on  a  journey  of  two  or  three  months,  but  Mr. 
Grand,  as  I  have  before  mentioned  will  pay  your  draught  for  the 
186.  livres  whenever  you  shall  be  pleased  to  make  it.  I  have  the 
honour  to  be  with  sentiments  of  the  most  perfect  esteem  &  respect 
Gentlemen  your  most  obedient  Sc  most  humble  servant, 


RC  (Carl  G.  Anthon,  Iowa  City3  la.,  1955);  addressed;  the  following:  notation, 
in  a  French  clerk's  hand,  appears  in  the  margin  of  the  page:  tcDu  24  fevrier  1787 
Tire"  une  Lettre  de  Change  a  viie  de  la  somme  de  ISC.*  sur  M.  Grand  pour  solde 
des  avances  f aittes  aux  nauffrag6s  de  La  Lucie."  PrC  ( DLC ) . 

To   Schweighauser   Sc   Dobree 

GENTLEMEN  Paris  Feb.  12.  1787 

I  have  received  the   order   of  Congress  for  the   settlement  of 
your  accounts,  of  which  order  you  were  pleased  to  send  me  a  copy 


13    FEBRUARY    1787 

in  your  favor  of  Jan.  27.  I  have  reason  to  expect  still  an  additional 
order  on  the  same  subject.  This  will  probably  arrive  by  the  time 
I  shall  have  compleated  a  journey  into  the  South  of  France  which 
my  health  obliges  me  to  take.  I  purpose  to  return  by  the  way  of 
Bourdeaux  and  Nantes,  at  which  last  mentioned  place  I  shall  have 
the  honour  of  seeing  you,  and  of  taking  arrangements  for  the  settle- 
ment with  as  little  delay  and  trouble  to  you  as  possible.  I  have 
the  honour  to  be  Gentlemen  your  most  obedient  and  most  humble 
servant  ^H:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DL.C),  The  letter  from  Schweighauser  &  Dobrge  of  27  Jan.  and  its  en- 
closure, of  which  the  present  is  an  acknowledgement,  have  not  been  found,  but 
the  letter  was  recorded  in  SJL  as  having-  been  received  on  31  Jan.  1787. 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas 

The  Hague,  13  Feb.  1787.  He  will  write  on  other  subjects  by  the 
next  regular  mail;  the  present  only  serves  to  cover  the  enclosed. 

RC    (DLC);    1    p.;    in    French.    Re-  drawn  on  Willink  &  Van  Staphorst  for 

corded  in  SJL  as  received  18  Feb.  1787.  2,50O    florins    to    be     charged     ag-ainst 

Enclosure    (Dumas  Letter  Book,  Rijks-  arrearages  due  him  by  Congress    (text, 

archief,     The     Hague;     photostats     in  tog-ether    with    several    enclosures    sent 

DL.C):   Dumas  to  Jay,   13   Feb.    1787,  by  Dumas  to  Jay,  printed  in  DipL  Corr., 

reporting    on    political    affairs    in    The  1783-89,  ra,  549-64). 
Netherlands  and  advising  that  he  had 

From  Andre  Limozin 

Le  Havre,  13  Feb.  1787.  T<Ps  two  letters  of  8  and  11  Feb.  have  duly 
come  to  hand,  the  first  by  "Colo.  Franks  and  Mr.  Bannister,  who  are 
still  waiting  for  a  Fair  wind  to  Sett  of  on  board  the  Packet  bound  for 
New  York*"  On  receipt  of  the  second  he  waited  on  "Mr.  De  Sionville 
Captn.  of  the  Packet  Le  Courier  de  PEurope,"  who  remembered  only 
a  small  box  "containing  Plants,  which  he  delivered  to  Mr.  Berard  in 
Lorient,^but  unhappily  he  could  not  recollect  by  whom  that  Box  was 
Shippd  hi  New  York,  neither  to  whom  it  was  directed  for  in  France"; 
he  could  only  recall  that  it  contained  plants.  Since  Short  will  be  in  Paris 
during  TJ's  absence,  Limozin  will  continue  to  address  his  letters  there. 

Ti  i      be?rs<S>nota"      TJ's  letter  to  BSrard  of   16  Feb.    17875 

in  TJ  a  hand  which  reads:  "Berard      see    also   BSrard    to   TJ,    6    May    1786, 


rue    Michautiere"    (this   notation       received  15  Feb.   1787 

was  no  doubt  made  in  connection  with 


From  John  Stockdale 

SlR  Piccadilly  London  13th.  Febry.  1787. 

I  duly  received  your  favor's  of  Janry.  28th.  and  Febry.  the  1st. 
and  have  sent  the  Articles  agreable  to  your  Order  by  this  Nights 
Coach  which  I  hope  you'll  receive  in  time.  I  sent  part  of  the  Books 
to  America  a  long  time  since  by  the  Gentleman  you  desir'd,  but 
have  not  been  able  to  get  the  remainder.  I  shall  be  happy  to  receive 
your  corrected  Copy,  which  shall  be  neatly  and  correctly  Printed 
and  Published,  according  to  your  desire,  without  one  tittle  of 
Alteration,  tho'  I  know  there  is  some  bitter  Pills  relative  to  our 
Country.  As  I  shall  not  be  above  three  Weeks  in  Printing  the 
Work,  it  may  not  be  amiss  to  send  the  Plate  at  the  same  time,  as 
they  will  take  some  time  to  Work;  I  think  a  shilling  for  the  Use  of 
the  Plate,  for  working  each  Copy,  a  very  great  Price,  and  I  am 
afraid  much  higher  than  the  Work  will  bear,  but  this  I  leave 
entirely  to  your  consideration.  I  intend  to  Print  500  Copies,  which 
from  the  Merit  of  the  Work  and  the  advantage  of  your  Name,  I 
hope  will  be  sold,  but  all  things  are  uncertain.  In  short,  all  that 
I  wish,  is  to  be  the  Publisher  of  your  work  and  to  be  indemnified, 
without  paying  any  regard  to  the  Profit.  I  am  with  great  Respect 
Sir  Your  much  obliged  &  very  hble.  Servt.,  JOHN  STOCKDALE 

RC   (MHi);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  18  Feb.  1787. 

To  John  Adams 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  14.  1787 

As  I  propose  to  write  you  on  business  by  Mr.  Cairnes  who  will 
set  out  in  a  few  days  for  London,  the  object  of  the  present  letter 
is  only  to  inform  you  that  the  Count  de  Vergennes  died  yesterday 
morning  and  that  the  Count  de  Montmorin  is  appointed  his  suc- 
cessor: and  further  to  beg  the  favor  of  you  to  forward  the  inclosed 
by  the  first  vessel  from  London.  I  set  out  on  my  journey  on  Sunday 
the  18th.  I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  sentiments  of  very  sincere 
affection  &  respect  Dear  Sir  Your  most  obedient  &  most  humble 
servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

RC  (MHi:  AMT);  endorsed.  PrC  (DLC).  Enclosure:  TJ^s  first  letter  to  Jay, 
this  date. 


To  John  Jay 

glR  Paris  Feb.  14.  1787 

In  the  letter  of  the  8th.  instant  which  I  had  the  honour  of  writ- 
ing you,  I  informed  you  that  the  Count  de  Vergennes  was  danger- 
ously ill.  He  died  yesterday  morning,  and  the  Count  de  Montmorin 
is  appointed  his  successor.  Your  personal  knowlege  of  this  gentle- 
man renders  it  unnecessary  for  me  to  say  any  thing  of  him. 

Mr.  Morris,  during  his  office,  being  authorized  to  have  the 
medals  and  swords  executed  which  had  been  ordered  by  Congress, 
he  authorised  Colo.  Humphreys  to  take  measures  here  for  the 
execution.  Colo.  Humphreys  did  so;  and  the  swords  were  finished 
in  time  for  him  to  carry  them.  The  medals  not  being  finished,  he 
desired  me  to  attend  to  them.  The  workman  who  was  to  make  that 
of  Genl.  Green,  brought  me  yesterday,  the  medal  in  gold,  twenty 
three  in  copper,  and  the  dye.  Mr.  Short,  during  my  absence,  will 
avail  himself  of  the  first  occasion  which  shall  offer  of  forwarding 
the  medals  to  you.  I  must  beg  leave  through  you  to  ask  the  pleasure 
of  Congress  as  to  the  number  they  would  chuse  to  have  struck. 
Perhaps  they  might  be  willing  to  deposit  one  of  each  person  in 
every  college  of  the  U.S.  Perhaps  they  might  chuse  to  give  a  series 
of  them  to  each  of  the  crowned  heads  of  Europe,  which  would  be  an 
acceptable  present  to  them.  They  will  be  pleased  to  decide.  In  the 
mean  time  I  have  sealed  up  the  dye,  and  shall  retain  it  till  I  am 
honoured  with  their  orders  as  to  this  medal  and  the  others  also 
when  they  shall  be  finished.  I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  senti- 
ments of  the  most  perfect  esteem  &  respect,  Sir,  your  most  obedt. 
&  most  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC).  Tr  (DNA:  PCC,  No.  1O7,  n).  Enclosed  in  TJ  to  John  Adams,  this 

To  John  Jay 

SlR  Paris  Feb.  14.  1787 

In  the  letter  of  the  8th.  instant  which  I  had  the  honour  of  writing 
you,  I  informed  you  of  the  illness  of  the  Count  de  Vergennes.  In 
one  of  the  present  date  which  I  send  by  the  way  of  London,  I  have 
notified  to  you  his  death  which  happened  yesterday  morning,  and 
that  the  Count  de  Montmorin  is  appointed  his  successor,  with 
whose  character  you  are  personally  acquainted.  As  the  winds  have 
been  contrary  for  the  sailing  of  the  Packet  and  this  may  possibly 


14    FEBRUARY     1787 

reach  Havre  by  post  in  time  to  be  put  on  board,  I  avail  myself  of 
that  chance  of  conveying  you  the  above  information. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  sentiments  of  the  most  perfect 
esteem  8c  respect  Sir  Your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servt., 


PrC  (DLC).  Tr  (DNA:  PCC,  No.  1O7,  n).  Enclosed  in  TJ  to  Limozin,  this  date. 

From  John  Jay 

DR.  SIR  New  York  14th.  February  1787 

I  understand  that  a  Visit  will  be  paid  you  by  a  Gentleman 
who  is  to  be  married  to  a  Lady  in  this  Town,  and  her  Friends 
request  the  Favor  of  me  to  mention  him  in  my  Letters  to  you. 

The  Gentleman's  Name  is  John  Josh.  Bauer  a  Lieutenant  in  his 
Imperial  Majesty's  Navy,  and  late  Captain  of  the  imperial  East 
India  Company's  Ships  Count  de  Cobensel  and  Count  Belgioioso. 
I  have  not  the  pleasure  of  being  personally  acquainted  with  this 
Gentleman,  but  from  the  Commissions  he  has  had,  and  from  some 
other  Testimonials  I  have  seen,  I  infer  that  he  is  a  Gentleman 
of  Merit.  "With  great  and  sincere  Esteem  and  Regard,  I  am  &c., 


FC   (DNA:   PCC,  No.  121).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  6  Apr.  1787  at  Mar- 

To  Andre  Lirnozin 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  14.  1787 

The  inclosed  letter  is  to  announce  to  Congress  the  death  of  the 
Count  de  Vergennes  and  appointment  of  the  Count  de  Montmorin  to 
succeed  him.  As  the  winds  seem  to  have  been  contrary  to  the  sail- 
ing of  the  packet  boat,  I  send  it  by  post  and  beg  the  favor  of  you 
to  deliver  it  to  Colo.  Franks  if  he  is  not  gone;  and  if  he  is,  to  send 
it  by  the  first  vessel.  I  have  received  duly  the  papers  which  Colo. 
Franks  sent  me  by  post.  I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  sentiments  of 
perfect  esteem  &  respect  Sir  your  most  obedt.  &  most  humble  servt., 


PrC   (DLC).  Enclosure:  TJ's  second  letter  to  Jay,  this  date. 


From  Louis  Guillaume  Otto 

MONSIEUR  A  Newyork  le  14.  Fevr.  1787. 

Vous  apprendr6s  probablement  par  un  autre  canal  que  la  Vir- 
ginie  vient  de  mettre  des  droits  extraordinaires  sur  les  liqueurs 
Spiritueuses  £  Fexception  des  eaux  de  vie  de  France.  M.  Madison 
qui  ne  fait  qu'arriver  ici  m'assure  qua  la  m£me  f  aveur  a  £t€  accord€e 
a  nos  vins,  mais  je  n'ai  pas  encore  vft  Pacte  qui  concerne  cet  article. 
Je  ne  puis  ignorer  que  les  raports  de  Votre  Excellence  contribuent 
beaucoup  aux  dispositions  que  la  Virginie  manifeste  &  notre  egard 
et  je  ne  neglige  aucune  occasion  d'en  rendre  compte  a  ma  Cour. 
II  est  heureux  que  les  interSts  des  Etats  unis  en  France  ayent  6t€ 
confies  &  un  Ministre  aussi  attentif  &  cultiver  la  bonne  intelligence 
qui  subsiste  entre  les  deux  nations. 

Vous  trouver6s,  Monsieur,  dans  les  gazettes  tous  les  details 
relatifs  &  la  revolte  de  Shayse  et  de  ses  partisans.  Ses  troupes  ont 
€t€  entierement  disperses  par  le  Gal.  Lincoln;  mais  je  n'ose  encore 
me  flatter  que  la  fermentation  est  tout  £  fait  calmge.  On  croit  ass6s 
generalement  que  la  Legislature  du  Massachussets  sera  enfin 
obligee  de  faire  du  papier  monnoye  et  d'avoir  egard  aux  autres 
griefs,  vrais  ou  imaginaires,  des  Insurgens. 

Un  Capitaine  Americain,  Monsieur,  vient  de  trouver  sur  une 
isle  dont  il  cache  le  nom,  des  pelleteries  tr£s  precieuses,  qu'il  se 
propose  d'envoyer  en  Chine.  Son  Batiment  est  encore  mouillg  dans 
la  rivifere  du  Nord  et  doit  partir  incessament.  On  dit  que  ces 
fourrures  ressemblent  ^  celles  que  Pequipage  du  Cape.Cook  a 
vendues  £  Canton  &  un  prix  exorbitant.  Si  cette  dScouverte  est  aussi 
importante  qu'on  le  presume  elle  deviendra  pour  les  Etats  unis  une 
nouvelle  source  de  richesses.  Comme  les  armateurs  gardent  le 
plus  profond  silence,  on  n^en  a  encore  qu'une  connoissance  tr^s 
vague.  Je  suis  tente  de  croire  que  Tlsle  en  question  est  une  des 
Falklands  puisque  difFerens  navigateurs  et  entre  autres  Wallis  et 
Carteret  font  mention  de  fourrures  qu'ils  y  ont  trouv£es.  Vous 
n'ignor^s  pas,  Monsieur,  que  la  pgche  de  la  Baleine  attire  beaucoup 
d'Americains  vers  ces  isles  et  qu'ils  y  ont  mgme  fait  quelques 
etablissemens  passagers. 

Plusieurs  Caroliniens,  Monsieur,  desirent  de  faire  passer  leurs 
ris  en  France;  mais  pour  les  rendre  convenables  a  nos  marches,  ils 
ont  besoin  de  Vos  bons  offices.  Vous  rendries  un  tres  grand  service 
aux  liaisons  commerciales  des  deux  nations  en  faisant  passer  en 
Amerique  tous  les  renseignemens  que  Vous  pourres  Vous  procurer 

C  146} 

14    FEBRUARY     1787 

sur  cette  matiere.  M.  Ed.  Rutledge  et  d'autres  Carolinlens  doivent 
Vous  en  avoir  ecrit. 

L'Etat  de  Frankland  vient  de  se  reunir  &  la  Caroline  du  Nord  et 
la  tranquillit6  paroit  tout-S.-f  ait  retablie  de  ce  cotg  la. 

«Fai  Phonneur  d'etre  avec  le  plus  respectueux  attachement  Mon- 
sieur de  Votre  Excellence  le  tres  humble  et  tr£s  obeisst.  serviteur, 


RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in 
SJL,  as  received  6  Apr.  1787  at  Mar- 

few  days  earlier  Otto  had  sent  to  Ver- 
gennes a  remarkable  tribute  to  TJTs 
influence  in  promoting  Franco-American 
relations,  particularly  as  exercised 
through  his  private  letters  to  America: 
**M.  Jefferson,  Monseigneur,  est  pour 
nous  en  Virginie  ce  que  M.  Franklin 
a  toujours  £te  en  Pensylvanie  c'est  a 
dire  le  Panegyriste  le  plus  infatigable 
de  la  france.  Les  Delegues  de  cet  Etat 
me  traitent  avec  la  plus  grande  confiance 
et  ils  ont  soin  de  rn'informer  de  toutes  les 
mesures  qui  peuvent  interesser  directe- 
ment  ou  indirectement  les  sujets  de  SJVI. 
ou  d'importance  nation  ale,  Leur  Etat 
vient  denous  donner  une  nouvelle  preuve 
de  son  attachement  en  mettant  des  droits 
extraordinaires  sur  toutes  les  liqueurs 
etrangers  a  Perception  des  eauux  de  vie 
de  France  importees  dans  des  batimens 
francois  ou  Americains.  Un  autre  acte 
qui  n'est  pas  encore  public"  etend  la 
m§me  faveur  aux  wins  de  france.  On 
avoit  propose"  dans  P  Assemble"  e  de 
mettre  des  droits  tres  considerable  sur 
les  soiries  etrangeres  et  d'en  excepter 
les  etoffes  francoises;  la  chambre  basse 
avoit  deja  donne"  son  consentement  & 
cette  motion,  mais  la  difficulte  d'em- 
pgcher  la  contrebande  des  Etats  Voisins 
I'a  fait  rejeter  par  le  Senat.  Ces  bonnes 
dispositions  sont  evidemment  dues  a 
la  lettre  de  M.  de  Calonne  a  M.  Jeffer- 
son que  j'ai  eu  soin  de  faire  publier 
dans  toutes  les  gazettes;  un  Delegu€ 
m'a  assure  qu'on  n'a  eu  connoissance 
de  cette  lettre  que  la  veille  de  la  redac- 
tion des  nouvelles  loix  et  que  des  ce 
moment  les  membres  de  1'Assemblee 
etoient  unanimement  resolus  d'accorder 
a  notre  commerce  toutes  les  faveurs  qui 

peuvent  se  concilier  avec  les  interets  par- 
ticuliers  de  la  Virginie.  C*est  principale- 
ment  par  sa  correspondance  particuliere 
que  M.  Jefferson  s'efiForce  de  conserver 
en  Amerique  les  sentiments  de  recon- 
noissance  que  plusieurs  de  ses  collegrues 
en  Europe  ont  pris  tant  de  peine  S. 
etoufiFer.  Je  suis  persuade,  Monseigneur, 
que  la  satisfaction  que  vous  en  temoig- 
neres  a  ce  IMinistre  produira  le  meilleur 
effet  et  qu'il  ne  manquera  pas  d'en 
rendre  compte  a  ses  Constituans.  Xoutes 
les  mesures  prises  en  france  en  faveur 
du  commerce  Americain  operent  sur  le 
champ  sur  Pespri  des  assemblies  legisla- 
tives et  chaque  sacrifice  de  notre  part 
est  immediatement  suivi  par  une  com- 
pensation1' (Otto  to  Vergennes,  1O  Feb. 
1787;  Arch.  Aff.  Etr.,  Corr.  Pol.,  E.- 
U-,  Vol.  xxxn;  Tr  in  DLC;  received  [by 
Montmorin]  23  Mch.  1787).  This  con- 
clusion was  doubtless  optimistic,  but 
Otto's  appraisal  of  TJ's  influence  and 
good  dispositions  was  undoubtedly  ac- 
curate. However  the  enthusiasm  with 
which  Otto  reported  here  and  in  pre- 
vious months  was  probably  due  in  part 
to  the  fact  that  Virginia  delegates 
took  pains  to  convey  the  nature  of  TJ's 
communications  to  Otto  in  the  certain 
knowledge  that  this  would  in  turn  be 
transmitted  back  to  the  French  court— 
which  was  precisely  what  Otto  was  ad- 
vising in  this  dispatch  to  Vergennes, 
thus  closing  the  circle  of  an  endless 
promotion  of  good  will.  In  this  sort  of 
private  and  unofficial  diplomacy,  James 
Madison  was  very  adept;  the  informa- 
tion in  Otto's  dispatch  of  10  Feb.  par- 
allels that  in  Madison's  to  TJ  of  15 
Feb.  1787  so  closely  as  to  indicate  that 
he  was  the  "Delegue""  who  had  assured 
Otto  of  Virginia's  good  dispositions. 
See  note  to  Madison  to  TJ,  19  Mch. 


From  Maria  Cosway 

London  15  Feb.  1787 

I  have  the  pleasure  of  receiving  two  [letters  from  you,  and  though 
th]ey  are  very  short,  I  must  content  Myself,  and  lament  Much 
fo[r  the]  reason  that  deprivd  Me  of  their  usual  length.  I  must 
confess  that  the  begining  of  your  corrispondence  has  made  Me  an 
enfant  gatge.  I  shall  never  recover  to  be  reasonable  in  My  ex- 
pectations, and  shall  feel  disapointed  whenever  your  letters  are 
not  as  long  as  the  first  was.  Thus  you  are  the  occasion  of  a  con- 
tinual reproching  disposition  in  Me.  It  is  a  disagreable  One.  It 
will  teaze  you  to  a  hatread  towards  Me,  notwithstanding  your 
partiality  you  have  had  for  Me  till  now.  Nothing  disobliges  More 
than  a  disatisfied  Mind,  and  thou'  my  fault  is  occasion'd  by  your- 
self you  will  be  the  most  distant  to  allow  it.  I  trust  that  your  friend- 
ship would  wish  to  see  Me  perfect,  and  Mine  to  be  so,  but  diffects 
are,  or  are  not,  Most  conspicuous  according  to  the  feel  we  have 
about  the  Objects  which  Mislead  them.  We  may  be  apt  to  feel  our 
own,  as  to  discover  them  in  others,  and  in  both,  one  of  the  humane 
weakness  we  are  subject  to.  [This  trait  of  ch]aracter,  we  both 
possess  it,  you  to  [.  .  .]a  thought,  I  for  suffering  patiently  those 
not  bestow'd  [or  be]gruje  them,  and  silence  My  pretensions  with 
due  consciousness;  I  feel  at  present  an  inclination  to  Make  you  an 
endless  letter  but  have  not  yet  determined  what  subject  to  begin 
with.  Shall  I  continue  this  reproching  stile;  quote  all  the  what's, 
and  why's,  out  of  Jeremias's  lamentations,  then  present  you  with 
some  outlines  of  Job  for  Consolation?  Of  all  the  torments,  tempta- 
tions, and  weariness,  the  female  has  always  been  the  principal  and 
most  powerfull  object,  and  this  is  to  be  the  most  fear'd  by  you  at 
present,  from  my  pen.  Are  you  to  be  painted  in  future  ages  sitting 
solitary  and  sad,  on  the  beautifull  Monticello  tormented  by  the 
shadow  of  a  woman  who  will  present  you  a  deform'd  rod,  twisted 
and  broken,  instead  of  the  emblematical  instrument  belonging  to 
the  Muses,  held  by  Genius,  inspired  by  wit,  from  which  all  that 
is  pleasing,  beautifull  and  happy  can  be  described  to  entertain,  and 
satisfy  a.  Mind  capable  of  investigating  every  Minutia  of  a  lively 
immagination  and  interesting  descriptions.— [I  have  wro]t  this  in 
Memoria  of  the  Many  pages  [you  wrote  in  reply  to  the  scrlawls 
adress'd  to  you  by  One  who  has  only  a  good  intention  to  [apololgies 
for  such  long  insipid  Chit  chat,  that  follows  more  the  dictates  of 
her  own  pleasure,  than  the  feeling  of  understanding:  Allegories 
are  allways  very  far  fecht.  I  don't  like  to  follow  the  subject,  though 

[  148] 

15    FEBRUARY     1787 

I  Might  find  something  to  explain  My  Ideas.  Supose  I  turn  to 
relate  to  you  the  debats  of  Parlement?  Was  I  a  good  politition  I 
could  entertain  you  Much.  What  do  you  think  of  a  famous  speach 
Sheridan  has  made  which  lasted  five  hours?  which  has  astonished 
every  body  which  has  Made  the  subject  of  conversation  and  admira- 
tion of  the  whole  Town.  Nothing  has  been  taulk'd  of  for  Many 
days  but  his   Speach.  The  Whole  House   applauded  him  at  the 
Moment.    Each    Member    Complimented   him   when   they    rouse. 
Pitt  Made  him  the  highest  encomioms,  and  only  poor  Mr.  Hastings 
suff erd  for  the  power  of  his  eloquence;  all  went  against  him,  though 
nothing  can  be  decided  yet.  Mr.  H.  was  with  Mr.  Cosway  at  the 
very  Moment  [the  speech  was]  going  on.  He  seemd  perfectly  easy, 
talkfing  of  a  variet]y  of  subjects  with  great  tranquility  and  cheer- 
fulness. The  second  day  he  was  the  same,  but  on  the  third  seem'd 
very  Much  affected  and  agitated.  All  his  friends   give  him  the 
greatest  Character  of  humanity,  generosity  and  feelings,  amiable 
in  his  Maner.  He  seems  in  short  totaly  different  from  the  disposi- 
tion of  cruelty  they  accuse  him  of.  From  Parlementary  discussions 
it  is  time  to  tell  you  I  have  ben  reading  with  great  pleasure  your 
description  of  America.  It  is  wrot  by  you,  but  Nature  represents  all 
the  scenes  to  Me  in  reality.  Therefore  dont  take  any  thing  on  your- 
self. I  must  refer  to  your  Name  to  Make  it  the  More  valuable  to 
Me  but  she  is  your  rival,  you  her  usurper.  Oh  how  I  wish  My  self 
in  those  delightful  places!  Those  enchanted  Grotto's!  Those  Mag- 
nificent Mountains  rivers,  &c.  &c.!  Why  am  I  not  a  Man  that  I 
could  sett  out  immediatly  and  satisfy  My  Curiosity,  indulge  My 
sight  with  wonders! — [Since  I  have  been]  in  Lond[on  there  have 
been  a  great  man]y  little  parties.  I  have   [attended  only  a  very 
few  of]2  them.  I  am  grown  so  excessively  indolent,  that  I  [do  not 
go]  out  for  Months  together.  All  the  Morning  I  paint  whatev[er] 
presents  it  self  most  pleasing  to  Me.  Some  times  I  have  beautifull 
Objects  to  paint  from  and  add  historical  Characters  to  Make  them 
More  interesting.  Female  and  infantine  beauty  is  the  Most  perfect 
Object  to   see.   Sometimes  I  indulge  More  Malincholy  subjects. 
History  rappresents  her  self  sometimes  in  the  horrid,  in  the  grand, 
the  sublime,  the  sentimental,  the  pathetik.  I  attempt,  I  exercise 
and  end  by  being  witness  of  My  own  dissapointment  and  incapacity 
of  executing,  the  Poet,  the  Historian,  or  my  own  conceptions  of 
immagination.  Thus  the  Mornings  are  spent  regretting  they  are 
not  longer,  to  have  More  time  to  attempt  again  in  Search  of  better 
success,  or  thinking  they  have  been  too  long  and  have  afforded  me 
Many  Moments  of  uneasiness,  anxiety  and  a  testimony  of  my  not 


15    FEBRUARY    1787 

being;  able  to  do  any  thing—  [I  devote  my  eveni]ng[s  to]  Music 
and  then  I  am  Much  [visited  by]  the  first  Professors  who  come  very 
often  to  play,  every  evening  Something  new,  and  all  perfect  in  their 
different  kind.  And  to  add  to  Compleat  the  pleasure  a  small  society 
of  agreable  friends  frequently  Come  to  see  me.  In  this  Manner 
you  see  that  I  am  More  attached  to  My  home,  than  going  in  search 
of  amusement  out,  where  nothing  but  crowded  assemblies,  un- 
comfortable heat,  and  not  the  least  pleasure  in  Meeting  every  body, 
not  being  able  to  enjoy  any  conversation.  The  Operas  are  very 
bad  iho*  Rubinelli  and  Madme.  Mosa  are  the  first  singers,  the 
danceres  are  very  bad.  All  this  I  say  from  report  as  I  have  not  been 
yet.—  Pray  tell  me  Something  about  Madme.  de  Polignac.  They 
make  a  great  deal  about  it  here.  We  hardly  hear  any  thing  else, 
and  the  stories  are  so  different  from  one  another  that  it  [is]  im- 
possible to  guess  the  real  one.  She  is  expected  in  England.  I  send 
this  letter  by  a  gentleman  whom  I  think  you  will  like.  He  is  a 
Spaniard*  I  am  partial  to  that  Nation  as  I  know  several  that  are 
very  agreable.  He  is  going  to  Paris  Secretary  of  Ambassy  [of  his] 
Court.  He  has  travell'd  Mu[ch  .  .  .  J  If  I  should  be  happy  enough 
to  come  again  in  the  Sumfmer  to]  Paris  I  hope  we  shall  pass  many 
agreable  days.  I  am  in  a  Milliofn]  fears  about  it.  Mr.  Cosway  still 
keeps  his  intention,  but  how  man[y]  chances  from  our  inclinations 
to  the  execution  of  our  will!  Poor  D'Ancarville  has  been  very  ill. 
I  received  a  very  long  letter  from  him  appointing  himself  My 
Corrispondant  at  Paris.  I  know  a  Gentleman  who  has  banished  My 
faith  in  this  occasion  for  he  flatter'd  me  with  hopes  which  I  have 
seen  faiL  However  I  have  accepted  his  offer.  I  shall  see  if  I  find 
a  second  disapointment. 

Is  it  not  time  to  finish  My  letter?  Perhaps  I  should  go  on  but 
I  must  send  this  to  the  gentleman  who  is  to  take  it. 

I  hope  you  are  quite  well  by  this  time,  that  your  hand  will  tell 
me  so  by  a  line.  I  must  be  reasonable,  but  give  me  leave  to  remind 
you  how  Much  pleasure  you  will  give,  to  remember  Sometimes 
with  friendship  One  who  will  be  sensible  and  gratfull  of  it  as  is 
yours  Sincerly,  MARIA  COSWAY 

RC    <MHi);   mutilated;   the  MS  con-      The    first    and    second     sheets     of    this 
i?lWO          tSOf£-OUrpa8:e3eacb'of      letter   are   now   separated   in    MHi,   but 

tht?  ^^PW8K?haifa?  S^en       b°th    lntflrnal    ^dence    and    the    char- 
the    last   being    blank;    date-line       acter   of  the   mutilations    at   the    top    of 



15    FEBRUARY    1787 

prove  that  he— -or  perhaps  His  heirs- 
kept  her  letters  together,  since  no  others 
in  his  correspondence  seem  to  bear  this 
particular  kind  of  mutilation.  Evidently, 
then,  her  letters  were  also  kept  separate 
from  his  principal  files,  but  in  a  place 
less  secure  from  -what  Arthur  Ag^ard, 
Queen  Elizabeth's  archivist,  described 
as  one  of  the  chief  enemies  of  manu- 
scripts. These  mutilations  in  the  present 
letter  account  for  the  loss  of  from  a 
word  or  two  to  almost  a  whole  line;  the 
conjectural  reading's  in  some  instances 
(see  notes  below)  may  not  be  the  only 
or  even  the  correct  reading's,  but  they 
are  offered  as  the  Editors'  best  guess 
as  to  the  words  that  would  fit  Mrs. 
Cosway's  somewhat  discursive  style. 
Most  of  the  text  of  this  letter  is  printed 
in  Randolph,  Domestic  Life,  p.  89-92, 
under  date  of  15  Feb.  1788,  but  the 
conjectural  readings  (not  indicated) 
differ  from  those  given  here  and  are  at 
variance  at  times  with  the  space  in- 
volved and  remnants  of  descenders  of 
missing:  words. 

The    TWO    .    .    .    VERY    SHORT    letters 

from  TJ  are  those  of  29  Nov.  and  24 
Dec.  1786.  Sheridan's  FAMOUS  SPEACH 
was  delivered  on  7  Feb.  1787*  The  allu- 

is  the  only  evidence  that  TJ  had  pre- 
sented to  Mrs.  Cosway  a  copy  of  Notes 
on  Virginias  her  copy  has  not  been 

1  About     three     words     missing";     no 
remnants  of  descenders  are  present.  A 
possible  reading-  is:  "you  to  compliment 
me    in    thought,"    but    there    are    other 
equally  plausible  alternatives  that  might 
fit  the  involved  language  of  this  passage. 
Randolph,  Domestic  JLife,  p.   90,  omits 
this   entire    sentence. 

2  Randolph,     Domestic    Life,    p.     91, 
reads:  "I  go  to  very  few  parties.  I  have 
a  dislike  for  them,  &c."  This  is  clearly 
in  error,  for  almost  all  of  the  first  line 
of  the  fifth  page  and  about  half  of  the 
second  line    are   missing1.   This    and   the 
two  preceding  conjectural  readings  for 
this      passage     may     allow     alternative 
phrasing-,  but  they  seem  approximately 
correct  in   substance. 

From  L.  J.  M.  Daubenton 

MONSIEUR  A  Paris  le  15.  fevrier  1787 

Je  suis  tr£s  flatg  de  Ihonneur  que  m'a  fait  la  Soci€t6  philosophique 
cTAm^rique  en  me  recevant  au  nombre  de  ses  membres,  et  je  vous 
dois  bien  des  remercimeiis  de  la  bontg  que  vous  avez  eu  de  xri*en- 
voyer  le  diplome  de  ma  nomination.  Je  vous  prie,  Monsieur,  de 
vouloir  bien  f  aire  tenir  a  M.  franklin  la  lettre  ci  jointe  par  laquelle 
je  temoigne  a  la  Society  toute  la  satisfaction  que  j'ai  d'y  £tre 

Je  suis  fort  aise  d'avoir  cette  occasion  de  vous  t6moigner  le 
respect  avec  lequel  j*ai  Thonneur  d'etre,  Monsieur,  Votre  tres 
humble  et  tr£s  ob^issant  Serviteur,  DAUBENTON 

RC   (DLC);  endorsed.  Enclosure  not  found. 

From  Louis  Le  Pelletier 

Paris ,  15  Feb.  1787.  As  requested  by  TJ,  he  has  forwarded  a  copy 
of  the  minutes  of  the  ceremony  at  the  Hotel  de  Ville  for  the  unveiling 
of  the  bust  of  Lafayette.  Having  received  no  acknowledgement,  he 


15    FEBRUARY    1787 

fears  that  the  packet  may  have  been  lost.  If  so,  he  will  have  another 
copy  made* 

RC  <MHi)-  2  P.;  in  French;  endorsed:   "Prevot  des  marchands."  Not  recorded 
in  s£.  Sef  note  to  La  PeUetier  to  TJ,  1  Feb.  1787. 

From  James  Madison 

DEAR  SIR  New  York  Febv-  15th-  1787 

My  last  was  from  Richmond  of  the  4th.  of  December,  and  con- 
tained a  sketch  of  our  legislative  proceedings  prior  to  that  date. 
The  principal  proceedings  of  subsequent  date  relate  as  nearly  as 
I  can  recollect  1st.  to  a  rejection  of  the  Bill  on  crimes  and  punish- 
ments, which  after  being  altered  so  as  to  remove  most  of  the  objec- 
tions as  was  thought,  was  lost  by  a  single  vote.  The  rage  against 
Horse  stealers  had  a  great  influence  on  the  fate  of  the  Bill.  Our 
old  bloody  code  is  by  this  event  fully  restored,  the  prerogative  of 
conditional  pardon  having  been  taken  from  the  Executive  by  a 
Judgment  of  the  Court  of  Appeals,  and  the  temporary  law  grant- 
ing it  to  them  having  expired  and  been  left  unrevived.  I  am  not 
without  hope  that  the  rejected  bill  will  find  a  more  favorable 
disposition  in  the  next  Assembly.  2dly.  to  the  bill  for  diffusing 
knowledge.  It  went  through  two  readings  by  a  small  majority  and 
was  not  pushed  to  a  third  one.  The  necessity  of  a  systematic  pro- 
vision on  the  subject  was  admitted  on  all  hands.  The  objections 
against  that  particular  provision  were  1.  the  expence,  which  was 
alledged  to  exceed  the  ability  of  the  people.  2.  the  difficulty  of 
executing  it  in  the  present  sparse  settlement  of  the  Country.  3.  the 
inequality  of  the  districts  as  contended  by  the  Western  members. 
The  latter  objection  is  of  little  weight  and  might  have  been  easily 
removed  if  it  had  been  urged  in  an  early  stage  of  the  discussion. 
The  bill  now  rests  on  the  same  footing  with  the  other  unpassed  bills 
in  the  RevisaL  Sdly.  to  the  Revisal  at  large.  It  was  found  impossible 
to  get  thro'  the  system  at  the  late  session  for  several  reasons.  1.  the 
changes  which  have  taken  place  since  its  compilement,  in  our 
affairs  and  our  laws,  particularly  those  relating  to  our  Courts, 
called  for  changes  in  some  of  the  bills  which  could  not  be  made  with 
safety  by  the  Legislature.  2.  the  pressure  of  other  business  which 
tho1  of  less  importance  in  itself,  yet  was  more  interesting  for  the 
moment.  3.  the  alarm  excited  by  an  approach  toward  the  Execu- 
tion Bill  which  subjects  land  to  the  payment  of  debts.  This  bill 
could  not  have  been  carried,  was  too  important  to  be  lost,  and  even 


15    FEBRUARY     1787 

too  difficult  to  be  amended  without  destroying  its  texture.  4.  the 
danger  of  passing  the  Repealing  Bill  at  the  end  of  the  Code  before 
the  operation  of  the  various  amendments  &c.  made  by  the  Assembly 
could  be  leisurely  examined  by  competent  Judges.  Under  these 
circumstances  it  was  thought  best  to  hand  over  the  residue  of  the 
work  to  our  successors,  and  in  order  to  have  it  made  compleat,  Mr. 
Pendleton,  Mr.  Wythe  and  Blair  were  appointed  a  Committee  to 
amend  the  unpassed  bills  and  also1  to  prepare  a  supplemental  re- 
vision of  the  laws  which  have  been  passed  since  the  original  work 
was  executed.  It  became  a  critical  question  with  the  friends  of 
the  Revisal  whether  the  parts  of  the  Revisal  actually  passed  should 
be  suspended  in  the  mean  time,  or  left  to  take  their  operation.  The 
first  plan  was  strongly  recommended  by  the  advantage  of  giving 
effect  to  the  system  at  once,  and  by  the  inconveniency  arising  from 
the  latter  of  leaving  the  old  laws  to  a  constructive  repeal  only.  The 
latter  notwithstanding  was  preferred  as  putting  the  adopted  bills 
out  of  the  reach  of  a  succeeding  Assembly,  which  might  possibly 
be  unfriendly  to  the  system  altogether.  There  was  good  reason  to 
suspect  Mr.  Henry2  who  will  certainly  be  then  a  member.  By  suf- 
fering the  bills  which  have  passed  to  take  effect  in  the  meantime 
it  will  be  extremely  difficult  to  get  rid  of  them*  4thly.  Religion.  The 
Act  incorporating  the  protestant  Episcopal  Church  excited  the 
most  pointed  opposition  from  the  other  sects.  They  even  pushed 
their  attacks  against  the  reservation  of  the  Glebes  &c.  to  the 
Church  exclusively.  The  latter  circumstance  involved  the  Legisla- 
ture in  some  embarrassment.  The  result  was  a  repeal  of  the  Act, 
with  a  saving  of  the  property.  5th.  the  district  Courts.  After  a 
great  struggle  they  were  lost  in  the  House  of  Delegates  by  a  single 
voice.  6thly.  taxes;  the  attempts  to  reduce  former  taxes  were 
baffled,  and  sundry  new  taxes  added;  on  lawyers  %o  of  their  fees, 
on  Clerks  of  Courts  %  of  do.,  on  doctors  a  small  tax,  a  tax  on  houses 
in  towns  so  as  to  level  their  burden  with  that  of  real  estate  in 
the  Country,  very  heavy  taxes  on  riding  carriages,  &c.  Besides  those 
an  additional  duty  of  2.  per  Ct.  ad  valorem  on  all  merchandizes 
imported  in  vessels  of  nations  not  in  treaty  with  the  U.S.,  an  addi- 
tional duty  of  4d.  on  every  gallon  of  wine  except  French  wines, 
and  of  2d.  on  every  gallon  of  distilled  spirits  except  French 
brandies  which  are  made  duty  free.  The  exceptions  in  favor  of 
France  were  the  effect  of  the  sentiments  and  regulations  communi- 
cated to  you  by  Mr.  Calonne.  A  printed  copy  of  the  communication 
was  received  the  last  day  of  the  Session  in  a  newspaper  from  N. 
York  and  made  a  warm  impression  on  the  Assembly.  Some  of  the 


15    FEBRUARY    1787 

taxes  are  liable  to  objections,  and  were  much  complained  of.  With 
the  additional  duties  on  trade  they  will  considerably  enhance  our 
revenue.  I  should  have  mentioned  a  duty  of  6s.  per  Hhd.  on 
Tobacco  for  complying  with  a  special  requisition  of  Congress  for 
supporting  the  corps  of  men  raised  for  the  public  security.  7th. 
The  Mississippi.  At  the  date  of  my  last  the  House  of  Delegates  only 
had  entered  into  Resolutions  against  a  surrender  of  the  right  of 
navigating  it.  The  Senate  shortly  after  concurred.  The  States  South 
of  Virga.  still  adhere  as  far  as  I  can  learn  to  the  same  ideas  as 
have  governed  Virginia.  N.  Jersey  one  of  the  States  in  Congress 
which  was  on  the  opposite  side  has  now  instructed  her  Delegates 
against  surrendering  to  Spain  the  navigation  of  the  River  even  for 
a  limited  time.  And  Pena.  it  is  expected  will  do  the  same.  I  am 
told  that  Mr.  Jay  has  not  -ventured  to  proceed  in  his  project  and  I 
suppose  will  not  now  do  it.  8th*  The  Convention  for  amending  the 
federal  Constitution.  At  the  date  of  my  last  Virga.  had  passed  an 
act  for  appointing  deputies.  The  deputation  consists  of  Genl. 
Washington,  Mr.  Henry  late  Governor,  Mr.  Randolph  present 
Governor,  Mr.  Blair,  Mr.  Wythe,  Col.  Mason  and  Js.  M.  North 
Carola*  has  also  made  an  appointment  including  her  present  and 
late  Governor.  S.C.  it  is  expected  by  her  delegates  in  Congress  will 
not  fail  to  follow  these  examples.  Maryland  has  determined  I  just 
hear  to  appoint  but  has  not  yet  agreed  on  her  deputies.  Delaware, 
Penna.  and  N.  Jy.  have  made  respectable  appointments.  N.  York 
has  not  yet  decided  on  the  point.  Her  Assembly  has  just  rejected 
the  impost  which  has  an  unpropitious  aspect.  It  is  not  clear  how- 
ever that  she  may  not  yet  accede  to  the  other  measures.  Connecticut 
has  a  great  aversion  to  Conventions,  and  is  otherwise  habitually 
disinclined  to  abridge  her  State  prerogatives.  Her  concurrence 
nevertheless  is  not  despaired  of.  Massts.  it  is  said  will  concur, 
though  hitherto  not  well  inclined.  N.  Hampshire  will  probably  do 
as  she  does.  Rhode  Island  can  be  relied  on  for  nothing  that  is  good. 
On  all  great  points  she  must  sooner  or  later  bend  to  Massts.  and 

Having  but  just  come  to  this  place  I  do  not  undertake  to  give 
you  any  general  view  of  American  affairs,  or  of  the  particular  state 
of  things  in  Massts.  The  omission  is  probably  of  little  consequence 
as  information  of  this  sort  must  fall  within  your  correspondence 
with  the  office  of  foreign  affairs.  I  shall  not  however  plead  this 
consideration  for  a  future  letter  when  I  hope  to  be  more  able  to 
write  fully. 

Mr.  Fitzhugh  has  paid  into  my  hands  for  your  use  £58-6-8. 


15    FEBRUARY    1787 

Virga.  currency  in  discharge  of  1000  livres  advanced  to  him  in 
France.  He  was  anxious  to  have  settled  it  according  to  the  actual 
exchange  instead  of  the  legal  one  of  33%  on  the  British  standard, 
and  even  proposed  the  addition  of  interest.  I  did  not  hesitate  to 
conclude  that  I  should  fulfill  your  intentions  by  rejecting  both.  I 
have  sent  to  Mrs.  Carr  £25  for  the  use  of  your  nephews  as  you 
directed.  The  balance  is  in  my  hands  subject  to  your  orders  tho'  I 
shall  venture  to  apply  it  in  the  same  way  if  I  should  be  apprized 
of  its  being  necessary  to  prevent  interruption  to  the  studies  of  the 
young  gentlemen.  My  last  informed  you  of  the  progress  &c.  of 
Master  Peter.  I  have  since  received  from  the  president  of  Hampden 
Sydney  a  letter  containing  the  following  paragraph.  "Dabney  Carr 
is  a  boy  of  very  promising  genius  and  very  diligent  application.  He 
conducts  himself  with  a  good  deal  of  prudence,  and  I  hope  will 
answer  the  expectations  of  his  friends.  I  was  afraid  at  first  that 
he  was  dull  or  indolent  from  his  appearance,  but  I  find  myself 
agreeably  disappointed.  His  principal  study  at  present  is  the  Latin 
language,  but  he  is  also  obliged  to  pay  some  attention  to  his 
native  tongue.77 

I  remain  Dr.  Sir  Yr.  Affecte.  friend,  Js.  MADISON  Jr. 

RC  (DLC:  Madison  Papers);  en-  (probably  contemporaneously):  "com- 

dorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  pleated  to  this  time  Mr.  Pendleton,  Mr. 

May  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence.  Wythe  and  Mr.  Blair  -were  appointed." 

2  This  and  subsequent  words  in 

i  The  passage  "made  compleat,  Mr.  italics  are  -written  in  code  and  -were  de- 

Pendleton  ,  .  *  the  unpassed  bills  and  coded  interlineally  by  TJ;  decoding 

also"  is  interlined  in  substitution  for  verified  by  the  editors,  employing  Code 

iiae  following-  words,  which  were  deleted  No.  9. 

From  John  Trumbull 

DR.  SIR  London  Febry.  15th.   1787. 

I  recevM  your  Letter  of  Inquiries  about  the  Relations  of  Mrs. 
Trist  some  weeks  ago.  I  found  that  Mr.  Rt.  Trist  of  Arundel  St. 
Strand  was  living,  but  not  being  in  Town,  I  thought  it  better  to 
wait  his  return  than  to  make  my  application  to  any  others  of  the 
Family.  I  have  at  last  seen  him  this  morning.  He  informs  me  that 
the  legacy  is  left  as  you  mention  and  not  only  so,  but  that  the  son 
of  Mrs.  N.  Trist  is  next  heir  to  the  Uncles  who  have  no  male 
Children,  and  possess  £300O,  a  year.  Mr.  Trist  expresses  a  doubt 
whether  the  Child  be  living,  because  the  Family,  particularly  Mrs. 
Champernone  and  himself  have  repeatedly  written  to  Mrs.  Trist  this 
information  and  as  often  requested  her  either  to  send  the  Child 


1  6    FEBRUARY     1787 

over  to  them,  or  to  come  herself  with  him,  that  He  might  be 
educated  among  the  Family:  to  which  letters  she  has  not,  as  He 
says  returned  any  explicit  Answer,  tho  She  sometimes  has  written 

to  them. 

Further,  He  has  inquir'd  of  several  people  from  America  about 
the  child,  some  of  whom  have  informed  him  that  he  is  dead,  in 
which  case  the  Legacy  and  Estates  remain  in  the  Branches  of  the 
Family  here:  in  short  He  seem'd  dissatisfied,  that  any  enquiry  such 
as  I  made,  should  come  from  Mrs.  Trist,  when  she  was  already 
informed  the  same  from  him,  that  she  had  returnd  no  answer  to 
the  request  of  the  Family  to  send  or  bring  her  Son  to  them,  and 
in  short  had  for  some  time  been  silent  as  to  him. 

As  this  Idea  of  the  Childs  death  seems  to  prevail  in  the  Family, 
and  as  Mrs.  Champernone  has  appeared  so  friendly,  would  it  not 
be  adviseable  for  you  to  write  to  her,  especially  as  She  has  a  con- 
siderable Fortune  £1000  a  year  in  her  own  Gift.  I  should  indeed 
think  it  wise  in  Mrs.  T.  if  she  has  such  invitations  to  come  over  with 
her  Son.  The  Gentleman  whom  I  have  seen  assures  me  she  will 
be  receivd  with  great  affection  by  all  the  Family. 

I  shall  send  you  the  clause  of  the  will  and  Names  of  the  Execu- 
tors as  soon  as  I  can  procure  them:  and  shall  be  happy  if  I  can 
be  of  any  use  on  this  or  any  other  occasion  to  you  or  your  friends. 

Mrs.  Cosway  who  will  write  you  in  a  few  days,  and  on  whose 
Table  I  write  this,  charges  me  to  assure  you  of  her  Esteem  and 
to  present  in  her  name  every  good  wish. — To  her's  permit  me  to 
[add]  mine  and  to  assure  you  that  I  am  most  sincerely  &  gratefully 
Your  servant  &  friend,  JNO.  TRJLJMBULL 

RC  (DLC);  addressed  to  "Mr.  Jefferson  a  la  Grille  de  chaillot  Paris,"  and  noted 
as  sent  by  "Grand."  Not  recorded  in 

To  Simon  Berard 

SlR  Paris  Feb.  16.  1787. 

A  friend  of  mine  in  Charlestown  sent  me  a  box  of  plants  and  a 
letter  to  New  York  to  the  care  of  Mr.  Otto,  Chargg  des  affaires  of 
France  there  who  delivered  them  to  Capt.  Sionville  of  the  packet 
Courier  de  PEurope.  The  letter  came  to  hand  without  the  box 
of  plants.  I  wrote  to  Mr.  Champion  of  L'Orient  to  ask  the  favor  of 
him  to  enquire  for  the  box.  He  wrote  me  word  the  vessel  was  gone 
on  to  Havre.  I  then  wrote  to  Mr.  Limosin  of  Havre  who  enquired 
of  the  Captain  for  the  box.  He  answered  that  he  well  remembered 


16    FEBRUARY    1787 

having  such  a  box  delivered  him,  but  had  forgotten  by  whom  and 
for  whom,  and  that  being  without  a  direction,  he  had  delivered  it 
to  Mr,  Berard  at  Lorient.  I  enter  into  these  details,  Sir,  in  hopes 
you  will  have  the  goodness  to  write  to  Mr,  Berard  by  tomorrow's 
post  if  possible,  and  to  procure  the  plants  to  be  sent  on  to  me  by 
the  first  Diligence  to  Paris-  I  shall  gladly  repay  any  expence  they 
may  occasion.  I  fear  the  delay  may  destroy  their  vegetative  power. 
I  am  just  setting  out  on  a  long  journey  but  Mr.  Short  my  secretary, 
will  receive  them  in  my  absence.  I  beg  your  pardon  for  the  trouble  I 
am  giving  you,  but  the  honor  of  the  little  acquaintance  I  have  had 
with  you  encouraged  me  to  take  this  liberty.  I  am  with  much 
respect  Sir  Your  most  obedt.  humble  servt., 


PrC   (DLC);  endorsed:  6fiBerard." 

From  Simon  Berard 

East  India  house  Rue  de  Grammont 
16th:  feby:  1787. 

I  am  very  happy  in  the  opportunity  you  Give  me  of  being 
of  some  utility  to  you.  I  shall  write  by  to  morrow's  Post  to  my 
brother  at  Torient  and  recommend  the  Plants  may  be  sent  to  you 
by  the  first  diligence. 

I  am  with  much  Respect  Sir  Your  most  obedient  and  Humble 
Servant,  S.  BERARD 

RC   (DLC);  endorsed.  Not  recorded  in 

To  Henry  Champion 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  16.  1787. 

On  receipt  of  the  letter  you  were  so  kind  as  to  write  me,  I  wrote 
to  M.  Limozin  to  make  enquiry  for  the  box  of  plants  which  was 
the  subject  of  the  letter  with  which  I  troubled  you.  He  called  on 
Capt.  Sionville  of  the  packet  the  Courier  de  PEurope,  who  in- 
formed him  he  did  bring  such  a  box  of  plants,  that  having  forgot 
from  whom  he  received  them  and  for  whom  they  were  intended, 
and  there  being,  as  he  thinks,  no  address  on  the  box,  he  had  de- 
livered them  to  Monsr.  Berard  of  L'Orient.  I  must  therefore  pray 
you,  Sir,  to  apply  to  Mr.  Berard  for  them  and  to  forward  them 
to  me  by  the  Diligence,  taking  measures  to  prevent  their  being 


1  6    FEBRUARY     1787 

stopped  at  any  of  the  Douanes  by  the  way.  Any  expence  which  has 
attSdTd  or  which  shall  attend  them  I  wiU  thankfuUy  repay.  I 
shall  set  out  in  three  days  for  the  South  of  France,  but  Mr  Short 
my  secretary,  will  receive  all  dispatches  in  my  absence  and  forward 
them  to  me.  He  will  receive  also  this  box  of  plants  and  dispose  of 
them  according  to  my  directions.  I  have  the  honour  to  be  Sir  your 
most  obedt.  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

FrC  (Mffi);  endorsed. 

From  C.  W.  F.  Dumas 

16  *»*•  1787 


Depuis  Ma  Lettre  du  ler.  Dec.  dernier  qui  est  la  derni£re  de 
celles  dont  Votre  Excellence  ma  accus6  la  reception  dans  la  sienne 
du  25,  Elle  doit  avoir  regu  No.  14  a  18,  du  2  au  6,  22  Dec.,  ler. 
et  26  Janv.  et  13  fevr.  pour  le  CongrSs,  comme  aussi  les  miennes 
pour  Votre  Excellence  des  ler.,1  5e.  et  23  Janvr.  dernier. 

Voici  No.  19  de  ce  jour,  dont  1'important  contenu  m'a  paru  valoir 
la  peine  (Tune  D6p6che  exprds. 

Je  joins  ici  une  Gazette  Angloise,  que  V.E.  gardera  pour  Elle- 
mSme.  On  me  Fa  envoyee  d'Amstm.  avec  permission  d'en  disposer. 
V.E.  verra  par  Particle  marqug  d'une  f9  ce  dont  &  s'agit. 

Je  languis  d'apprendre  que  la  main  de  votre  Exce.  est  parfaite- 
ment  gugrie:  comme  aussi,  ce  que  V.E.  pense  du  contenu  de  ma 
Lettre  du  23  Janvr.  dernier.  —  Comme  il  s'y  agit  d'un  projet  qui, 
sauf  meilleur  avis,  me  parolt  avantageux  et  aux  Et.  Unis,  et  k  la 
France,  tant  par  lui-m^me  que  parce  qu'il  rempliroit  outre  cela 
indirectement  par  TOption  propos^e,  Tobjet  de  PEmprunt  que  m'a 
propos^  V.E.,  si  Paffaire  se  trouvoit  agr6gr  entre  V.E.  et  le 
Ministere  de  Fee.,  et  qu'il  ne  fallfrt,  pour  Pacc6lerer,  qu'une  course  & 
Paris,  V.E.  n'auroit  qu'zl  ordonner.  Je  serois  pr£t  £  la  faire  avec 
celui  qui  m1a  fourni  le  projet,  et  qui  Pex£cuteroit. 

Je  suis  toujours  avec  le  plus  respectueux  d^vouement,  De  Votre 
Excellence,  Le  tr£s  humble  &  tres  ob€issant  serviteur, 


RC  (DLC).  FC  (Dumas  Letter  Book,  and    those     "merely     passable"      (five); 

Rijksarchief,   The   Hague;   photostat   in  text  printed  in  Dipl.  Corr.>  1783-89,  m, 

DLC);    differs   in    phraseology,    one    in-  564-5.     (2)    The    marked    copy    of    the 

stance    of   which   is   noted    below.    Not  "Gazette  Angloise"  has  not  been  identi- 

recorded  in  SJL,  Enclosures:    (1)  Dumas  fied. 
to  Jayt  16  Feb.  1787   (same),  giving-  a 

list   of  commissioners    appointed   to    in-  i  There  is  no  record  of  a  letter  from 

struct  the  Prince   of  Orangre,  classified  Dumas  to  TJ  of  this  date;  undoubtedly 

by    Dumas    as    "grood    men"     (eigrht);  an  error  for  the  letter  of  29  Dec.  1786, 

those  of  a  contrary  character"   (two);  which  is  the  date  given  in  FC. 


To  Philip  Mazzei 






sea's  tragedies. 






Lophon's  memorabilia. 


chines*  Socratic  dialogues. 

sro's  Philosophical  works. 

eca's  philosophical  works. 

Feb.   16.   1787. 


Xenophon's  Cyropaedia. 

?s  Hellenics. 

*s  Anabasis. 



Quintus  Curtius. 


Diodorus  Siculus. 

Dyonisius  Halicarnassus. 





Plutarch's  lives. 

Cornelius  Nepos. 

Vill  Mr.  Mazzei  be  so  good  as  to  write  to  some  friend  in  Italy  to 
>nn  him  whose  translations  into  Italian  of  the  above  authors,  are 
best:  and  also  to  denote  by  the  addition  of  the  figures  1.  2.  3. 
which  are  of  the  1st.  degree  of  merit,  which  are  only  2d.  rates, 
ra[tes]  and  which  are  the  best  of  the  small  editions  of  them,  for 
very  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

rC   (DLC). 

From  the  Commissioners  of  the  Treasury 

Board  of  Treasury     February  16,  1787. 

VVe  are  favored  with  your  Letter  of  the  12th.  of  August  last 
:nowledging  the  Receipt  of  ours  of  the  9th.  of  May  and1  25th. 
June  last,  and  advising  us  of  your  having  received  of  Captain 
il  Jones  the  sum  of  One  hundred  and  twelve  thousand,  one 
idred  and  seventy  two  Livres,  two  Sols  and  four  deniers,  being 

balance  which  that  Officer  states  to  be  due  on  the  Prize  money 
him  received  of  the  Court  of  France.  "With  respect  to  the  Claims 
Captain  Jones  they  can  only  be  decided  on  by  the  United  States 
Congress,  who  no  doubt  will  be  disposed  to  give  all  the  weight  to 

pretentions  of  that  officer  to  which  they  may  be  justly  entitled. 


16    FEBRUARY    1787 

Enclosed  you  will  receive  a  certified  Copy  of  an  Act  of  the 
United  States  in  Congress,  directing  and  authoriseing  you  to  cause 
the  claim  of  the  representatives  of  the  late  Mr.  Daniel  Schweig- 
hauser  of  Nantes  against  the  United  States  of  America  to  be  ad- 
justed in  such  manner  as  you  should  judge  most  for  the  Honor 
and  Interest  of  the  United  States,  together  with  the  Documents 
which  we  conceive  necessary  for  throwing  proper  Light  on  this 
Claim.  You  will  observe  that  you  are  directed  to  apply  to  the 
discharge  of  the  balance  (if  any)  which  may  be  found  due  to  the 
Estate  of  Mr.  Schweighauser  the  property  which  has  been  attached 
on  account  of  this  Claim;  to  what  amount  that  property  is,  we  can- 
not from  any  documents  in  this  Office  ascertain,  or  whether  it 
consists  of  any  other  objects  than  the  Arms  belonging  to  the 
United  States,  which  were  in  the  Arsenal  of  Nantes.  You  will 
oblige  us  in  obtaining  a  particular  Abstract  of  the  property  re- 
ferred to  in  the  Act  of  Congress  and  in  forwarding  it  to  us  as  soon 
as  possible  together  with  the  issue  of  the  claim  submitted  to  your 

We  are  sorry  to  observe  that  the  Monies  received  by  Captain 
Jones  (after  the  deductions  made  from  it)  falls  far  short  of  the 
Sum  which  we  supposed  you  would  have  received;  and  that  part 
of  these  funds  had  been  employed  in  reimbursing  to  Mr.  Grand 
the  sums  which  at  your  instance  he  had  advanced  for  the  objects 
mentioned  in  your  letter  amounting  to  66,719  Livres. 

No  Account  of  Mr.  Grands  disbursements  has  been  received  at 
this  Office  since  the  18th.  July  1785.  We  presume  that  we  shall 
receive  them  shortly,  when  we  shall  direct  the  proper  entries  to  be 
made  on  these  disbursements. 

With  respect  to  the  payment  made  on  the  drafts  of  Mr.  Dumas, 
Agent  for  the  United  States  at  the  Hague,  unless  it  was  by  your 
direction  we  know  of  no  reason  that  Mr.  Grand  had  for  honoring 
these  Drafts.  As  soon  as  we  can  ascertain  the  monies  received  by 
that  Gentleman  we  will  endeavor  to  make  arrangements  for  the 
payment  of  his  Salary  in  Holland,  in  future  so  that  there  may  be 
no  necessity  of  his  drawing  on  Mr.  Grand. 

Our  immediate  attention  shall  be  turned  to  making  a  proper 
remittance  for  your  Salary  for  the  present  year,  but  it  is  necessary 
to  observe  that  the  public  em[barr]assments  for  want  of  revenue 
encrease  so  rapidly,  that  it  will  be  with  the  greatest  difficulty  that 
we  shall  be  able  to  pay  the  expences  of  the  Civil  Establishment 
during  the  present  year:  all  hopes  of  our  being  able  to  make 
any  Remittances  to  the  Foreign  Officers  or  for  the  payment  of  In- 


16     FEBRUARY     1787 

st  &c.  due  on  the  French  Loans  are  entirely  vanished.  The 
e  of  New  York  has  rejected  the  reccom[men]dation  of  the 
ted  States  in  Congress  to  grant  the  Impost  agreeably  to  the 
sral  System  proposed  by  the  Act  of  the  18th.  April  1783, 
1st  some  late  proceedings  of  the  Legislature  of  Pennsylvania, 
i  respect  to  Requisitions,  baffle  all  expectations  of  any  effectual 
ply  from  that  sotirce:  As  we  presume  however  that  you  will 
;ive  the  Political  detail  of  the  situation  of  this  Country  from 
Department  of  Foreign  Affairs,  we  shall  forbear  dwelling  on  a 
ject  the  reflection  on  which  from  the  nature  of  the  trust  reposed 
us]  fills  us  with  continual  anxiety. 

Ve  have  the  Honor  to  be  Sir,  with  great  Respect  Your  Obedt. 
.e.  Servts., 


C   (DLC);  in  a  clerk's  hand,  signed  ent     letter     was     written      (see     TJ     to 

Osgood,    Livingston,    and    Lee;    en-  Schweigliauser      &      Dobr6e,      12      Feb. 

ed:    "Treasury  board."  Recorded  in  1787). 
as  received  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en- 

rence.   Enclosures:    Only  the  resolu-  1  Thus    in    MS;    it    should    read    "on 

of  Congress,   16  Oct,   1786    (Tr  in  the.7*    There    is    no    record    of    a    letter 

\:   PCC,  No,  59,  iv;  text  printed  in  from   the    Commissioners   to    TJ    of    25 

,  XXXI,    878-9)    lias  been  identified.  June  1786;  TJ  on  12  Aug.  1786  wrote: 

had  already  received  a  copy  of  this  "Your  favor  of  May  9.  came  to  hand  on 

lution  through  Jay  before  the  pres-  the   25th.   of  June." 

From  Vandenyver  Freres 

[Parisl  Ce  16  fev. 

Mm.  Vandenyver  freres  auront  besoin  de  nouveaux  ordres  de 
n.  Willink  &  Staphorst  pour  remettre  a  M.  Jefferson  Largent 
LI  desireroit  recevoir  sur  ce  qui  lui  reste  de  bon  sur  le  credit  que 
dits  Sieurs  avoient  ouvert  en  Sa  faveur  chez  Vandenyver  en 
85.  Us  ecrivent  en  consequence  a  Mm.  Willink  et  feront  part 
vtonsieur  Grand  de  leur  reponse. 

1C  (MHi:  AMT);  without  indication  of  the  year,  but  see  TJ  to  Adams,  2O  Feb. 
*7,  in  'which  he  refers  to  the  present  letter  as  an  "answer,"  presumably  to  one 
had  -written.  Neither  his  to  Vandenyver  Freres  (missing)  nor  theirs  to  him  is 
orded  in  SJL. 


From  Benjamin  Vaughan 

gIR  Jeffries  Square  London,  Feby.  16,  1787. 

I  have  been  honored  with  your  letter  of  the  29th:  of  Deer., 
though  it  arrived  four  weeks  after  its  date.  The  very  day  after 
I  received  it,  I  began  a  long  answer,  which  only  waits  for  Messrs. 
Nairne  &  Blunt's  execution  of  what  is  mentioned  in  it,  to  be  for- 
warded to  you  through  Col.  Smith;  for  it  is  too  bulky  for  the  post. 
I  hope  it  will  leave  my  hands  tomorrow,  and  convince  you  of  the 
anxiety  I  have  to  attend  to  any  communication  or  directions  you 
may  think  proper  to  favor  me  with* 

It  is  very  true  that  Dr.  Herschell  has  discovered  two  satellites 
to  the  Georgium  Sidus;  one  revolving  in  about  a  week,  the  other  in 
about  a  fortnight;  but  by  his  account  to  us  their  orbit  does  not  seem 
favorable  for  affording  us  eclipses.  He  discovered  them  last  month 
by  means  of  some  new  advantages  he  had  given  to  one  of  his 
instruments,  for  he  had  never  been  able  to  discover  them  before. 
His  great  instrument  will  still  take  some  little  time  to  perfect;  and 
it  is  hard  to  say  what  is  not  to  be  expected  from  it,  if  it  succeeds. 
He  will  have  all  the  world  before  him,  and  a  certainty  that  nobody 
can  for  some  time  have  the  same  advantages.  This  is  a  more 
honest  monopoly  than  some  others  that  could  be  named.  I  am 
happy  that  these  satellites  are  not  to  be  discovered  without  the  best 
instruments,  for  it  will  be  a  criterion  to  the  instruments  of  every 
country  and  a  disgrace  to  those  that  are  deficient,  which  will  tend 
to  the  improvement  of  astronomy  generally,  and  little  be  lost  with 
respect  to  the  present  object,  which  seems  most  interesting*  at 
present  as  a  spectacle  of  curiosity. 

Dr.  Herschell  has  promised  me  an  account  of  these  satellites 
for  the  Philadelphian  Philosophical  Society,  of  which  he  has  lately 
been  elected  member. 

I  know  of  nothing  very  mate[rial]  here  at  this  moment,  (which 
you  are  [not]  likely  to  learn  from  other  quarters,)  on  other  sub- 
jects. I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  great  respect  &  esteem,  Your 
Excellency's  Most  obedient  &  most  humble  servt., 


RC  (DLC);  addressed  and  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  21  Feb.  1787. 

From  Froulle 

Paris i  17  Feb.  1787.  TJ  had  informed  him  that  a  person  of  his  ac- 
quaintance had  also  received  a  copy  of  the  work  of  "Monsieur  aDams 
sur  les  Constitutions  de  PAmerique";  wishes  to  know  if  he  may  be  per- 
mitted to  inquire  the  name  of  that  person  and  to  borrow  his  copy  while 
awaiting  that  ordered  for  him  by  TJ  from  a  London,  bookseller.  If  his 
request  "n'est  point  indiscrete*1  he  would  like  to  have  a  reply  by  the 

RC  (DL.C);  1  p.;  in  French.  Not  recorded  in  SJL;  see  TJ  to  Stockdale,  27  Feb. 
1787;  Stockdale  to  Short,  15  May  1787. 

To  Thomas  Barclay 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  18.  1787 

I  am  now  to  acknowlege  your  separate  favors  of  Dec.  4.  and 
Jan.  6*  and  the  joint  one  to  Mr.  Adams  and  myself  of  Jan.  6. 
This  last  has  been  communicated  to  Congress  and  to  Mr.  Adams. 
You  have  my  full  and  hearty  approbation  of  the  treaty  you  obtained 
from  Marocco,  which  is  better  and  on  better  terms  than  I  expected. 
Mr.  Adams  and  myself  have  annexed  our  confirmation  to  two  of 
the  copies,  one  of  which  is  gone  to  Congress,  the  other  with  a  joint 
letter  to  Fennish  I  now  inclose  to  Mr.  Carmichael,  apprehending 
you  are  not  in  Madrid.  I  concur  clearly  with  you  in  opinion  that 
for  many  reasons  Mr.  Carmichael  would  be  a  proper  person  to 
negotiate  our  business  with  Algiers,  if  it  be  negotiable  with  such 
means  as  we  possess.  I  have  expressed  this  opinion  in  my  letters 
to  America:  but  I  am  sure  we  cannot  raise  the  money  necessary. 
Colo,  Franks  was  gone  to  London  before  I  received  your  letter.  He 
returned  and  embarked  in  the  packet  from  Havre,  but  nothing 
was  done  on  the  subject  of  accounts  or  money.  I  was  unlucky 
enough  to  dislocate  my  right  wrist  five  months  ago,  and  tho'  it  was 
well  set,  I  can  yet  make  no  use  of  it  but  to  write.  I  am  advised  to 
try  mineral  waters,  and  those  of  Aix  in  Provence  being  as  much 
recommended  as  any  others,  I  am  induced  to  go  to  them  by  the 
desire  of  making  the  tour  of  the  ports  with  which  we  trade,  Mar- 
seilles, Bourdeaux,  Nantes  &c.  I  set  out  in  two  days  and  shall  be 
absent  three  months.  The  packets  are  finally  fixed  at  Havre.  They 
sail  every  six  weeks.  Honfleur  will  I  think  certainly  be  made  a  free 
port:  and  I  flatter  myself  will  become  the  center  for  much  of  our 
trade  and  particularly  of  that  of  our  rice.  The  death  of  Ct.  de 
Vergennes  and  appointment  of  Monsr.  de  Montmorin  will  reach 


1  8    FEBRUARY     1787 

you  before  this  letter  does.  I  have  letters  &c.  from  America  as  li 
as  the  15th.  of  Dec.  The  Insurgents  of  Massachusets  had  pray 
pardon  for  themselves  and  their  leaders  in  jail,  and  on  these  ten 
had  offered  to  retire  and  live  peaceably  at  home.  Mrs.  Barclay  a 
your  family  are  well,  except  that  they  are  somewhat  apprehensi 
of  a  film  growing  over  the  eye  of  your  youngest  daughter.  B 
should  it  do  so,  it  will  be  easily  removed.  I  have  the  honour  to 
with  much  esteem  &  respect  I>r.  Sir  your  most  obedt.  &  me 
humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC   (DLC). 

To  William  Garmichael 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  18,  1787 

My  last  to  you  was  dated  Dec.  26.  since  which  I  have  be< 
honoured  with  yours  of  Dec.  17.  I  now  inclose  you  a  duplicate 
the  vote  for  the  recall  of  Mr.  Lamb.  I  take  the  liberty  also  of  puttir 
under  cover  to  you  our  confirmation  of  the  Marocco  treaty  t 
gether  with  a  joint  letter  to  Fennish.  The  fear  that  Mr.  Bards 
might  not  be  at  Madrid  has  occasioned  my  giving  you  this  troub 
as  well  as  that  of  addressing  the  letter  properly,  and  of  bavin 
it  transmitted. 

I  have  received  from  Mr.  Jay  sundry  despatches  relative  to  tl 
frigate  the  S.  Carolina,  and  to  a  claim  against  the  court  of  Madri 
founded  on  the  aid  of  that  vessel  in  taking  the  Bahama  an 
Providence  islands:  with  an  instruction  from  Congress  to  confe 
with  the  Prince  of  Luxemburg  and  get  him  to  interest  the  Dul 
de  la  Vauguyon  to  join  you  in  your  sollicitations  of  this  matter.  Th 
is  accordingly  done,  and  you  will  have  the  aid  of  the  Duke.  Tt 
dispatches  relative  to  this  subject  I  have  sealed  up  and  addresse 
to  you,  but  they  will  be  delivered  to  the  Duke  de  la  Vauguyon  t 
find  a  safe  occasion  of  forwarding  them.  My  last  news  froi 

America  was  of  the  15th.  of  Decemb.  The  insurgents  of  Mass? 
chusets  had  sent  in  a  petition  to  their  government,  praying  th 
release  of  their  leaders  in  jail,  and  an  act  of  pardon  for  themselves 
and  offering  thereon  to  retire  every  man  to  his  home  and  to  liv 
submissively.  You  will  have  heard  of  the  death  of  the  Ct.  d 
Vergennes,  and  appointment  of  Monsr.  de  Montmorin.  I  was  ur 
lucky  enough  five  months  ago  to  dislocate  my  right  wrist,  and  th< 
well  set,  I  have  as  yet  no  use  of  it  except  that  I  can  write,  but  i 

1  8    FEBRUARY     1787 

pain*  I  am  advised  to  try  the  use  of  mineral  waters,  and  those  of 
Aix  in  Provence  being-  as  much  recommended  as  any  others,  I 
combine  with  this  object  a  design  of  making  the  tour  of  those 
seaports  with  which  we  trade,  Marseilles,  Bourdeaux,  Nantes  &c. 
and  shall  set  out  the  day  after  tomorrow,  and  expect  to  be  absent 
three  months.  This  may  probably  prevent  my  having  the  honor 
of  writing  to  you  during  that  interval,  unless  any  thing  extraor- 
dinary should  arise.  I  take  measures  for  the  receipt  of  all  letters 
addressed  to  me  as  regularly  as  were  I  here.  I  have  the  honour  to 
be  with  sentiments  of  the  most  perfect  esteem  &  respect  Sir  your 
most  obedient  &  most  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC),  Enclosures:  (1)  Copy  of  resolution  of  Congress  of  26  Sep.  1786, 
revoking  Lamb's  commission  (  JCG,  xxxi,  692),  (2)  Attested  copy  of  Treaty  with 
Morocco  (see  Vol.  10:  426,  note).  (3)  Commissioners  to  Taker  Fennish,  27  Jan. 

To  De  Corny 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  18.  1787. 

The  inclosed  letter  to  the  Prevot  des  Marchands  et  echevins  de 
Paris  is  to  acknolege  the  receipt  of  the  report  which  you  were  so 
kind  as  to  put  into  my  hands,  and  which  I  immediately  forwarded 
to  the  Governor  of  Virginia.  As  the  letter  is  written  in  English,  and 
will  therefore  need  your  explanation,  I  take  the  liberty  of  passing 
it  thro1  your  hands,  and  even  of  praying  you  to  put  the  address  on 
it,  lest  I  should  err  in  that.  I  do  this  with  the  more  pleasure  as 
it  gives  me  occasion  to  renew  my  thanks  to  you  for  the  zeal  and 
energy  with  which  your  aid  has  been  afforded,  as  well  as  my  as- 
surances of  the  esteem  &  respect  with  which  I  have  the  honour  to 
be  Sir  Your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servant, 


PrC  (BLC).  Enclosure  follows. 

To  the  Prevot  des  Marchands 
et  Echevins  de  Paris 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  18.  1787. 

I  am  now  to  acknolege  the  receipt  of  the  letter  with  which  you 
have  been  pleased  to  honour  me,  together  with  the  report  on  the 
inauguration  of  the  bust  of  the  Major  General  the  Marquis  de  la 


18   FEBRUARY    1787 

Fayette.  I  availed  myself  of  an  opportunity  which  offered,  in  the 
moment,  of  transmitting  them  to  the  state  of  Virginia,  with  a 
faithful  representation  of  the  favor  with  which  the  Prevot  des 
marchands  et  echevins  de  Paris  received  their  proposition,  the 
zeal  with  which  it  was  pursued,  and  the  dignity  of  it's  ultimate 
execution.  Knowing  the  attachment  of  my  country  to  the  char- 
acter which  was  the  subject  of  that  transaction,  and  the  price 
they  will  set  on  the  attentions  of  the  Magistracy  of  Paris,  I  am 
safe  in  assuring  you  that  they  will  feel  themselves  infinitely  obliged 
on  this  occasion. 

The  interest  you  are  pleased  to  take  in  the  happiness  of  our 
infant  states,  your  judicious  admonitions  as  to  the  means  of  pre- 
serving it,  and  the  terms  in  which  you  particularly  honor  some 
of  their  members,  require  my  personal  thanks,  which  I  humbly 
offer  with  all  those  sentiments  of  homage  and  respect  with  which 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  Sir,  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble 
servant,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC);  enclosed  in  preceding.  See  note  to  Le  Pelletier  to  TJ,  1  Feb.  1787. 

From  Andre  Limozin 

Le  Havre,  18  Feb.  1787.  Wrote  to  TJ  on  13  Feb.;  received  TJ's  of 
14th  with  enclosed  letter  for  Jay  too  late  for  the  packet,  which  sailed 
"yesterday  very  early  in  the  morning  at  least  three  hours  before  the 
Letters  were  delivered  out  of  the  Post  Office."  Will  forward  them  by 
the  next.  Wishes  TJ  a  good  journey  and  "a  safe  return  in  a  good  health." 

RC  (MHi);  2  p.;  endorsed.  Not  recorded  in  SJL. 

From  Anne  Blair  Banister 

DEAR  SIR  Battersea,  Feby.  19th:  1787. 

On  the  score  of  old  acquaintance,  and  a  knowledge  of  your 
humane  disposition,  I  am  emboldned  to  entreat  your  favor  in  be- 
half of  Mrs.  Oster  (the  French  Consuls  Lady)  who  has  been  mis- 
represented by  her  cruell  Husband  to  the  Minister.  The  inclosed 
therefore  is  her  Vindication- and  which  necessity  alone  wou'd  have 
extorted  from  her.  It  is  left  open  for  your  perusal;  when  having  so 
done,  flatter  myself  you  can  have  no  scruple  in  presenting  it  as 
directed.  It  is  not  (be  assured)  from  an  ill  judged  opinion  of  my 
own,  that  I  have  dared  to  be  thus  troublesome;  I  know  her  estima- 


19    FEBRUARY     1787 

tion  in  every  Family  (of  any  distinction)  throughout  Williamsburg; 
while  He,  by  arts  to  injure  her,  is  as  universally  despised.  From 
a  delicacy  that  no  one  ought  to  interfere  between  Man  and  Wife, 
this  worthy  distrest  Lady  is  suffering  in  a  strange  Country — all 
her  Letters  suppressed,  and  no  prospect  of  redress  unless  the 
liberty  I  have  taken  with  you,  shou'd  have  the  desired  effect.  That 
it  may,  I  cannot  forbear  being  very  sanguine.  Yet,  forgive  me  if 
I  urge  this  matter  too  far;  since  I  never  felt  more  Interested  for 
another  in  my  Life,  having  seen  her  distress,  her  diffidence  to  make 
known  her  ill  treatment  (which  became  too  obvious  to  hide)  and 
withall,  her  good  Sense  and  sweetness  of  disposition,  that  must 
naturally  excite  pity,  and  render  her  an  object  worthy  attention.  I 
wou'd  not  however  (anxious  as  I  am)  have  you  swerve  from  the 
dictates  of  your  own  superior  Judgement,  being  conscious  upon 
this,  as  well  as  on  every  other  occasion,  of  its  propriety;  in  sub- 
mission therefore  that  I  trust  wholly,  relying  on  the  Friendship  with 
which  you  formerly  Honored  me  ( and  in  a  late  Letter  to  my  better 
half  kindly  renew'd)  to  pardon  this  freedom.  We  have  just  re- 
ceived a  Letter  from  Mr.  J.  Banister,  with  the  pleasing  Informa- 
tion of  his  returning  Health.  Shou'd  he  be  in  your  Neighborhood,  do 
me  the  favor  to  present  me  Affectionately  to  him,  as  well  as  your 
amiable  Daughter.  I  make  no  doubt  but  some  of  your  Correspond- 
ents, have  already  acquainted  you  with  the  irreparable  loss  of  your 
Friend  at  Rosewell.  His  much  Loved  Fanny  has  taken  her  final 
leave!  That  Health  and  Happiness  may  be  your  attendants  thro' 
Life,  are  among  those  wishes  that  will  ever  be  uppermost  in  the 
Mind  of  Yours  with  perfect  Sincerity,  A.  BANISTER 

RC      (DLC);     endorsed:     "Bannister  HALF    (Dupl  reads    "late   letter  to  Mr. 

Ann.  reed,  at  Paris  June  11.**  Recorded  Banister")  "was  that  from  TJ  to  Banister 

in  SJTL  under  date  of  receipt.  Enclosure  of  14  Aug.   1786  with  its  postscript  to 

not  found.  Dupl  (DLC);  dated  20  Feb.  Mrs.  Banister  in  which  he  said  that  he 

1787;    differs    somewhat    from    RC    in  would  be  "very  happy  ...  to  renew  an 

phraseology.    Recorded    in    SJL    as    re-  acquaintance  which  he  has  always  held 

ceived  on   SO   June   1787.  See  Banister  among   the    most   precious    of   those   he 

to  TJ,  6  May  1787.  has  ever  made." 


To  Alexander  McCaul 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  19.  1787. 

Your  favor  of  the  2d.  inst.  Is  duly  received.  I  agree  chearfully 
to  the  alteration  you  propose,  in  our  terms,  for  converting  the 
current  into  sterling  money.  It  will  guard  against  injustice,  should 


19    FEBRUARY     1787 

the  madness  of  paper  money  invade  our  assembly.  I  send  you  the 
inclosed  paper  finally  settling  this  business.  I  am  not  well  acquainted 
with  the  situation  of  your  matter  in  Virginia.  I  had  hoped  that 
Mr.  Lyle's  bill  in  Chancery  had  suspended  the  effect  of  the  escheat 
law  till  the  treaty  of  peace  had  put  it  out  of  danger.  I  wrote,  while 
in  London,  to  a  friend  very  powerful  in  our  assembly,  and  as  just 
as  powerful,  in  case  any  thing  could  be  done  there.  Not  even  the 
sufferers  by  escheats  can  condemn  them  more  than  I  do,  and  have 
always  done.  Principle  therefore  as  well  as  friendship  will  render 
it  very  pleasing  to  me  if  I  can  be  instrumental  in  preventing  your 
being  affected  by  them:  being  with  very  sincere  sentiments  of 
esteem  and  respect  Dear  Sir  Your  most  obedient  &  most  humble 
servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

ES.  I  shall  be  glad  to  know  by  a  line  that  this  gets  safe  to  hand. 

PrC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Enclosure  not  found,  but  see  TJ  to  McCaul,  4  Jan.  1787. 

McCauFs  FAVOR  OF  THE  Qx>.  INTST.  Has  not  been  found,  but  it  is  recorded  in  SJL 
as  received  14  Feb.  The  letter  that  TJ  wrote  to  a  FRIEND  VERY  POWKKFUX.  was  tlxat 
to  Madison  of  25  Apr.  1786. 

To  William  Stephens  Smith 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  19.  1787. 

I  have  duly  received  your  favor  of  Jan.  29.  and  Dr.  Barney's 
which  was  inclosed  in  it.  If  the  harpsichord  be  not  sent  off,  per- 
haps it  may  as  well  await  the  last  of  March  or  beginning1  of  April 
when  it  may  be  less  exposed  to  rains.  But  it  is  not  material.  I  shall 
be  absent  till  the  1st.  of  May.  Franks  was  unlucky  with  the  instru- 
ment made  by  Jones.  It  was  stolen  out  of  his  carriage  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Dover.  Payne  at  Dover  assured  him  he  should  be  able 
to  recover  it.  Perhaps  he  might  be  spurred  to  it  by  a  letter  from 
you  if  you  would  be  so  good  as  to  write  him  one.  The  plants  came 
in  perfect  order.  No  news  yet  of  the  second  press.  So  much  for 

I  did  really  expect  that  that  ungracious,  rascally  court  would 
wear  out  the  patience  of  Mr.  Adams.  Long  habits  of  doing  business 
together  and  of  doing  it  easily  and  smoothly,  will  render  ine 
sincerely  sensible  of  his  loss.  And  I  fear  we  shall  lose  him  on  the 
other  side  the  water  also;  for  I  shall  consider  it  as  a  loss,  if,  instead 
of  going  to  Congress,  he  should  be  buried  in  some  office.  With 
respect  to  yourself  I  have  had  the  pleasure  of  writing  what  both 
duty  and  inclination  concurred  in  dictating.  I  wish  you  with  all  my 


20    FEBRUARY     1787 

heart  every  success  you  can  desire.  The  Notables  meet  on  Thursday 
next.  I  wait  to  see  the  causes  declared  for  which  they  are  convened. 
Not  a  word  has  yet  transpired.  I  am  in  hopes  our  new  Minister 
has  very  friendly  dispositions  towards  our  country.  He  has  the 
reputation  of  being  a  very  honest  man.  His  son  married  the  neice  of 
the  Chevalier  Luzerne.  Perhaps  this  may  make  some  promotion 
for  the  Chevalier  and  prevent  his  return  to  America. — Remember 
Mr,  Adams's  picture,  I  pray  you;  and  Sir  Walter  Raleigh's  too. 
When  they  shall  be  ready,  I  would  wish  to  receive  them  with  my 
own  which  Mr.  Brown  has.  Let  me  know  if  you  please  how  stand 
our  accounts.  There  must  now  be  a  balance  due  to  you,  -which  I 
will  remit  you  the  moment  you  inform  me  of  it,  or  I  will  pay  it  to 
your  draught.  That  for  Jones's  instrument  has  been  duly  honored. 
Present  me  in  friendly  terms  to  Mrs.  Smith  &  the  little  Hans  &  be 
assured  of  the  esteem  &  affection  with  which  I  am  Dr.  Sir  Your 
friend  &  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC   (DLC);  endorsed. 

To  John  Adams 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  20.  1787. 

I  am  now  to  acknoledge  the  receipt  of  your  favor  of  Jan.  25. 
Colo.  Franks  sailed  in  the  packet  of  this  month  from  Havre  for 
New  York.  This  arrangement  of  the  packets  opens  a  direct  com- 
munication between  Paris  and  America,  and  if  -we  succeed  as  I 
expect  we  shall  in  getting  Honfleur  made  a  freeport,  I  hope  to  see 
that  place  become  the  deposit  for  our  Whale  oil,  rice,  tobacco  and 
furs,  and  that  from  thence  what  is  not  wanted  in  this  country  may 
be  distributed  to  others.  You  remember  giving  me  a  letter  of 

credit  on  Messrs.  Willink  and  Staphorst  for  1000  guineas  to  pay 
for  the  swords  and  medals.  When  the  swords  were  finished  I  drew 
on  the  Vandemjvers,  with  whom  the  money  was  deposited  for 
6500  livres  to  pay  for  the  swords.  They  paid  it.  A  medal  is  now 
finished,  and  others  will  very  soon  be:  but  these  gentlemen  say 
they  must  have  fresh  orders.  In  the  mean  time  the  workmen  com- 
plain. "Will  you  be  so  good  as  to  draw  in  favor  of  Mr.  Grand  on 
Willink  &c.  for  the  balance  of  the  thousand  guineas  (which  is 
about  the  sum  that  will  be  necessary)  and  send  the  bill  to  Mr. 
Grand,  who  in  my  absence  will  negotiate  it  and  pay  the  workmen. 
I  inclose  you  Vandemjers  answer.  The  meeting  of  the  Notables 


20    FEBRUARY     1787 

on  Thursday  and  the  necessity  of  paying  my  court  to  our  new 
minister  will  detain  me  till  Friday  and  perhaps  till  Tuesday  next. 
Nothing  is  known  yet  of  the  objects  of  this  assembly.  I  inclose 
you  two  new  pamphlets  relative  to  it:  and  will  inform  you  of  what- 
ever I  can  discover  relative  to  it  during  my  stay. 

I  learn  with  real  pain  the  resolution  you  have  taken  of  quitting 
Europe.  Your  presence  on  this  side  the  Atlantic  gave  me  a  con- 
fidence that  if  any  difficulties  should  arise  within  my  department, 
I  should  always  have  one  to  advise  with  on  whose  counsels  I  could 
rely.  I  shall  now  feel  bewidowed.  I  do  not  wonder  at  your  being 
tired  out  by  the  conduct  of  the  court  you  are  at.  But  is  there  not 
room  to  do  a  great  deal  of  good  for  us  in  Holland  in  the  department 
of  money?  No  one  can  do  it  so  well  as  yourself.  But  you  have  taken 
your  resolution  I  am  sure  on  mature  consideration,  and  I  have 
nothing  to  offer  therefore  but  my  regrets.  It  any  thing  transpires 
from  the  Notables  before  my  departure  worth  communication,  you 
shall  yet  hear  from  me.  In  the  mean  time  believe  me  to  be  with 
sincere  esteem  &  respect  Dr.  Sir  your  most  obedt.  &  most  humble 
servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

KG  (MHI:  AMT);  endorsed  in  part:  "ansd.  Maich  1.  1787."  PrC  (E>LC).  En- 
closure: Vandenyver  Frfcres  to  TJ,  16  Feb.  1787.  The  enclosed  pamphlets  have 
not  been  identified. 

From  John  Adams 

DEAR  SIR  Grosvenor  Square  Feb.  2O.  1787 

Dr,  Gordon  who  is  about  publishing  his  Proposals  for  printing 
his  History  desires  a  Letter  to  you.—  I  told  him  that  he  might  de- 
pend upon  your  good  offices  without  any  Letter,  but  as  no  harm 
will  be  done  by  complying  with  his  Desire  I  beg  Leave  to  introduce 
him,  and  to  recommend  his  History  to  your  Patronage  in  France. 
With  equal  affection,  Esteem  and  respect,  I  have  the  Honour  to 
be,  Sir  your  most  obedient  humble  Servant,  JOHN  ADAMS 

endorsed'  Rec°**ded  in  SJL  as  received  26  Mch.    1787   at   Aix-en- 

From  De  Corny 

DEAR  SlR  Paris  Le  20.  fevrier  1787 

The  inclosed  Report  in  parchement  is  to  be  sent  to  you,  trusted 
to  your  Excellency's  cares,  and  immediately  forwarded  to  the  State 


20    FEBRUARY    1787 

of  Virginia.  I  take  the  Liberty  of  passing  it  thro'  your  hands  and 
even  of  praying  you  to  put  it  at  End  By  the  first  opportunity.  I  do 
that  with  the  more  pleasure  as  it  affords  me  occasion  to  renew 
thousand  assurances  of  the  Esteem,  respect  and  friendship  with 
which  I  have  the  honor  to  be  for  ever  Dear  Sir  Your  Excellency's 
the  most  obedient  and  most  humble  servant,  DE  CORNY 

ES.  I  sent  for  you,  to  the  Mis.  de  la  Fayette,  70  printed  copies 
of  the  report,  in  order  of  being  forwarded  to  the  North  america. 
But  M.  le  Mis.  de  la  Fayette  desires  for  himself,  the  notoriousness 
and  distribution  of  it  could  be  prevented.  I  owe  comply  to  his 
Will.  You  may,  for  your  own  account  settle  this  matter  with  him. 

RC  (DLC).  Not  recorded  in  SJL.  En- 
closure: Le  Pelletier  to  TJ,  1  Feb.  1787 
and  its  enclosure  ( see  note  there ) . 

For  a  bibliographical  and  historical 
account  of  the  publication  of  the  ProcSs- 
VerbauM,  which  bears  the  imprint 
"Philadelphia:  Printed  by  M.  Carey  and 
Co.  Front-Street,  West-Side,  near  Mar- 
ket-Street. 1786,"  see  Gilbert  Chinard's 
**Notes  and  Appendix"  to  a  reprint  of 
the  unique  copy  owned  by  Stuart  W. 
Jackson  as  set  forth  in  Bulletin  de  L?In- 
stitut  Fran$ai$  de  Washington,  new 
ser.,  No.  4,  Dec.  1954,  p.  67-1 1O. 

There  is  no  evidence  that  TJ  actually 
sent  any  o£  the  printed  texts  to  America 
or  that  he  took  any  part  in  procuring 
publication  there.  This  is  surprising  in 
-view  of  his  frequent  and  full  testimo- 
nials in  letters  to  Jay,  Washingrton,  and 
Madison  about  the  valuable  assistance 
rendered  by  Lafayette  in  promot- 
ing American  interests  in  France  and  in 
view  of  his  interest  in  procuring1  Euro- 
pean publication  (see  TJ  to  Rayneval, 
30  Sep.  1786).  The  factual  summary 
that  TJ  caused  to  be  printed  in  the 
Gaxette  de  Leide  stands  in  marked  con- 
trast to  the  extraordinary  record  set 
forth  in  the  proceeding's  themselves. 
According  to  the  latter,  the  prS-odt  des 
marchands  et  echertins  at  a  meeting  on 
15  Sep.  1786,  at  which  a  letter  was 
read  from.  Baron  de  Breteuil  conveying 
the  king's  permission  for  the  bust  to  be 
presented,  directed  Veytard  to  notify 
the  deans  of  the  counsellors  of  the  city 
that  the  date  had  been  fixed  for  the 
ceremony  and  to  inform  them  that3 
"comme  la  modestie  des  personnes  prin- 
cipalement  interesse'es  5.  cette  ceremonie 
a  sollicitg  qu'elle  fut  faite  sans  eclat,  le 
Bureau  a  cru  devoir  se  dispenser  a 
regard  des  Compagnies  d'une  Convoca- 
tion en  regie."  This  would  seem  to 

mean  that  both  TJ  and  Lafayette,  per- 
haps through  De  Corny,  had  made  the 
request  for  a  ceremony  "sans  eclat," 
for  they  were  certainly  the  principals. 
Both,  ironically,  were  absent  from  the 
occasion:  three  days  after  the  meeting 
on  15  Sep.,  TJ  suffered  the  accident 
to  his  -wrist  that  confined  him  to  his 
room  and,  though  Lafayette  had  spent 
about  two  weeks  in  Paris  in  September, 
he  departed  for  Auvergtie  before  the 
ceremonies  on  the  28th,  Short  took  TJ's 
place  in  the  great  hall  of  the  H6tel  de 
Ville  amid  circumstances  that  may  have 
made  TJ  grateful  for  the  injury  that 
pleaded  his  excuse— though  that  injury 
did  not  prevent  him,  scarcely  a  week 
later  and  at  the  cost  of  a  night  of  ex- 
cruciating pain,  from  making  an  excur- 
sion with  Maria  Cosway  on  the  eve  of 
her  departure  from  Paris.  Short  had 
long  since  given  TJ  and  friends  in 
Virginia  an  account  of  the  ceremony, 
but  Le  Pelletier's  enclosure  included 
not  only  all  of  the  relevant  documents 
but  also  an  exact  description  of  the 
arrangements  and  the  ceremony  "sans 
eclat,"  In  the  great  hall  of  the  H6tel 
de  Ville  there  was  arranged  a  long 
phalanx  of  benches  for  the  audience,  at 
the  upper  end  of  which  were  two  arm- 
chairs for  Le  PeUetier  and  Short  and 
six  others  for  the  echevins^  all  of  them 
in  crimson  velvet  adorned  with  gold 
lace.  Toward  the  upper  end  of  the 
phalanx,  before  a  table  covered  with 
crimson  velvet  and  facing  the  prevdt, 
was  the  seat  for  the  procureur  du  roi 
(De  Corny);  on  the  other  side  of  the 
table,  its  back  to  the  prStfdt^s  chair,  was 
the  seat  of  the  grejfier  en  chef,  also 
covered  with  crimson  velvet  and  gold 
lace.  In  a  recess  the  bust  of  Lafayette 
rested  on  a  table  under  a  velvet  veil. 
The  officials  were  in  their  ceremonial 


20    FEBRUARY    1787 

robes  and  the  huissiers  in  livery. 
the  counsellors,  minor  officials,  and  the 
audience  entered  the  hall  under  an  arch 
of  crossed  arms  held  by  two  ranks  of 
guards  and  took  their  places,  Houdon 
beside  the  bust.  Then  Short,  "membra 
au  Conseil  des  Etats  de  Virginia  charge 
de  r6pre"senter  S.  E.  M.  de  Jefferson, 
Ministre  plgnipotentiaire  des  Etats-Unis, 
retenu  chez  luy  pour  cause  de  maladie," 
arrived  at  the  H6tel  de  Ville  where  he 
had  been  received  within  the  entrance 
by  two  huissiers.  These,  preceded  by  a 
sergeant  and  four  guards,  conducted 
him  up  the  grand  stairway,  where,  at 
the  landing,  he  was  met  by  the  greffier 
en  chef.  The  procession  then  continued 
into  the  great  hall,  through  the  phalanx 
of  benches  and  up  to  the  pr$-o$t<,  where 
Short  saluted  the  officials  and  sat  down, 
covering  himself,  as  did  the  officials. 
He  then  presented  TJ's  letter  of  27 
Sep.  1786,  which  Le  Pelletier  accepted 
in  a  speech  in  which  he  declared  that 
the  act  of  Virginia  was  "un  hommage 
aussi  honorable  que  les  services  qui 
Pobtiennent  ont  6t&  distingue."  Le 
Pelletier  handed  TJ's  letter  and  the 
Virginia  resolution  to  Veytard,  who 
read  them  in  French.  When  this  was 
done,  De  Corny  pronounced  his  remark- 
able address  (see  Vol.  1O:  414-5) 

which    he    concluded    by    formally    re- 
questing, in  the  name   of  the  king:  and 
of  the  city,  that  the  letter  of  Baron  de 
Breteuil    and    of    TJ,     as    well    as    the 
Virginia  resolution^  be  recorded  in  the 
"Registre     des     actes     Importantes     de 
rhdtel  de  Ville"  and  that  the  bust  of  La- 
fayette "soit  place"  dans  la  grande  salle 
destin£e    aux   Elections    et    aux   seances 
publiques    dans    un    lieu    apparent."   Le 
Pelletier  then   called   for   tbe    advice   of 
the   gchevins,   who   gave   their    approval 
by  acclamation,  -whereupon  he  requested 
Houdon  to  place  tlie  bust  cm  the  mantel 
at  the  back   of  the    great  hall.   At  the 
same  instant  the  bust  was  unveiled  and 
borne   between    two    files    of    guards   to 
the    place     designated,     **au     bruit     des 
Trumpettes    et    des    Timbales    et    d'une 
Musique  militaire"  and  to  the   applause 
of  the  audience.  "Many  tears  were  shed 
at  the  moment  of  the  music  commencing1 
and    the    placing-    of    the    bust,"    Short 
declared    (Short  to  William   Nelson,  25 
Oct.    1786;    DLC:    Short   Papers).    Fol- 
lowing   this    climactic    moment    of    the 
ceremony,  Short  was  conducted  by  some 
of   the    €che-vins,    guards,    and    huissiers 
to  the   entrance   of  the  H6tel   de  Ville. 
A    month    later    lie    reported    that    the 
"sensation    [the    proceedings]    made    in 
Paris  is  inconceivable"   (same). 

From  William  Gordon 

SIR  London  Feby.  2O.  1787 

I  promised  myself  the  honour  of  being  introduced  to  your  Ex- 
cellency by  a  letter  which  my  friend  general  Gates  gave  me,  before 
I  had  the  pleasure  of  hearing  You  was  appointed  ambassador  to 
the  court  of  Versailles.  Ere  I  could  reach  home  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Boston  You  had  sailed  for  France.  I  have  therefore  applied 
to  his  Excellency  John  Adams  for  a  few  introductory  lines,  recom- 
mending- at  the  same  time  to  your  patronage  a  work  which  has 
long  engaged  my  attention,  and  which  I  mean  should  go  to  the 
press  the  beginning  of  October,  and  continue  printing  till  finished, 
if  Heaven  indulges  me  with  health.  Suffer  me  to  request  the  favour 
of  your  support;  and  that  You  will  forward  to  the  Marquis  Le 
Fayette  the  parcel  directed  for  him,  as  I  am  a  stranger  to  his 
place  of  residence.  I  remain  with  the  sincerest  respect  Your  Ex- 
cellency's most  humble  servant,  WILLIAM  GORDON 


22    FEBRUARY     1787 

news.  I  have  only  to  add  then  that  Mr.  Cairnes  has  taken  charge  of 
15.  aunes  of  black  lace  for  you  at  9  livres  the  aune,  purchased  by 
Petit  and  therefore  I  hope  better  purchased  than  some  things  have 
been  for  you;  and  that  I  am  "with  sincere  esteem  Dear  Madam  your 
affectionate  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

RC  (MHi:  AMT).  PrC  (DLC);  en- 

TJ's  famous  and  oft-quoted  state- 
AND  THEN — cannot  properly  be  tinder- 
stood  unless  taken  in  the  context  of 
his  correspondence  with  John  and  Abi- 
gail Adams  in  the  weeks  preceding  the 
time  it  -was  written.  On  3D  Nov.  1786 
John  Adams,  assuming-  that  TJ  had 
heard  of  Shays's  Rebellion  through  the 
public  press,  casually  urged  him  not 
to  be  alarmed  "at  the  late  Turbulence 
in  New  England."  TJ  received  this  on 
2O  Dec.,  the  very  day  that  he  also  re- 
ceived Jay's  disturbing-  letter  of  27  Oct. 
about  the  Massachusetts  insurgents.  He 
replied  to  Adams  at  once  saying  that 
he  had  not  been  initially  alarmed  by 
public  reports,  but  that  Jay  had  "really 
affected"  him  with  his  pessimistic  ac- 
count and  Adams  had  set  him  "to 
rights."  He  repeated  this  to  Mrs.  Adams 
in  his  letter  of  21  Dec.  1786,  but  added 
sentences  which  showed  his  character- 
istic desire  "to  see  the  people  awake 
and  alert"  and  his  confidence  in  their 
good  sense.  Mrs.  Adams  bristled  in 
disagreement  and  undertook  to  explain 
the  rebellion  more  fully  to  TJ,  who 
clearly,  in  her  view,  misunderstood  its 

nature;  her  letter  of  29*  Jan.  1787  (pre- 
ceded by  a  carefully  phrased  draft  -with 
one  revealing  passage  that  she  decided 
to  eliminate  from,  the  text  sent  to  TJ) 
must  have  surprised  him  by  the  vigor 
of  her  exposition.  But  this  did  not  deter 
him  from  making:  a  calm,  though  more 
extreme,  reaffirmation  of  his  belief. 
His  expressed  hope  that  the  MALCON- 
TENTS would  be  pardoned  may  have 
been  mere  coincidence — or  it  may  possi- 
bly have  reflected  his  understanding1  of 
the  lady  whom  he  admired  and  liked 
so  much— but  the  fact  is  that  it  was  in 
direct  opposition  to  the  suppressed  pass- 
age in  Mrs.  Adams*  letter,  for  she  had 
thought  it  not  unlikely  that  "some 
examples  must  be  made  before  the  riots 
will  be  totally  quelled  and  peace  and 
good  order  restored.**  Mrs.  Adams  did 
not  reply  or  write  ag-ain  until  she  re- 
ceived little  Mary  Jefferson  late  in  June, 
when  she  revealed  the  warm  and  kindly 
facet  of  her  character  that  TJ  found 
much  more  congenial  than  her  political 
views.  Possibly,  too,  TJ*s  extreme  state- 
ment may  be  in  part  a  reaction  to  the 
views  on  aristocracy  set  forth  in  John 
Adams*  Defence  of  the  American  Con- 
stitutions, a  book  that  he  had  just  re- 
ceived (TJ  to  Adams,  6  Feb.  1787). 

To  De  Langeac 

&  Paris  ce  22me.  Fevrier  1787. 

Monsieur  le  Comte,  par  les  affaires  dont  une  voiage  projettge 
m'a  accable  il  y  a  quelque  terns,  je  n'ai  pas  pu  repondre  plutot  & 
la  lettre  que  vous  m'avez  fait  Phonneur  de  m'ecrire.  C'est  vrai  que 
pendant  que  nous  etions  en  trait£  pour  votre  maison,  vous  m'avez  pro- 
pose qu'au  lieu  de  7500.*  que  j'offrois  pour  le  loyer,  je  donnerois 
8000.*  et  que  vous  payeriez  les  gages  d'un  jardinier.  Je  me  suis  trouve 
oblig6  de  m'y  refuser,  parcequ'un  domestique  qui  ne  dependroit  de  son 
maitre  ni  pour  ses  gages,  ni  pour  sa  place,  ne  devroit  etre bien  utile,  ni 
bien  complaisant.  La  proposition  etoit  abandonn£  done,  et  le  bail 
sign6.  Quelques  jours  aprSs  mon  etablissement  ici,  j'ai  fait  un  ar- 
rangement avec  le  jardinier  qui  venoit  de  sortir  de  votre  service.  Je 


23    FEBRUARY    1787 

trouvois  bientot  que  le  jardin,  qui  est  tout  en  arbres,  ne  lui  donnolt 
presque  rien  a  f  aire.  La  repugnance  toutef  ois  de  congedier  un  domes- 
tique,  quoique  il  m'etoit  absolument  inutile,  m'en  a  fait  reculer  le 
moment  un  an  et  demi.  Enfin  je  1'ai  avert!  de  tacher  de  se  placer.  Je  ne 
Pai  pas  press6  de  sortir  dans  le  moment.  Au  contraire  je  pensois 
de  lui  donner  un  terns  convenable  pour  chercher  son  etablissement, 
en  lui  payant  ses  gages  en  attendant,  et  lui  permettant  de  pester  ici. 
Ce  n'est  pas  done,  comme  on  vous  a  fait  croire  Monsieur,  pour 
une  offence  quelconque  que  je  me  propose  de  le  congedier.  Votre 
lettre,  dans  ce  cas,  lui  auroit  bien  valu  sa  grace,  et  ce  m'auroit  fait 
un  veritable  plaisir  de  pouvoir  vous  temoigner  mes  egards  par 
cette  complaisance.  Mais  c'est  un  arrangement  oeconomique  et 
necessaire.  A  un  autre  fois,  Monsieur,  je  serai  infiniment  charm€ 
de  trouver  une  occasion  oft  je  pourrai  vous  prouver  combien  je 
souhaite  de  me  preter  %.  vos  desirs,  et  combien  sinceres  sont  les 
sentiments  de  respect  avec  lesquels  j'ai  1'honneur  d'etre  Monsieur 
votre  tres  humble  et  tres  obeissant  serviteur, 


PrC    (UL.C);  endorsed.  month.  However,  TJ  did  not  move  into 

For   De    Langeac's    appeal   in    behalf  the    H8tel    de    Lang-eac     until     17     Oct. 

of  his  former   gardener,   see  his  letter  1785.  The  discrepancy  as  probably  ex- 

to  TJ  of  27  Jan,  1787.  QXJELQTJES  JOXTRS  plained  by  the  fact  that  TJ  made  the 

AFHfes    \*ON    ETABLISSEMENT    i£i:    An  engagement   with   the    g-ardener    a    few 

entry  in   Account  Book  shows   that  on  days  after  moving-  into  the  new  quarters, 

4  Nov.  1785  TJ  paid  the  "Jardinier  17  but  paid  him   for  the   whole   time   that 

days    @    45f-25-10,"  which  would  have  had    elapsed    since    the    former    tenant 

put  the  date  of  employment  around  14  moved   out. 
Oct.,  since  the  17  days  all  fell  in  that 

To  John  Adams 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  23.  1787 

The  Notables  met  yesterday.  The  king  opened  the  assembly  with 
a  short  speech,  wherein  he  expressed  his  inclination  to  consult  with 
them  on  the  affairs  of  his  kingdom,  to  receive  their  opinions  on  the 
plans  he  had  digested,  and  to  endeavor  to  imitate  the  head  o£  his 
family  Henry  IV.  whose  name  is  so  dear  to  the  nation.  The  speech 
was  affectionate.  The  Guarde  des  sceaux  spoke  about  2O  minutes, 
complimented  the  Clergy,  the  Noblesse,  the  Magistrates  and  tiers 
etats.  The  Comptroller  general  spoke  about  an  hour.  He  enumerated 
the^  expences  necessary  to  arrange  his  department  when  he  came 
to  it,  he  said  his  returns  had  been  minutely  laid  before  the  king, 
he  took  a  review  of  the  preceding  administrations,  and  more  par- 


23    FEBRUARY     1787 

ticularly  of  Mr.  Neckar's,  he  detailed  tlie  improvements  which  had 
been  made,  he  portrayed  the  present  state  of  the  finances,  and 
sketched  the  several  schemes  proposed  for  their  improvement;  he 
spoke  on  a  change  in  the  form  of  the  taxes,  the  removal  of  the 
interior  custom  houses  to  the  frontiers,  provincial  administrations 
and  some  other  objects.  The  assembly  was  then  divided  into  Com- 
mittees. To-day  there  -was  to  be  another  grand  assembly,  the  plans 
more  fully  explained  and  referred  to  the  discussion  of  the  Com- 
mittees. The  grand  assembly  will  meet  once  a  week  and  vote  in- 
dividually. The  propriety  of  my  attending  the  first  audience 
day  of  Count  Montmorin,  which  will  not  be  till  the  27th.  retards  my 
departure  till  then. 

I  have  read  your  book  with  infinite  satisfaction  and  improve- 
ment. It  will  do  great  good  in  America.  It's  learning  and  it's  good 
sense  will  I  hope  make  it  an  institute  for  our  politicians,  old  as 
well  as  young.  There  Is  one  opinion  in  it  however,  which  I  will 
ask  you  to  reconsider,  because  it  appears  to  me  not  entirely  accurate, 
and  not  likely  to  do  good.  Pa.  362.  'Congress  is  not  a  legislative, 
but  a  diplomatic  assembly.9  Separating  into  parts  the  whole1 
sovereignty  of  our  states,  some  of  these  parts  are  yeilded  to  Con- 
gress. Upon  these  I  should  think  them2  both  legislative  and  execu- 
tive; and  that  they  would  have  been  judiciary  also,  had  not  the 
Confederation  required  them  for  certain  purposes  to  appoint  a 
judiciary.  It  has  accordingly  been  the  decision  of  our  courts  that 
the  Confederation  is  a  part  of  the  law  of  the  land,  and  superior  in 
authority  to  the  ordinary  laws,  because  it  cannot  be  altered  by  the 
legislature  of  any  one  state.  I  doubt  whether  they  are  at  all  a 
diplomatic  assembly*  On  the  first  news  of  this  work,  there 

were  proposals  to  translate  it.  Fearing  it  might  be  murdered  in  that 
operation,  I  endeavored  to  secure  a  good  translator.  This  is  done, 
and  I  lend  him  my  copy  to  translate  from.  It  will  be  immediately 
announced  to  prevent  others  attempting  it.  I  am  with  sincere 

esteem  &  respect  Dear  Sir  Your  most  obedt.  &  most  humble  servt., 


RC  (MHi:  AMT);  endorsed,  in  part:  by  De   la   Croix,   Defense   des  Constitu- 

"ansd.   March.    1.    1787."  PrC    (BLC).  tions    Americaines,    Paris,     1792.     (See 

TJ  approached  the  bookseller  Froinlle"  also  Adams  to  TJ,  1  Mch.  1787;  TJ  to 

with  the  idea  of  getting-  Adams'  Defence  Adams,  23  July  1787.) 
of  the  Constitutions  of  the  United  States  1  TJ  first  wrote  "all  the  sovereignty ,** 

published.  No  evidence  has  been  found  &c.    and   then    altered    the    passage    by 

that  it  was  UWDVDEIJIATELY  ANKTOXJNCEI>,  overwriting-  to  read  as  above, 
and  the  first  French    edition   is    appar-  2  Preceding-  four  words  interlined  in 

ently  that  with  notes   and   commentary  substitution   for   "they   are,"    deleted. 


To  Mrs.  Champernoune 

MADAM  Paris  Feb.  23.  1787. 

Tho'  I  have  not  the  honor  of  being  known  to  you  by  name  even, 
yet  the  interest  you  have  been  so  good  as  to  take  in  behalf  of  the 
persons  who  will  be  the  subject  of  this  letter,  encourage  me  to 
take  the  liberty  of  addressing  it  to  you.  The  late  Mr.  Trist  of 
America  was  your  brother,  and  I  learn  from  his  widow  that  you 
had  been  pleased  to  take  notice  of  her  and  of  her  son  by  way  of 
letter.  Well  acquainted  with  both,  knowing  the  uncommon  worth 
and  good  sense  of  the  mother,  and  the  promising  genius  of  the 
son,  and  proposing  to  pay  a  visit  to  England  the  last  spring-,  I 
wrote  to  Mrs.  Trist  for  information  as  to  the  relations  of  her  son 
Hore  Browse  Trist,  and  the  places  of  their  residence.  I  meant  to 
have  taken  the  liberty  of  waiting  on  such  of  them  as  I  could,  and 
of  informing  them  how  hopeful  a  member  of  their  family  was 
rising  up  in  America.  Unluckily  I  did  not  receive  her  answer  till 
I  had  returned  from  England,  I  therefore  desired  a  gentleman,  a 
friend  of  mine,  in  London  to  make  some  enquiries  of  the  family, 
and  particularly  of  Mr.  Richard  Trist  of  Arundel  street  London. 
The  result  of  these  enquiries  is  that  letters  and  invitations  have 
been  sent  to  Mrs.  Trist  to  bring  her  son  to  England,  that  these 
have  not  been  answered,  and  that  it  has  even  been  said  the  son 
was  dead.  My  last  letter  from  Mrs.  Trist  was  of  the  24th.  of 
July  last,  when  he  was  alive  and  well,  and  I  am  certain  had  any 
accident  happened  to  him  since,  I  should  have  heard  of  it.  The 
letters  written  to  her,  and  the  invitations  which  any  of  the  family 
may  have  been  so  good  as  to  have  given  her,  may  have  miscarried, 
or  that  may  have  been  the  fate  of  her  answers  to  them.  I  know 
the  respect  she  entertains  for  the  family  too  well,  to  suppose  she 
could  have  neglected  to  answer  any  letter  received  from  them.  She 
is  a  most  excellent  mother,  judicious  and  prudent,  and  devoting 
her  whole  existence  to  the  care  of  her  son.  She  has  hitherto  been 
able  to  supply  the  expences  of  his  education  which  has  been  well 
conducted:  but  as  he  makes  further  progress  these  expences  will 
increase,  and  she  is  not  rich.  I  fear  the  possibility  therefore  that 
his  education  may  suffer.  He  is  a  beautiful  boy,  of  mild  dispositions, 
and  fine  genius,  and  as  far  as  can  be  judged  at  his  age,  we  may 
rely  that  he  will  do  honour  to  his  family,  be  the  station,  to  which 
he  may  be  called  in  that,  ever  so  honorable.  The  friendly  notice  you 
have  been  already  pleased  to  take,  Madam,  of  the  widow  and  son 


23    FEBRUARY    1787 

their  views  without  too  much  departing  from  his  own,  and  will  then 
submit  them  to  the  vote  (but  I  believe  not  to  the  debate)  of  the 
General  assembly,  which  will  be  convened  for  this  purpose  one 
day  in  every  week,  and  will  vote  individually. 

The  event  of  the  count  de  Vergennes7  death,  of  which  I  had  the 
honour  to  inform  you  in  two  letters  of  the  14th.  inst.,  the  appoint- 
ment of  the  Count  de  Montmorin,  and  the  propriety  of  my  attending 
at  his  first  audience  which  will  be  on  the  27th.  have  retarded  the 
journey  I  had  proposed,  a  few  days.  I  shall  hope  on  my  return 
to  meet  here  new  powers  for  the  Consular  convention,  as  under 
those  I  have  it  will  be  impossible  to  make  the  change  in  the  con- 
vention which  may  be  wished  for.  I  have  the  honor  to  be  with 
sentiments  of  the  most  perfect  esteem  &  respect,  Sir,  your  most 
obedient  &  most  humble  servant,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC).  Tr   (DNA:  PCC,  No.  107,  n). 

To  Eliza  House  Trist 

DEAR  MADAM  Paris  Feb.  23.  1787. 

I  must  refer  you  to  my  letter  of  Dec.  15.  for  the  reason  why  I  had 
not  asked  of  you  sooner  some  information  of  Browse's  relations  in 
England  and  of  their  residence.  Having  received  that  information 
from  you  after  my  return  from  England,  I  wrote  to  my  friend  Mr. 
Trumbul  to  make  such  enquiries  as  he  could.  I  inclose  you  a  copy  of 
his  letter  containing  the  result  of  these  enquiries.  You  will  per- 
ceive that  either  the  letters  of  the  family  to  you  or  your  answers 
to  them  have  miscarried,  that  they  have  made  enquiries  and  given 
you  invitations  to  which  they  have  not  received  answers,  and  that 
they  even  doubt  Browse's  being  alive.  I  shall  write  as  Mr.  Trumbul 
advises,  to  Mrs.  Champernon  by  this  conveiance,  and  I  imagine  you 
will  write  not  only  to  her  but  to  Mr.  Trist  of  London.  How  far  It 
may  be  eligible  to  commit  yourself,  by  a  voiage  to  England,  to 
the  invitation  of  the  family  you  alone  can  judge.  If  you  have  not 
received  such  invitations,  and  they  are  sincere  in  desiring  your 
presence,  my  letter  to  Mrs.  Champernon  shall  produce  a  repetition 
of  them.  The  prospects  of  your  son  there  seem  to  be  very  fair,  and 
doubtless  would  be  much  improved  were  he  put  into  the  hands  of 
the  family.  The  opportunities  of  education  there  too  are  as  good, 
perhaps,  as  in  America:  only  more  attention  would  be  requisite  to 
prevent  his  being  diverted  from  his  studies,  and  a  judicious  plan  of 
study  pursued.  No  doubt  your  presence  would  be  of  infinite  value 


23    FEBRUARY    1787 

to  him,  and  probably  the  voiage  would  cost  you  less  pain  than 
the  separation  from  him.  I  am  just  setting  out  on  a  journey  of 
three  months  to  the  South  of  France.  If  Mrs.  Champernon  therefore 
should  honor  me  with  an  answer,  my  absence  may  occasion  it's 
coming  late  to  you.  If  I  can  be  useful  to  you  in  this  or  any  other 
business,  command  me  freely.  I  will  act  for  you  as  I  would  for 
myself,  but  with  more  diligence.  Should  you  come  to  England  I 
think  you  would  come  and  pay  a  visit  to  our  good  allies.  I  need 
not  tell  you  how  much  pleasure  it  would  give  to  Patsy  and  myself. 
Perhaps  before  that  time  I  shall  have  received  my  other  daughter, 
who  I  hope  will  sail  in  May.  Pressed  with  many  letters  which  must 
go  off  with  this,  I  have  only  time  to  add  [ass]urances  of  my  sincere 
friendship  for  you,  and  of  the  sentiments  of  respect  &  esteem  with 
which  I  am  Dear  Madam  your  affectionate  friend  &  servt., 


PrC  (MHi);  endorsed.  Enclosure:  Copy  of  Trumbull  to  TJ,  15  Feb.  1787. 

To  John  Trumbull 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  23.  1787. 

I  thank  you  for  the  trouble  you  have  been  so  good  as  to  take  in 
the  case  of  Mrs.  Trist.  I  have  sent  her  a  copy  of  your  letter  and  I 
now  trouble  you  with  a  letter  to  Mrs.  Champernoune.  If  we  do 
some  good  by  these  enquiries  we  shall  share  the  happiness  of  it. 
The  illness  and  death  of  the  Count  de  Vergennes  have  retarded 
my  departure  on  my  journey  till  the  27th.  I  foresee  nothing  to 
hinder  it  then:  and  expect  to  be  absent  three  months.  This  will 
almost  bring  about  the  time  of  your  return  to  Paris,  for  I  take  for 
granted  you  will  come  to  the  exhibitions  of  the  Salon.  Your  apart- 
ment here  will  expect  you,  and  that  you  become  a  part  of  our 
family  again.  Tell  Mrs.  Cosway  she  is  an  inconstant.  She  was  to 
have  been  in  Paris  long  ago,  but  she  has  deceived  us.  The  first 
evening  that  I  find  myself  seated  in  a  comfortable  inn,  warm,  soli- 
tary, and  pensive,  I  [will]  invite  her  to  sup,  and  will  commit  our 
conversation  to  writing.  It  will  be  a  very  scolding  one  on  my  part. 
In  the  mean  time  lay  all  my  affections  at  her  feet,  desire  her  to 
write  to  me  to  comfort  me  on  my  journey,  as  I  take  measures  for 
the  forwarding  my  letters  safely.  Accept  yourself  assurances  of  the 
esteem  of  Dear  Sir,  your  friend  &  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC   (DLC);  endorsed.  Enclosure:  TJ  to  Mrs.  Champernoune,  23  Feb.  1787. 


To  Michel  Capitaine 

Paris  Feb.  25.  1787. 

Je  viens  de  recevoir,  Monsieur,  de  Monsieur  Peters  une  lettre 
de  change  sur  votre  compte  pour  4755*-14s,  qu'il  me  prie  de  vous 
remet[tre].  Je  partirai  pour  la  Provence  dans  deux  jours,  et  je 
laisserai  la  lettre  de  change  dans  les  mains  de  Monsieur  Short,  mon 
Secretaire,  qui  aura  Phonneur  de  la  livrer  &  vos  mains  si  vous  aurez 
la  bontg  de  la  lui  demander.  J'ai  Fhonneur  d'etre  avec  bien  de 
respect  Monsieur  votre  tres  humble  et  trgs  obeissant  serviteur, 


PrC  (MHi).  See  Peters  to  TJ,  1  Oct.  1786.  J.-B.  Le  Roux,  agrent  for  Capitaine, 
gave  a  receipt  to  SHORT  on  7  Mch.  1787  for  *t4755tt~14s,  (MHi). 

From  D'Hancarville 

Paris,  25  Feb.  1787.  Encloses  a  letter  from  "1'aimable  Mde.  Coswai" 
which  he  would  have  brought  but  he  has  been  confined  to  his  chamber 
for  four  months:  "son  mal  est  Peffet  d'une  entorse  a  la  jambe,  pareille  & 
celle  que  Mr.  Jefferson  s'est  donn6e  &  la  main.  II  apprend  avec  d€plaisir 
que  Peffet  de  cette  derniere  se  fait  encore  ressentir."  Count  de  Moustier 
will  make  his  apologies,  and  he  promises  himself  to  call  on  TJ  when 
he  returns  from  the  southern  provinces. 

RC  (DLC);  1  p.;  in  French.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  25  Feb.  1787.  En- 
closure: Maria  Cosway  to  TJ,  15  Feb.  1787. 

From  William  Jones 

[Bristol,  25  Feb.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  26  Mch.  1787, 
at  Aix-en-Provence.  Not  found,  but  see  TJ  to  Jones  of  5  Jan.  1787.] 

To  Richard  Peters 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  peb.  26.  1787. 

Your  favor  of  Octob.  1.  covering  the  letter  and  bill  to  Captn, 
Capitaine  did  not  come  to  my  hands  till  yesterday.  I  wrote  to  Him 
immediately  to  inform  him  it  should  be  delivered  him  at  any 
moment.  We  talk  and  think  of  nothing  here  but  the  Assemble 
des  Notables.  Were  all  the  puns  collected  to  which  this  assembly 
has  given  rise,  I  think  they  would  make  a  larger  volume  than  the 
Encyclopedie.  The  government  is  said  to  want  eighty  millions  of 


27    FEBRUARY     1787 

livres  revenue  more  than  they  have  and  they  propose  to  give  to 
the  people  provincial  administrations  and  to  make  other  improve- 
ments. It  is  a  pity  they  had  not  more  of  the  virtue  called  oeconomy, 
of  which  we  have  something  to  spare.  I  hope  the  company  of  Mrs. 
Peters  and  your  little  ones  have  cured  all  your  aches  and  pains 
both  of  body  and  mind.  That  you  and  they  may  continue  for  ever 
clear  of  them  is  the  sincere  prayer  of  Dr.  Sir  your  friend  &  servt., 


PrC  <DLC);  MS  faded,  and  a  number  of  words  have  been  overwritten  in  a  later 
hand,  probably  that  of  H.  A.  Washington  (see  Vol.  10:  288,  note  1). 

TJ  was  aware  that  Peters  would  be  interested  in  THE  FXTNS  .  .  .  TO  WHICH  THIS 
HAS  GIVEN  RISE,  since  Peters  was  a  famous  punster. 

To  John  Stockdale 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  27.  1787. 

By  the  Diligence  of  tomorrow  I  will  send  you  a  corrected  copy 
of  my  Notes,  which  I  -will  pray  you  to  print  precisely  as  they  are, 
without  additions,  alterations,  preface,  or  any  thing  else  but  what 
is  there.  They  will  require  a  very  accurate  corrector  of  the  press, 
because  they  are  filled  with  tables,  which  "will  become  absolutely 
useless  if  they  are  not  printed  with  a  perfect  accuracy.  I  beg  you 
therefore  to  have  the  most  particular  attention  paid  to  the  correct- 
ing of  the  press.  With  respect  to  the  plate  of  the  map,  it  is  impos- 
sible to  send  it  at  the  same  time.  It  was  engraved  in  London,  and  on 
examination  I  found  a  prodigious  number  of  orthographical  errors, 
Being  determined  that  it  shall  not  go  out  with  a  single  error,  an 
engraver  is  now  closely  employed  in  correcting  them.  He  promises 
to  have  it  finished  the  next  week,  say  by  the  10th.  of  March:  but 
I  suppose  you  must  expect  he  will  not  be  punctual  to  a  day.  The 
map  will  be  worth  more  than  the  book,  because  it  is  very  particular, 
made  on  the  best  materials  which  exist,  and  is  of  a  very  convenient 
size,  bringing  the  states  of  Virginia,  Maryland,  Delaware  and 
Pennsylvania  into  a  single  sheet.  It  will  make  the  book  sell.  I  think 
it  would  be  worth  your  while  to  print  400  copies  of  the  book  for 
America,  sending  200.  to  Richmond  in  Virginia,  and  20O  to  Phila- 
delphia. If  you  have  no  correspondents  there,  you  might  send  those 
for  Richmond  to  Mr.  James  Buchanan  merchant  there,  and  those 
for  Philadelphia  to  Aitken  bookseller  there.  These  are  men  on 
whose  punctuality  you  may  depend.  But  they  should1  be  re- 
strained from  selling  but  for  ready  money:  so  that  you  may  always 
find  in  their  hands  either  the  money  or  the  books.  I  set  out  on 


28    FEBRUARY     1787 

my  journey  tomorrow:  but  Mr.  Short,  my  secretary,  remains  here, 
and  will  hasten,  and  forward  the  plate  to  you  by  the  Diligence. 
Be  so  good  as  to  send  by  the  next  Diligence  a  copy  of  Mr, 
Adams's  book  on  the  American  constitutions  printed  by  Dilly,  in 
boards,  it  being  for  a  bookseller  here.  I  am  Sir  your  very  humble 
servt  ?  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DIXI).  South  of  France   (see  TJ  to  Barrels,  22 

The  ENGRAVER  of  the  corrected  map  June   1787). 

for   Notes    on    Virginia    was    far    from  m  m 

bein*  PUNCTUAL  TO  A  DAY:  he  returned  1  This  word  is  interlined  in  substitu- 

the  plate   only   upon   TJ's   insistent  de-  tion  for  "must,"   deleted, 
rnands  after  TJ  had  returned  from  the 

To  John  Adams 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  Feb.  28.  1787. 

The  inclosed  letter  is  come  to  hand  since  I  had  the  honour  of 
addressing  you  last.  "Will  you  be  so  good  as  to  forward  a  copy 
to  Mr.  Jay?  The  assembly  of  Notables  is  held  to  secrecy,  so  that 
little  transpires  and  this  floats  among  so  much  incertain  matter 
that  we  know  not  what  can  be  depended  on.  80.  millions  more  of 
annual  revenue  and  provincial  assemblies  are  the  certain  objects. 
The  giving  to  the  protestants  a  civil  state  will  be  effected  without 
recurrence  to  the  Notables.  I  am  now  in  the  moment  of  my  de- 
parture and  have  therefore  only  time  to  add  assurances  of  the 
esteem  &  respect  with  which  I  have  the  honor  to  be  Dear  Sir  your 
most  obedient  humble  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC).  Enclosure:  Barclay  to  the  American  Commissioners,  1O  Feb.  1787, 
received  by  TJ  on  25  Feb.  1787. 

Jefferson's  Letter  of  Credit 
from  Ferdinand  Grand 

MESSIEURS  [ca.  28  Feb.  1787] 

Cette  lettre  vous  sera  rendue  par  Monsieur  Jefferson,  un  des 
Cytoiens  les  plus  respectables  de  I'Etat  de  Virginia,  k  la  personne 
duquel  je  suis  extremement  attach^  par  tous  les  motifs  qui  sont 
faits  pour  inspirer  Pestime  et  la  consideration.  Je  viens  dans  ces 
sentiments  reclamer  votre  empressement  et  vos  £gards  pour  cet 
Ami  dans  le  voyage  qu'il  entreprend  dans  vos  provinces,  et  vous 
prier,  Messieurs,  de  fournir  21  ses  besoms  contre  ses  doubles  quit- 

C  184] 

28    FEBRUARY     1787 

tances,,  du  moment  des  quelles  je  ne  manquerai  pas  de  vous  tenir 
Compte  avec  reconnoissance.  J'en  aurai  Surtout  pour  Fattention 
que  vous  voudrez  bien  avoir  a  ma  Recommandation  et  je  serai 
toujours  charm6  de  pouvoir  vous  prouver  a  mon  tour  le  d€vouement 
reciproque  avec  lequel  JPai  Llionneur  d'etre  Messieurs  Votre  tr£s 
humble  et  tr£s  ob6issant  Serviteur,  GRAND 

MS  (DL.C);  undated;  in  a  clerk's  (CSmH),  under  the  entry  for  6  Mch. 
hand,  sigrned  by  Grand;  wititi  list  of  ad-  1787,  there  is  a  list  of  names  with  ad- 
dresses: "A  Messieurs  Finguerlin  &  dresses  of  persons  he  apparently  in- 
Scherer  a  Lyon  J.  L.  Brethoul  S.  tended  to  visit,  including'  all  of  the 
Marseilles  Le  Clerc  &  Cie.  a  Nice  addressees  of  the  present  letter.  The 
Feger  Gramont  &  Cie.  a  Bordeaux  original  letters  of  credit  of  which  the 
Burnet  Durand  &  De  la  Maxche  a  present  is  a  retained  file  copy  have  not 
Montpellier."  An  entry  in  TJ's  Account  been  found. 

Book   under    15   Mch.   reads:    "reed,   of  It  will  be  noted  that  TJ  was  travel- 
Messrs.  Fing-erlin  &  co,  on  Mr.  Grand's  lingr  as  a  private  citizen,  not  as  minister 
letter    of    credit    75O.«"   &c.,    while    in  from  the  United  States. 
TJ's  rough  memoranda  of  title  journey 

To  Ferdinand  Grand 

SIR  Paris  Feb.  28.  1787. 

This  serves  to  advise  you  that  I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  drawing 
on  you  for  the  following  sums  paiable  at  the  dates  and  to  the 
persons  here  mentioned. 

in  favor  of  Petit     -  1450.*  paiable  immediately 

in  favor  of  do.        -      -     -     -        600.  paiable  April  1st. 

in  favor  of  do.        -  600,    paiable  May  1st. 

in  favor  of  the  Ct.  de  Langeac     1875,    paiable  April  15. 
All  those  orders  bear  date  this  day. 

I  expect  that  Mr.  Carmichael  will  draw  soon  for  a  quarter's 
salary  which  ought  to  be  paid.  I  have  written  to  Mr.  Adams  to 
send  you  an  order  to  receive  of  Van  Staphorst  &  Willink  a  sum 
somewhere  about  six  hundred  guineas,  which  be  pleased  to  receive 
of  them  so  soon  as  you  shall  have  the  order,  and  place  it  to  the 
credit  of  the  United  States.  It  is  intended  to  make  good  draughts 
which  will  be  made  on  you  in  favor  of  the  workmen  employed  in 
making  medals. 

I  am  just  in  the  moment  of  my  departure,  and  have  therefore 
only  time  to  thank  you  for  the  letters  you  have  been  so  kind  as 
to  favor  me  with,  and  to  assure  you  of  the  esteem  &  respect  with 
which  I  have  the  honor  to  be  Sir  your  very  humble  servant, 


PrC  (DLC). 


From  Richard  Paul  Jodrell 

Berners  Street,  London.  28th.  Febry.  1787. 

The  Author  of  The  Persian  Heroine,  having  received  from  Mr. 
Jefferson  Mr.  Wythe's  book  of  Virginia,  intreats  his  acceptance  of 
the  inclosed  Tragedy. 

•RO     fMHiV     endorsed:     "JbddreU."  TJ's     absence     on     his     southern     tour 

iJSded  fa   8JL   «   received  25   May  (Smith  to  TJ,  19  May  1787). 

1787  at  Bordeaux.  The  enclosed  quarto  TJ's  inscription  to  Jodrell  in  a  pres- 

edition  of  Jodrell's  The  Persian  Heroine,  entation  copy  of  Notes  onVtrgtnia  had 

London,    1786,    was    prohably    not   re-  led  the  latter  to  suppose  George  Wythe 

ceived  with  the  covering-  letter  but  left  its   author    (see  note  to   Wythe   to   TJ, 

at   the    Hotel    de    Lang-eac    with  Bother  10   Feb.    1786). 
books  and  letters  brought  by  Smith  in 

To  Lafayette 

Paris  Feb.  28.  1787. 

I  am  just  now,  my  dear  Sir,  in  the  moment  of  my  departure. 
Monsr.  de  Monttnorin  having  given  us  audience  at  Paris  yesterday, 
I  missed  the  opportunity  of  seeing*  you  once  more.  I  am  extremely 
pleased  with  his  modesty,  the  simplicity  of  his  manners,  and  his 
dispositions  towards  us.  I  promise  myself  a  great  deal  of  satisfac- 
tion in  doing  business  with  him.  I  hope  he  will  not  give  ear  to  any 
unfriendly  suggestions.  I  flatter  myself  I  shall  hear  from  you  some- 
times. Send  your  letters  to  my  hotel  as  usual  and  they  will  be 
forwarded  to  me.  I  wish  you  success  in  your  meeting.  I  should 
form  better  hopes  of  it  if  it  were  divided  into  two  houses  instead  of 
seven.  Keeping  the  good  model  of  your  neighboring  country  before 
your  eyes  you  may  get  on  step  by  step  towards  a  good  constitution. 
Tho'  that  model  is  not  perfect,  yet  as  it  would  unite  more  suffrages 
than  any  new  one  which  could  be  proposed,  it  is  better  to  make 
that  the  object.  If  every  advance  is  to  be  purchased  by  filling  the 
royal  coffers  with  gold,  it  will  be  gold  well  employed.  The  king, 
who  means  so  well,  should  be  encouraged  to  repeat  these  assemblies. 
You  see  how  we  republicans  are  apt  to  preach  when  we  get  on 
politics.  Adieu  my  dear  friend. 

Yours  affectionately, 


PrC  (DLC), 


To  Madame  de  Tesse 

Paris  Feb.  28.  1787. 

If  you  will  be  so  good,  Madam,  as  to  send  to  ray  hotel  any 
letters  with  which  you  will  be  pleased  to  honour  and  relieve  me 
on  my  journey,  Mr.  Short  if  he  is  here  will  take  care  to  forward 
them,  and  with  the  more  care  as  coming  from  you.  If  he  should 
not  be  here,  they  will  be  forwarded  by  a  servant  who  has  charge  of 
the  house.  My  letters  will  be  sent  to  me  by  post  twice  a  week. 

I  have  had  the  pleasure  to  learn  from  Mr.  Berard  of  Lorient 
that  he  has  our  box  of  Magnolia  and  Dionseas  safe;  that  he  "will 
send  it  by  the  first  Diligence;  and  take  measures  to  prevent  their 
being  stopped  or  opened  on  the  road,  at  the  Douanes.  This  informa- 
tion was  dated  the  21st.  of  February,  and  as  the  Diligence  is 
fifteen  days  on  the  road,  we  may  expect  them  from  the  7th.  to  the 
14th.  of  March.  My  servant  will  carry  them  to  you  the  moment  they 
arrive,  as  well  as  any  other  parcels  of  seeds  or  plants,  should  any 
others  escape  thru  all  the  dangers  and  difficulties  which  beset 
them.  I  set  out  on  my  journey  in  the  moment  of  writing  this. 
It  is  a  moment  of  powerful  sensibility  for  your  goodness  and  friend- 
ship, wherein  I  feel  how  precious  they  are  to  my  heart,  and  with 
how  affectionate  an  esteem  &  respect  I  have  the  honor  to  be 
Madam,  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servant, 


PrC   (MoSHi). 

If  TJ  received  a  letter  from  :MR.  BERABD  OF  LORTENTT  dated  the  21st,  it  has  not 
been  found;  it  is  probable  that  TJ  only  had  in  mind  information  received  from 
Berard  through  Champion's  letter  of  21  Feb.  1787,  q.v. 

To  Madame  de  Tott 

Paris  Feb.  28.  1787. 

Have  you  been,  Madam,  to  see  the  superb  picture  now  exhibiting 
in  the  rue  Ste.  Nicaise,  No.  9.  chez  Mde.  Drouay?  It  is  that  of 
Marius  in  the  moment  when  the  souldier  [ente]rs  to  assassinate  him. 
It  is  made  by  her  son,  a  student  at  Rome  under  the  care  of  David, 
and  is  much  in  David's  manner.  All  Paris  is  running  to  see  it,  and 
really  it  appears  to  me  to  have  extraordinary  merit.  It  fixed  me  like 
a  statue  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  or  half  an  hour,  I  do  [not]  know 
which,  for  I  lost  all  ideas  of  time,  "even  the  consciousness  of  my 
existence."  If  you  have  not  been,  let  me  engage  you  to  go,  for  I 


FEBRUARY    1787 

think  it  will  give  you  pleasure.  Write  me  your  judgment  on  it: 
it  will  serve  to  rectify  my  own,  which  as  I  have  told  you  is  a  bad 
one,  and  needs  a  guide.  It  will  multiply  too  the  occasions  of  my 
hearing-  from  you;  occasions  which  I  claim  by  promise,  and  which 
will  strew  some  roses  in  the  lengthy  road  I  am  to  travel.  That  your 
road,  through  life,  may  be  covered  with  roses,  is  the  sincere  prayer 
of  him  who  has  the  honour  to  mingle  his  Adieus  with  sentiments  of 
the  most  affectionate  esteem  and  respect,  Tn:  JEFFERSON 

PrC    (MoSHi);    MS    faded,   illegible  de  Marius  de  M.  Drouais  a  attire"  chez 

words  supplied  in  brackets.  Mme   sa   Mere    un    concours    eactraordi- 

A   reproduction    of   the   painting  by  naire  et  a  paru  jiiatifier  1'opinion  avan- 

Drouais  that  all  Paris  was  running1  to  tageuse  qu'on  avoit  concue  du  talent  de 

see  is  to  be  found  in  this  volume.  On  17  ce   jeune  Artiste   sur   son   premier   ouv- 

Mch.   1787  the  Journal  de  Paris  made  rage." 
the   following-    comments    "Lie    Tableau 

To  St.  John  de  Crevecoeur 

DEAR  SIR  [ca,  Feb.  1787] 

I  return  you  your  papers  with  many  thinks.  Monsr.  de  Chalut 
who  has  shewn  me  many  civilities,  being  desirous  of  sending 
some  packages  of  pictures  to  Charles  town  I  advised  him  to  send 
them  by  the  packet  from  Havre  to  New  York,  and  to  have  them 
reimbarked  thence  to  Charles  town.  He  asks  me  for  a  correspondent 
at  New  York  to  whom  he  may  address  them.  Knowing  that  men 
of  the  same  language  and  nation  can  always  give  the  best  satisfac- 
tion to  each  other,  I  will  beg  your  permission  to  let  them  be 
addressed  to  your  deputy  at  N.  York.  Will  you  be  so  good  as 
to  give  me  a  line  to  him,  desiring  him  to  take  the  trouble  of 
receiving  and  reshipping  them?  If  you  could  send  me  such  a  line 
by  the  return  of  the  bearer  it  would  much  oblige  Dr  Sir  Your 
friend  &  servt  TH:  JEFFERSON 

RC    (Ixniis  St.  John  de  Crfcvecoeur,  respecting:  the  Wyoming  massacre  that 

Montesqmeu-sur-Losse,   France,    1947);  had  been  lent  to  the  latter  through  TJ's 

n,2.      t      **?  not  recorded  *n  SJL,  but  good  offices    (see  TJ  to  Soules,   2  Feb. 

evidently    Bitten    soon     after    TJ    re-  1787)    and   were    also    enclosed    In    the 

ceived  back  from  Soules   the  "papers"  present  letter. 

From  John  Adams 

DEAR  SIR  London  March  1.  1787 

I  am  much  obliged  to  you  for  your  favours  of  Feb.  20.  and  23 
by  Mr.  Games,  and  the  curious  Pamphlets. 


1    MARCH    1787 

Opening  a  direct  Communication  between  Paris  and  America 
will  facilitate  the  Trade  of  the  two  Countries,  very  much,  and 
the  new  Treaty  between  France  and  England,  will  promote  it 
still  more.  John  Bull  dont  see  it,  and  if  he  dont  see  a  Thing  at 
first,  you  know  it  is  a  rule  with  him  ever  after  wards  to  swear 
that  it  dont  exist,  even  when  he  does  both  see  it  and  feel  it. 

I  have  this  moment  written  to  Messrs.  Willinks  and  Vanstap- 
horsts  to  remit  to  you  or  Mr.  Grand  in  your  absence,  what  remains 
to  be  received  to  make  up  the  Thousand  Guineas  for  the  Swords 
and  Medals,  you  having  before  drawn  for  6500  Livres  tournois, 
as  part  of  them. 

My  Resolution  of  Quitting  Europe,  has  been  taken  upon  mature 
deliberation:  but  really  upon  motives  of  Necessity,  as  much  at 
least  as  Choice. — Congress  cannot  consistent  with  their  own  honour 
and  Dignity,  renew  my  Commission  to  this  Court — and  I  assure 
you,  I  should  hold  it  so  inconsistent  with  my  own  honour  and 
Dignity  little  as  that  may  be,  that  if  it  were  possible  for  Congress 
to  forget  theirs  I  would  not  forget  mine,  but  send  their  Commission 
back  to  them,  unless  a  Minister  were  sent  from  his  Britannic 
Majesty  to  Congress. 

As  to  a  Residence  in  Holland,  that  Climate  is  so  destructive 
to  my  health,  that  I  could  never  bear  it:  and  I  am  sure  it  would 
be  fatal  to  her,  on  whom  depends  all  the  satisfaction  that  I  have 
in  Life.  No  Consideration  would  tempt  me  to  think  of  removing 
to  that  Country  with  my  Family. 

For  a  Man  who  has  been  thirty  Years  rolling  like  a  stone  never 
three  years  in  the  same  Place,  it  is  no  very  pleasant  Speculation, 
to  cross  the  seas  with  a  Family,  in  a  State  of  Uncertainty  what 
is  to  be  his  fate;  what  reception  he  shall  meet  at  home;  whether 
he  shall  set  down  in  private  Life  to  his  Plough;  or  push  into 
turbulent  Scenes  of  Sedition  and  Tumult;  whether  be  sent  to  Con- 
gress, or  a  Convention  or  God  knows  what. — If  it  lay  in  my 
Power,  I  would  take  a  Vow,  to  retire  to  my  little  Turnip  yard, 
and  never  again  quit  it. — I  feel  very  often  a  violent  disposition 
to  take  some  Resolution  and  swear  to  it.  But  upon  the  whole,  it 
is  best  to  preserve  my  Liberty  to  do  as  I  please  according  to 
Circumstances . 

The  approbation  you  express  in  general  of  my  poor  Volume, 
is  a  vast  consolation  to  me.  It  is  an  hazardous  Enterprize,  and  will 
be  an  unpopular  Work  in  America  for  a  long  time. — When  I  am 
dead,  it  may  be  regretted  that  such  Advice  was  not  taken  in  the 
season  of  it. — But  as  I  have  made  it  early  in  life  and  all  along  a 


1    MARCH    1787 

Rule  to  conceal  nothing  from  the  People  which  appeared  to  me 
material  for  their  Happiness  and  Prosperity,  however  unpopular 
it  might  be  at  the  time,  or  with  particular  Parties,  I  am  determined 
not  now  to  begin  to  flatter  popular  Prejudices  and  Party  Passions 
however  they  may  be  countenanced  by  great  authorities. 

The  Opinion  you  Object  to  p.  362,  'that  Congress  is  not  a 
legislative  but  a  diplomatic  assembly"  I  should  wish  to  have  con- 
sidered as  a  Problem,  rather  for  Consideration,  than  as  an  opinion: 
and  as  a  Problem  too,  relative  to  the  Confederation  as  it  now 
stands,  rather  than  to  any  other  Plan  that  may  be  in  Contemplation 
of  the  States.  It  is  a  most  difficult  Topick,  and  no  Man  at  a  distance 
can  judge  of  it,  so  well  as  those  in  America.  If  the  Book  Should 
be  translated  into  french,  I  wish  you  would  insert  this,  in  a  Note. 
You  have  laid  me  under  great  obligation,  by  taking  the  trouble  to 
Secure  a  Good  Translator.—  If  the  Thing  is  worth  translating  at 
all,  it  will  not  surely  bare  to  loose  any  Thing  by  the  Translation.  — 
But  will  not  the  Government  proscribe1  it?  —  If  I  should  get  well 
home,  and  Spend  a  few  Years  in  Retirement,  I  shall  pursue  this 
subject,  somewhat  further:  but  I  hope  never  to  be  left,  again,  to 
publish  so  hasty  a  Production  as  this-  A  Work  upon  the  Subject 
you  mention,  Nobility  in  general^  which  I  once  hinted  to  you  a  wish 
to  see  handled  at  large  would  be  too  extensive  and  Splendid  for 
my  means  and  Forces.  It  would  require  many  Books  which  I  have 
not,  and  a  more  critical  Knowledge  both  of  ancient  and  modern 
Languages  than  at  my  Age  a  Man  can  aspire  to.  —  There  are  but 
two  Circumstances,  which  will  be  regretted  by  me,  when  I  leave 
Europe.  One  is  the  oppertunity  of  Searching  any  questions  of  this 
kind,  in  any  books  that  may  be  wanted,  and  the  other  will  be  the 
Interruption  of  that  intimate2  Correspondence  with  you,  which  is 
one  of  the  most  agreable  Events  in  my  Life.  There  are  four  or  five 
Persons  here,  with  whom  I  hold  a  friendly  Intercourse  and  shall 
leave  with  some  degree  of  Pain  but  I  am  not  at  home  in  this 

With  every  affectionate  and  friendly  Sentiment  I  am  and  shall 
be  in  this  world  and  the  future  yours,  JOHN  ADAMS 

is  <fdorse(L  F?   <*??i:   AMT);  in  W.  S.  Smith's  hand,  with  differ- 
phraseology, two  of  which  are  noted  below. 

1  FC  reads  "prohibit." 

2  FC  reads  "immediate." 


From  Elias  Hasket  Derby 

SIR  Salem,  1st.  March,  1787 

I  have  the  Honor  of  inclosing  You  a  letter  from  Our  mutual 
Friend  the  Honble.  John  Sullivan  Esqr.  President  of  the  State  of 
New  Hampshire,  Incloseing  Copy  of  a  Petition  from  me  to  His 
most  Christian  Majesty,  with  depositions  of  Captain  Nichols  who 
had  the  transacting  the  bussiness  at  Port  au  Prince,  and  Capt. 
Tibbetts  who  was  Comander  of  Capt.  Nichols's  Vessell  before  she 
was  conveyed  to  Mr.  LeMaire  the  French  Merchant  there,  to 
support  said  Petition.  And  many  more  depositions  may  be  obtained 
purporting  the  same  from  several  American  Masters  of  Vessels 
that  were  present  at  the  time.  By  these  papers  you  will  see  the 
method  taken  by  these  People  to  defraud  Capt.  Nichols  of  His  and 
my  Interest.  I  will  not  trespass  on  your  time  and  patience  by  coment- 
ing  on  the  papers.  I  have  received  two  papers  from  the  West  Indies, 
Copys  of  which  I  now  inclose  you.  One  a  letter  from  Mr.  LeMaire 
to  Mr.  Francis  De  la  Ville  Merchant  Nantz  dated  Port  au  Prince 
16th.  Augt.  1786,  acknowledging  the  Debt,  and  directing  Him 
to  deliver  Vessell,  and  Cargo,  to  Capt.  Nichols,  or  to  follow  his 
directions  relating  the  Interest.  The  other  an  Obligation  given  by 
Mr.  J.  Marc  Barrere  dated  the  31st.  Aug.  1786,  wherein  He 
obliges  Himself  to  prosecute  the  Appeal,  and  supposes  there  is 
reason  to  think  that  the  Judgement  will  be  reversed,  and  promisses 
to  hold  Himself  accountable  to  Capt.  Nichols  or  His  order  for  the 
same,  deducting  the  charges  that  may  attend  the  prosecution; 
compareing  these  two  papers  their  Art  may  be  seen.  Le  Maire  is 
the  first  of  the  House  and  Consigns  the  Vessell,  and  Cargo  to 
Messrs.  De  la  Ville  as  by  His  letter  of  the  16th.  Augt.  86.  After  she 
is  Condemned,  J.  Marc  Barrere  on  the  31st.  day  of  August,  86, 
gives  an  Obligation  to  Capt.  Nichols  to  prosecute  an  Appeal,  and 
account  with  Him,  or  Order,  for  what  may  be  recoverd.  I  would 
observe  that  Monsr.  Le  Maire  was  the  man  to  whom  Capt.  Nichols 
made  over  his  Vessel,  and  the  only  One  that  He  put  any  confidence 
in,  that  taking  alltogather  there  is  the  greatest  Appearance  of 
Fraud,  and  design,  that  if  the  Interest  was  recover'd  the  Originall 
Owners  should  not  be  benifited  by  it.  Mr.  Le  Maire,  or  Barrere, 
or  both,  have  had  the  address  to  keep  every  other  paper  relating 
the  concern  from  Capt.  Nichols's  hand. 

J.  M.  Barrere's  obligation  shows  that  they  promised  Capt. 
Nichols  to  persue  his  claim  to  France,  and  Capt:  Nichols  has  in- 


1    MARCH    1787 

formed  me  that  they  promised  Him  to  write  Me  from  Time,  to 
Time  of  Their  Doings,  but  I  have  not  as  yet  received  a  line  from 
them,  and  by  what  I  hear  from  that  way,  I  do  not  expect  they  will 
write  me  on  the  Subject.  ^ 

They  have  all  the  papers,  and  vouchers  in  their  possession,  and 
not  prosicuting  the  Appeal  to  France,  I  have  no  remedy  left  but  by 
Petitioning  His  Most  Christian  Majesty,  and  for  that  purpose  I  now 
inclose  to  my  Son  Elias  Hasket  Derby  who  is  now  in  France  the 
petition  to  the  King  with  the  several  papers  accompanying  it.  Should 
there  be  any  inaccuracy,  in  any  of  the  Forms,  or  Expressions  made 
use  of,  my  Ignorance  I  hope  will  be  my  Apoligy. 

Presuming  on  your  Excellencys  readiness  to  Assist  the  Injured 
and  Oppressed,  especially  a  Citizen  of  America,  I  have  directed 
my  Son  to  wait  on  Your  Excellency,  and  I  flatter  myself  you  will 
direct  a  youth  unacqainted  with  the  Etiquette  of  Courts,  and  seek- 
ing redress  for  an  injured  Father  the  steps  properest  to  be  taken 
to  lay  His  complaint  at  His  Majestys  feet. 

Any  Assistance  you  may  Afford  my  Son  in  this  Transaction, 
will  greatly  Oblige,  &  be  highly  esteemed  by  Your  Excellency's 
most  Obedient,  &  very  Humble  Servant, 


RC    (DLC).  Recorded  in   SJL  as  re- 
ceived 16  June   1787.  Enclosures:    (1) 
Sullivan  to  TJ,  26  Jan.   1787    (second 
letter),  and  its  enclosures.    (2)    Notar- 
ized copy  of  Le  Maire  to  Francis  de  la 
Vtlle,   Port   au   Prince,    16   Aug.    1786 
(DLC),  stating  that  he   owes    160,000 
livres    to    Captain    Nichols    payable    in 
island  produce,  but  that  on   account  of 
the  scarcity  of  specie   and  the  prohibi- 
tion against  exporting-  thence  to  a  for- 
eign   port    anything*    but    molasses    or 
taffia,  he  has  decided   to   purchase   the 
Neptune    from    Nichols;    and    that    the 
vessel  had  been  "loaded  and  Consigned 
to    you    for,    and    on    Account    of    Mr. 
Nichols  whose  orders  I  desire  you  may 
follow  with  strictest  sense,  being-   per- 
suaded that  in  Case  markets  should  be 
low  with  you  he  will  again  reload  the 
same  Cargo,"  in  which  case  De  la  Ville 
was  to   deliver  to  Nichols    "the    Vessel 
&  Cargo  in  her  present  situation";  Le 
Maire    reiterated:    fitl    would    moreover 
observe  to  you  that  these  Goods  were 
shipped  for  his  Account  and  Risque,  my 
Debt  with  him  being  discharged  by  this 
Remittance.    I    again    repeat    that    you 
are  to   hold   all   at  his   disposal."    (3) 
Notarized  copy  of  the  declaration  signed 
J.   Marc  Barrere,   Port   au   Prince,    31 

Aug.  1786    (DLC),  in  which  he  states 
that  as   **the   Snow   Neptune    Capt   Va- 
vasuer  formerly  the  Lydia  Capt  Richard 
Tibbets   the   property    of   Capt   Ichabod 
Nichols"  had  been  seized  with  her  cargo 
and  condemned  by  the  admiralty  coiirt 
"on  Suspicion  of  Illicit  and  Contraband 
Trade,**    and    as    there    was    reason    to 
believe    an    appeal    would    be    made    to 
have  the   judgment  nullified  in  France, 
he  would  do  everything  possible  to  have 
the  judgment  set  aside  and,  if  this  were 
done,   he   would   hold   himself    account- 
able to  Nichols  for  the  vessel  and  cargo. 
(4)   A  declaration   dated  at  Boston,  22 
Feb.     1787,    signed    by    John     Lowell, 
Samuel  Phillips,  Jr.,  Nathaniel  Gorham, 
and  Elbridge  Gerry,   stating:    "We  the 
undersigners  do  hereby  certify  that  "We 
are  well  acquainted  with   Elias   Hasket 
Derby  Esqr.  of  Salem  and  do  consider 
him   as    one   of   the   first   Merchants    in 
this    Commonwealth    for    respectability 
and   honor   in    his    dealings,    and    as    a 
Gentleman  to  whose  representations   or 
declarations    full    Credit    is    justly    do" 
(clerk^s   copy,  signed  by  those    named, 
in  DLC,  attested  by  Gov.   James   Bow- 
doin    under   the    seal    of    the    Common- 
wealth, who  certified  that  Phillips  was 
president  of  the  Massachusetts   Senate, 


1    MARCH     1787 

Gorham  late  president  and  at  that  time      by   Bowdoin,   and    also    dated   22    Feb. 
a  member  of  Congress,  and  Gerry  and       1787). 
Lowell  late  members  of  Congress;  signed 

From  Alexander  Donald 

DEAR  SIR  Richmond  1st.  March  1787 

In  the  multiplicity  of  important  business,  which  must  take  up 
your  time  and  attention,  I  am  almost  affraid  to  trouble  you  with 
this  letter.  But  recollecting  with  much  satisfaction,  your  former 
Friendship,  I  trust  that  your  good  nature  will  pardon  me  for 
intrudeing  upon  your  time,  and  haveing  the  honour  of  being  a 
Citizen  of  this  State,  and  being  deeply  interested  in  its  Welfare, 
I  hope  you  will  not  think  me  impertinent  in  communicateing  to  you 
the  following  information. 

In  consequence  of  the  Agreement  with  the  Farmers  General  of 
France  on  the  24th.  May  last,  for  to  recieve  from  12.  to  15,000 
hhds.  of  Tobacco  over  and  above  the  quantity  contracted  for  with 
Mr.  Morris  at  the  same  prices  which  are  paid  to  him,  provided 
the  Tobacco  was  sent  direct  from  the  place  of  its  growth,  in  French 
or  American  vessels,  several  speculations  have  already  been  made, 
and  I  have  lately  chartered  a  large  Ship  to  send  to  Havre  de 
Grace,  but  I  am  much  allarmed  at  being  lately  informed  that  every 
possible  obstacle  is  thrown  in  the  way  of  carrying  the  resolutions 
of  the  Committee  of  Berni  into  effect.  Some  cargoes  have  been 
refused,  and  those  that  have  been  accepted,  has  been  at  an  in- 
feriour  price  to  what  Mr.  Morris  recieves  for  Tobacco  shipt  from 
the  very  same  Rivers.  I  hope  this  information  is  not  founded.  But 
if  it  is,  many  individuals  will  suffer  severely  by  their  confidence, 
and  it  will  be  a  great  loss  to  the  Publick,  For  the  prices  allowed 
Mr.  Morris  appeared  so  tempting,  that  many  Gentlemen  were 
induced  to  speculate  to  France.  The  consequence  has  been  a  very 
considerable  rise  in  the  price  of  Tobacco  at  all  the  lower  ware- 
houses on  this  River,  as  well  as  at  Petersburg,  and  upon  Rappk. 
and  Potowmack,  from  which  places  Mr.  Alexander  chiefly  draws 
his  quantity.  He  ships  very  little  from  this  place,  or  Pages  (where 
you  and  myself  have  passed  some  happy  days).  I  will  take  the 
liberty  of  writeing  my  Partner  Mr.  Robt.  Burton  in  London,  that  if 
there  is  any  obstacles  in  the  way  of  receiveing  the  Cargo  of  Tobacco 
which  my  Friends  are  now  shipping  for  Havre,  to  apply  to  you  for 
your  Friendly  and  effectual  interposition.  For  tho  Mr.  Morris's 
contract  is  at  an  end  this  year,  yet  if  the  Farmers  General  or  their 


1    MARCH    1787 

Agents,  have  it  in  their  power  to  evade  the  receiveing  all  Tobacco 
that  does  not  come  from  Mr.  Morris  or  his  Agents  your  spirited 
exertions  in  behalf  of  this  State  and  Maryland  will  be  rendered 
nugatory,  and  of  no  effect,  and  the  Tobacco  Trade  to  France,  must 
remain  to  all  intents  and  purposes,  a  monopoly  in  the  hands  of  Mr. 
M.  and  his  Friends,  as  it  has  done  since  the  conclusion  of  the  War. 
And  they  may  buy  the  inferiour  qualities  in  this  Country  at  any 
price  they  please.  m  m 

I  will  not  presume  to  trouble  you  with  my  opinion  of  the  Political 
situation  of  the  United  States.  That  you  will  no  doubt  be  informed 
of  by  those  who  are  more  adequate  to  the  Task,  But  I  cannot  help 
expressing  great  uneasyness  at  the  disturbances  in  the  Eastern 
States.  And  it  gives  me  pain  to  add,  that  the  People  in  this  State 
will  in  the  course  of  a  year  or  two,  be  unable  even  to  pay  the  taxes, 
unless  there  is  a  possibility  of  falling  upon  some  happy  plan  of 
moderateing  their  extravagance,  and  encourageing  their  industry. 
I  am  sure  you  will  blush  for  your  Countrymen,  when  I  assure  you 
that  in  this,  and  all  the  other  Towns  in  this  State,  we  are  supplied 
by  our  Sister  States  to  the  Eastward,  with  the  most  of  our  Hay, 
Cabbages,  Potatoes,  onions  &c.  and  that  they  even  send  us  Lime, 
Bricks,  and  frameing  for  Houses  ready  for  setting  up.  Many  a 
time  I  laugh  at  my  Friends  for  their  want  of  industry. 

Last  Fall  I  was  up  in  Albermarle  and  passed  a  very  happy  week 
with  our  Friend  Jack  Walker,  and  his  Caret  Sposa.  I  had  the  Honour 
of  forwarding  a  letter  to  you  lately  from  him. 

It  would  be  presumptuous  in  me  to  make  you  an  offer  of  my 
services  here,  but  I  beg  you  will  do  me  the  Justice  to  believe,  that 
it  would  make  me  happy,  if  I  could  serve  you  either  here  or  in 
London,  and  I  can  add,  that  my  Partner's  sentiments  perfectly 
accord  with  mine. 

I  am  with  great  respect  &  esteem  Dear  Sir  Your  mo:  obt.  humb 
St.,  A  DONALD 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  wrote  again.  However,  no  such  letters 

SJL  as  received  H  June  1787.  are  recorded  in  SJL  or  have  been  found. 

^ALEXANDER  was  Morris's  agent  in  In  the  light  of  the  politically  inspired 
Virginia  in  the  purchase  of  tobacco.  charges  of  a  later  day  concerning-  TJ's 
The  LETTER  TO  YOU  from  John  Walker  relations  with  Mrs.  Walker  ( see  Ma- 
must  not  have  been  that  of  4  Feb.  1786,  lone,  Jefferson  the  Virginian^  "The 
which  Donald  would  scarcely  have  re-  Walker  Affair,  1 768-1 8O9,"  p.  447-51), 
ferred  to  as  having  been  forwarded  it  is  important  to  note  that  the  letter  of 
lately.  TJ  had  received  Walker's  of  4  Feb.  1786  addressed  TJ  as  "My  Dear 
4  Feb.  on  23  June  1786,  and,  since  it  Friend"  and  that  Walker  assured  TJ 
spoke  of  the  death  of  his  daughter,  it  <fiMrs.  Walker  .  .  .  begs  to  be  affec- 
is  possible  that  TJ  replied  during  the  tionately  remember'd  to  you  and  Miss 
latter  part  of  1786  and  that  "Walker  Patsy." 


From  Benjamin  Vaughan 

SIR  [ca.  1  Mch.  1787] 

I  take  the  liberty  to  introduce  to  your  acquaintance,  Mr,  Garnett 
of  Bristol,  a  gentleman  who  is  particularly  recommended  to  me 
by  my  particular  connection  Mr,  Richard  Bright  of  Bristol,  as  his 
friend  and  a  person  of  very  good  character.  His  object  with  you, 
will  be  to  make  you  acquainted  with  an  invention  of  his  (for  which 
himself  and  the  Revd.  Mr.  Milton  have  obtained  a  patent  here)  for 
relieving  friction  upon  the  axes  of  wheels  &c.  Its  simplicity  will 
soon  enable  you  to  determine  how  far  it  may  be  useful  in  the 
United  States;  and  your  protection  of  the  invention  and  its  author, 
in  case  you  should  approve  it,  will  give  you  a  pleasure,  which  I  am 
happy  in  being  the  means  of  bringing  to  your  Excellency's  notice. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  great  respect,  Your  Excellency's  Most 
obedient  &  most  humble  servt.,  BENJN.  VAUGHAN 

RC   (DLC);  undated;  endorsed.  The  two  or  three  weeks  past";  and  from  an 

date    has    been    assigned    from    Short's  entry   in    SJTL  recording-   the   receipt   of 

letter  to  TJ  of  6  Apr.  1787  which  reads  an  undated  letter  from  Vaughan  on  26 

in  part:    "A  Mr.  Garnett  .   .   .  brought  Mch.     1787     at     Aix-en-Provence      (see 

some   letters    and   left   a   card   for   you  also  TJ  to  Vaughan,  2  July  1787), 

C.  W.  F.  Dumas  to  William  Short 

MONSIEUR  LaHaie  2e  Mars  1787 

J'ai  Phonneur  de  vous  adresser  Pincluse  pour  le  CongrSs,  toujours 
ouverte,  ainsi  que  celles  qui  suivront,  afin  que  S.  E.  M.  Jefferson 
ait  la  satisfaction  a  son  retour  de  voir  ce  que  vous  jugerez  a  propos 
d'en  noter  ou  extraire  pour  le  tenir  au  courant  des  affaires  de  ce 

Je  suppose,  Monsieur,  que  vous  savez  ce  que  c'est  que  YQuverture 
dont  je  parle  dans  Pincluse.  Mais  il  est  de  mon  devoir,  tant  envers, 
Mr.  Jefferson  qu'envers  d'autres  a  qui  je  dois  le  secret  de  vous 
prier  de  me  marquer  tres  clairement  et  promptement  que  vous  le 
savez,  afin  que  je  puisse  non  seulement  vous  ecrire  plus  explicite- 
ment  la-dessus  moi-mSme,  mais  aussi  vous  adresser  une  Lettre 
qu'on  gcrira  peut-etre  &  ce  sujet  a  Mr.  Jefferson,  pour  qu'il  puisse, 
ou  vous,  Monsieur,  pendant  son  absence,  donner  connoissance  au 
Congr&s  du  contenu  par  le  paquebot  qui  partira  du  Havre  le  25 
de  ce  mois. 

Veuillez  me   faire  part  des  bonnes  nouvelles   que  vous   aurez 


2    MARCH    1787 

de  la  sant£  de  Mr.  Jefferson,  et  de  lui  faire  parvenir  mes  voeux 
&  cet  £gard  et  mes  respects.  Mr.  Massey  est-il  toujours  k  Paris? 
II  a,  avec  vous,  les  meilleurs  complimens  de  ma  famille  et  de^celui 
qui 'a  Fhonneur  d'etre,  avec  la  plus  parfaite  estime  et  considgra- 
tion  Monsieur,  Votre  tr£s-humble  &  trfcs  obSissant  serviteur 
*  C  W  F  DUMAS 

RC  (DLC:  Short  Papers);  endorsed t 
"Dumas  —  Mar  .2.87.  [received]  —  10." 
FC  (Rijksarchief,  The  Hague,  Dumas 
Papers;  photostats  in  DLC).  Enclosure 
(FC  in  same):  Dumas  to  Jay,  27  Feb. 
1787,  with  a  postscript  added  on  2 
Mch.  1787  (printed  in  Dipl.  Corr., 
17  8  3-8  9 1  HI,  565-7);  forwarded  by 
Short  to  Jay,  21  Mch.  1787. 


L'iNCLtJSE:  This  was  the  proposal  con- 
cerning the  purchase  of  the  American 
debt  to  France  by  Holland  bankers  (see 
TJ  to  Jay,  1  Feb.  1787);  as  translated 
and  printed  in  Dipl.  Corr.,  1 783-89  y  HI, 
565-6,  Dumas's  comment  on  the  OTJVER- 
TURE  in  his  letter  to  Jay  reads:  "Mr. 
Jefferson  has,  I  know,  sent  to  Congress 
by  the  last  packet  from  Havre  a  most 
important  proposition,  which  came 
through  me  to  him;  but  I  am  ignorant 
whether  it  was  addressed  to  your  de- 
partment. In  any  case,  I  think  it  neces- 
sary to  inform  you,  sir,  that  the  affair, 
which  will  be  most  favorable  to  the 
United  States,  as  -well  as  agreeable  to 
France,  must  be  carried  on  with  the 
utmost  secrecy,  not  only  in  America 
but  also  in  Europe,  especially  at  Amster- 
dam, at  which  place  it  is  most  essential 
to  its  success,  that  no  one  should  be 
made  acquainted  with  it,  nor  authorized 
by  Congress  to  act  upon  it,  except  Mr. 
Jefferson  and  myself*  under  his  orders. 
In  this  case,  Congress  would  only  have 
to  acquiesce  in  a  most  admirable  ar- 
rangement." Short  was  well  informed 
about  this  matter,  and  when  the  present 
letter  was  received  by  him  on  10  Mch., 
he  made  extracts  bearing:  the  following 
caption:  ''Extracts  from  M.  IDumas's 
letters  to  Mr.  Jay,  taken  by  his  request 
for  the  perusal  of  M.  Jefferson";  the 
MS  in  -which  Short  recorded  these  ex- 
tracts of  Dumas'  letter  of  "March  2" 
also  included  brief  extracts  of  Dumas* 
letters  to  Jay  of  23  and  30  Mch.  1787 
CDLCt  Short  Papers).  Dumas*  under- 
standable injunction  to  secrecy  was 
useless;  for,  ten  days  earlier,  Otto  in 
New  York  had  reported  the  facts  of  this 
OUVERTURE  to  Verg-ennes:  "Une  com.- 
pagmie  de  negocians  hollandois  ayant 
fait  transmettre  au  Congres  un  projet 

de  rembourser  sur  le  champ  la  dette  des 
Etats  unis  envers  la  franco  et  de  se  nan- 
tir  de  la  creance  de  S.M.,  cette  assem- 
bles en  a  renvoye"  1'examen  au  Bureau 
de  la  tresorier.  Ce  Bureau,  Monseig1- 
neur,  est  bien  eloigne*  d'approuver  la 
proposition  des  hollandois.  Dans  le  ra- 
port  qu'il  a  remis  au  CongrSs  il  com- 
mence par  analyser  les  vues  que  ces 
negocians  peuvent  avoir  en  se  charg-eant 
d'une  dette  qui  dans  ce  moment  ci  est 
presque  desesperee.  II  lui  paroit  proba- 
ble que  les  hollandois  n'ont  fait  cette 
off  re  que  parce  quails  esperent  se  faire 
payer  en  denrSes  et  s'emparer  pendant 
plusieurs  anne'es  d'une  espece  de  mo- 
nopole  en  Amerique.  Les  Commissaires 
pensent  que  le  Congrgs  n*a  aucun  in- 
teret  de  chang-er  la  nature  d'une  dette 
qui  a  toujours  e"te"  reg-ardee  par  les 
Americains  comme  sacree  puisqu'elle  a 
ete  contracted  non  settlement  en- 
vers leur  bienfaieur  mais  pour  suppleer 
aux  besoins  les  plus  pressans  de  la 
confederation,  qu'en  transferant  cette 
creance  aux  hollandois  elle  cesseroit 
d'etre  aussi  respectable  et  les  peuples 
sentiroient  beaucoup  moins  la  necessite 
de  se  libererj  qn'il  est  trSs  heureuac 
pour  le  Congires  d'avoir  une  grand 
dette  a  payer,  parceque  sans  ce  lien 
conunun  la  confederation  perdroit 
bientot  toute  son  importance  par  le 
refus  des  peuples  de  suvenir  aux  be- 
soins du  irouvernement  general,  mais 
que  la  consideration  des  grands  services 
rendus  par  la  franco  foruniroit  toujours 
de  puissans  motifs  pour  disposer  les 
peuples  a  remplir  les  eng-ag-emens  pris 
par  le  CongrSs,  qu'il  ne  paroit  pas  d'ail- 
leurs  que  S.M.F.  Chret.  soit  instniite  de 
cette  proposition  et  qu*elle  pourroit  etre 
offens^e  d'une  demarche  aussi  impor- 
tante,  qui  devoit  dans  tous  les  cas  avoir 
son  approbation  avant  de  produire 
aucun  effet;  que  S.M.  paroit  avoir  egard 
a  la  confusion  actuelle  des  affaires  en 
Amerique  et  qu'Elle  attendra  vraisem- 
blablement  une  epoque  plus  favorable 
pour  demander  les  arreragres  qui  lui 
sont  dus.  Les  Commissaires  proposent 
done  de  rejeter  entierement  le  projet 
des  hollandois.  Cette  affaire,  Monseig- 
neur,  est  encore  tres  secrete  et  ce  n'est 


3    MARCH     1787 

qu'avec  beaucoup   de  peine   que  j'ai  pu  Samuel  Osgrood,  Walter  Livingston,  and 

me   procurer  les   details    que  j'ai   Phon-  Arthur   Lee— submitted  their  report  on 

neur   de   Vous  transmettre.   Le  Congres  the    proposal    that   TJ    had   transmitted 

n'a  pas  encore  pris  de  resolution"   (Otto  to  them  in  his  letter   of   26    Sep.    1786 

to  Verg-ennes,  17  Feb.  1787;  Arch.  AfF.  (jrcc,    xxxn,    65).    It    may    have    been 

Etr.,    Paris,    Corr.     Pol.,    E.-U.,    xxxn;  one  of  these  who  g-ave  Otto  the  informa- 

Tr    in    DLC;    endorsed   as    received    23  tion  of  the  "tres  secrete"  nature  of  the 

Mch.  1787) .  Two  days  after  Otto  wrote,  report, 
the    Commissioners    of    the    Treasury— 

C.  W.  F.  Dumas  to  William  Short 

MONSIEUR  Lakaie  2e.  Mars  1787 

Cette  nuit  part  pour  Paris  Mr.  le  Rh.  Gr.  de  Salm,  charg6 
d'affaires  les  plus  importantes  pour  cette  Republique  et  pour  la 
France.  II  aura  la  bont£  de  vous  remettre  une  Lettre  de  ma  part.  II 
auroit  bien  des  choses  a\  dire  a  S.E.  Mr.  Jefferson.  Je  Fai  avert! 
qu'on  6toit  absent,  mais  qu'il  pouvoit  s'ouvrir  a  vous  en  toute 
confiance,  comme  s'il  le  faisoit  si  Mr.  Jefferson  Iui-m8me.  Celle-ci 
est  pour  vous  prevenir  que  vous  pouvez  avoir  la  m6me  confiance 
envers  lui  sur  ce  qu'il  vous  dira  des  affaires  de  la  republique,  de 
la  France  et  de  moi.  J^ai  Thonneur  d'etre  avec  la  plus  sincere  estime 
&  consideration  Monsieur  Votre  tr6s  humble  et  tr6s-obeissant  servi- 
teur  C.  W.  F.  DUMAS 

RC  (DLC:  Short  Papers);  endorsed  in  part:  "2  March,  [received]  9  [Mch.]." 
FC  ( Hi jksarchief ,  The  Haggle,  Dumas  Papers;  photostats  in  DLC);  several  varia- 
tions in  phraseology;  the  name  of  the  Rhinegrave  de  Salm  is  heavily  scored  out. 

From  Lavoisier 

MONSIEUR  Paris  3.  mars  1787 

J'ai  6t6  p£netr£  de  reconnoissance  en  recevant  avec  la  lettre  dont 
vous  m'av£s  honorg  Le  Dipldme  qui  me  donne  le  titre  de  Membre 
de  la  Soci6t£  Philosophique  de  Philadelphie.  Un  Zdle  ardent  pour 
tout  ce  qui  peut  contribuer  a  la  destruction  des  Erreurs  et  aux 
progr^s  des  connoissances  humaines;  "Une  grande  veneration  pour 
Les  grands  homines  qui  ont  rendu  La  Libert^  aux  habitans  d'une 
des  plus  belles  parties  de  TUnivers,  Voila  les  Seuls  titres  que 
J'avois  a  offrir  a  la  Soci€t6.  Anime  depuis  Longtems  des  mSmes 
vlies  qu'elle,  Je  m'honorerai  de  Tassociation  a  la  quelle  Elle  veut 
bien  m'appeller.  Je  ferai  tous  mes  Efforts  pour  na'Elever  Jusqu'a 
Elle  pour  partager  Ses  nobles  travaux  et  pour  concourir  avec 
Elle  a  tout  ce  qui  peut  rendre  Les  hommes  meilleurs  et  plus 


3    MARCH    1787 

J'ai  LTionneur  d'etre  trfcs  respectueusement  Monsieur  Votre  trfcs 
humble  et  tres  Ob6issant  Serviteur,  LAVOISIER 

RC  (ViWC).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  26  Mch.  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence. 

From  De  Saint-Paterne 

MONSIEUR  A  Versailles  le  3.  mars  1787. 

Les  vertus  de  Mr.  Washington  m'ont  inspire  le  d6sir  de  faire 
des  vers  pour  son  Portrait;  j'ai  Thonneur  de  vous  les  envoyer  avec 
la  lettre  que  je  vous  supplie  de  faire  parvenir  a.  Messieurs  les  mein- 
bres  du  Congrgs,  si  vous  la  jugez  favorablement.  Je  remets  ma 
cause  entre  vos  mains,  et  quelque  soit  votre  jugement  il  ne  diminuera 
rien  des  sentiments  reconnoissants  et  respectueux  avec  lesquels  j'ai 
Phonneur  d'etre,  Monsieur  Vdtre  tr6s  humble  et  tr£s  ob6issant 



officier  de  la  grande  Fauconnerie, 
cour  des  princes. 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  26  Mch.  1787  at  Aix-en- 
Provence*  Enclosures  not  identified. 

From  Madame  de  Tott 

A  Paris  ce  4.  mars  1787. 

JPai  suivi  Le  conseil  que  Vous  avez  eu  la  bont€  de  me  donner. 
Monsieur;  JPai  €t6  voir  Le  tableau  de  Mr.  Drouai  et  J'en  ai  6t€ 
Vraiment  €tonn£e;  mais  puisque  Vous  Voulez  absolument  que  je 
Vous  dise  Les  Remarques  que  <Tai  faites,  quoique  Vous  Soyez 
parf  aitement  en  6tHt  de  Le  Juger  Vous  m£me,  et  par  Lre  gout  exquis 
que  Vous  avez  sur  tout,  et  par  P6tendue  de  Vos  connoissances,  Je 
Vais  Vous  Obe'fr.— Je  trouve  Le  soldat  admirable,  Le  ton  de  sa 
couleur  est  harmonieux  et  fort,  son  Attitude  est  parf  aitement  belle, 
parfaitement  naturelle;  en  Un  mot  L'ensemble  de  sa  personne  est 
Vraiment  le  grand  genre  de  L'histoire.  Quant  £.  marius,  ce  n'est  pas 
La  figure  ni  Le  corps  de  marius  de  LTiistoire  Romaine.  Infiniment 
plus  instruit  que  moi  Vous  aurez  sans-doute  €t&  plus  frapp€  de  La 
figure  delicate  et  presque  chStive  qu'on  donne  &  cet  homme  c^lfebre. 
II  me  semble  qu'on  d!t  qu'il  avoit  une  figure  commune,  mais  tr£s 
caracterisfe  et  qu'elle  approchoit  plus  de  La  £erocit€,  que  de  La 
dglicatesse  qu'il  y  a  dans  Le  marius  de  Mr.  Drouai,  quoiqu'il  lui 

5    MARCH    1787 

ait  donn6  une  expression  tr£s  forte.  Son  bras,  ses  Jambes  et  son 
Corps  sont  trop  blancs,  sa  Draperie  qui  a  des  beautes  est  d'un  ton 
de  couleur  trop  entier,  Le  bras  stir  Lequel  il  est  appuye*  est  trop 
nonchalant,  trop  tranquille  pour  Inaction  de  L'autre  et  pour  L'ex- 
pression  de  La  figure. — Voila  Monsieur  Les  deffauts  que  j'ai  trouve" 
dans  Un  tableau  qui  est  cependant  fait  pour  produire  La  plus 
grande  sensation  et  qui  annonce  Le  plus  grand  talent  dans  son 
auteur.  Permettez  moi,  actuellement  que  je  Vous  ai  Obe'i,  de  Vous 
parler  Un  peu  du  plaisir  que  j'ai  eu  en  Recevant  une  Marque  de 
Votre  souvenir  Le  Jour  de  Votre  depart,  permettez  moi  de  Vous 
exprimer  ma  Reconnoissance,  et  de  Vous  Remercier  de  tout  ce  que 
Votre  Lettre  a  dXDbligeant.  L'assemblee  des  notables  nous  prive 
du  plaisir  de  Voir  Mr.  de  La  Fayette,  Mr.  Short  se  trouve  mieux  a 
St.  Germain  qu'a  Paris,  et  comme  nous  ne  pouvons  avoir  de  Vos 
nouvelles  que  par  Fun  de  ses  Messieurs,  nous  en  serons  privies 
Jusqu'a  ce  que  Vous  ayez  La  bonte  de  nous  en  donner  Vous  meme. 
Veuillez  bien  Vous  Rappeller  Monsieur  La  promesse  que  Vous 
nous  avez  faite  et  agr6er  L' assurance  de  tous  Les  sentiments  que  je 
Vous  ai  Vou€s  pour  La  Vie. 

R.C  (MoSHi);  unsigned;  endorsed:  "Tott  Mde.  de."  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received 
26  Mch.  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence. 

From  Gaudenzio  Clerici 

SIR  Novara  the  5th.  March  1787 

I  hope  the  temperature  of  the  air  of  Provence  has  made  you 
less  sensible  of  the  inconstancy  and  gloominess  of  the  winter,  Tho% 
I  must  not  tell  You,  Sir,  that  it  is  but  a  weak  participation  that 
Provence  makes  of  the  serenity  and  mildness  of  an  Italian  Climate. 
Pardon  my  impertinence,  Sir.  "Will  you  resist  the  temptation?  You 
have  but  a  step,  Sir,  from  Aix  to  the  Garden  of  Europe,  and  to  the 
Country  of  Brutus  and  Cicero.  "Will  you  have  nothing  to  say  from 
your  own  observations  of  modern  Italy  and  of  modern  Italians? 
You  will  see  they  are  neither  so  bad  as  Sharp  and  Smollet  would 
have  made  their  Countrimen  believe,  nor  so  good  as  I  wished  once 
at  annapolis  to  represent  them  to  you.  Come,  Sir,  give  an  impartial 
look,  and  let  a  philosophical  tear  drop  wherever  you  see  Miseries 
and  Wretchedness  multiplied  by  the  hand  of  Oppression.  Oh! 
How  often  you  will  turn  your  thoughts  upon  the  Land  of  Cabot 
and  mutter  to  your  Countrymen  O  fortunati  nimium  ec:! 

In  truth,  a  little  we  had  of  that.  Too  much  I  have  seen  on  the 


6    MARCH    1787 

other  side  of  the  great  water:  we  should  both  countries  in  my 
opinion  be  better.— I  do  not  know  whether  too  much  Liberty  is  not 
worse  than  too  little  to  live  in  society. 

I  saw  my  mother  and  my  friends,  who  received  me  with  a  mixt 
of  joy  and  wonder  to  see  me  back  from  that  '^Undiscovered 
Country"  from  whose  bourn,  according  to  their  notion  no  traveller 
returns.  They  are  never  satisfied  to  hear  me  talk  of  americans  and 
american  Liberty.  When  I  tell  them  that  america  is  the  Country 
that  produces  and  makes  Philosophers,  and  that  the  generality  of 
the  inhabitants  know  better  men  and  books  than  we  do,  they  say 
it  savours  of  a  Paradox  but  they  believe  [it]  at  last  to  be  a  fact.  I 
shall  not  trouble  you  as  often  I  would  wish  with  my  letters  for  I 
know  your  affairs  will  not  permit  you  to  extend  your  correspondence 
to  mere  matters  of  Curiosity  and  compliments.  Although  I  flatter 
myself  to  receive  the  honor  of  a  line  from  you,  Sir,  to  know  your 
State  of  Health  since  your  change  of  Climate,  give  me  leave  in  the 
mean  time  with  all  possible  candor  to  express  my  ambition  to 
continue  the  honor  of  being  what  I  always  prided  to  be  since  the 
happy  moment  of  my  being  acquainted  with  You,  Sir,  Your  very 
respectful  Sert.,  GAUDENZIO  CLERIC i 

ES.  I  request  to  direct  Turin  pour  Novare. 

RC   (DL,C)j  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  26  Mch.    1787  at  Aix-en- 

To  Visly 

[Dijon,  6  Mch.  1787.  Under  this  date  in  TJ's  rough  journal  of  his 
journey  through  Southern  France  and  Italy  (CSmH)  there  is  an  entry 
reading:  "wrote  Presdt.  de  Visly  letter  recommendation  Havward  "  Not 

From  De  Guichen 

MONSIEUR  a  morilais  ce  7  mars  1787 

Je  recois  avec  la  plus  vive  sensibilittg,  la  lettre  dont  votre  excel- 
lance  a  bien  voullu  m'honnorer;  et  m'annoncer  la  grace  que  MM. 
de  la  Societte-  philosophique  de  philadelphie  ont  eu  la  bontg  de 
madmettre  membre  de  leur  tres  respectable  socigttg.  Je  sens  Mon- 
sieur tout  le  prix  d'une  favoeur  aussi  particulliere;  que  mes  faibles 
tallants  ne  me  permettoit  pas  d'esperer;  et  aux  quels  je  ne  puis 
supleer,  que  par  les  sentiments  de  la  plus  parffaicte  reconnaiscance, 


8    MAR  CH     1787 

et  par  la  scinceritt6  de  la  part  que  je  prendray  toujours  £  ce  qui 
poura  Tintteresser.  Permettes  moy  de  suplier  votre  excellance, 
d'avoir  la  complaisance  d'estre  1'interprette  de  la  purgtte*  de  ses 
sentiments;  et  de  prendre  la  lib^rtte*  en  leur  presantant  mes  plus 
profonds  respectueux  hommages,  de  les  suplier  d'agreer  mes  tres 
humbles  et  parffaicts  remerciments,  d'un  choix  aussi  honnorable 
que  flatteur  pour  moy,  qui  ne  me  laisse  rien  si  desirer  que  les 
ocasions  de  le  meritter. 

Jay  Fhonneur  d'estre  avec  un  tres  prof ond  respec  de  votre  excel- 
lance Monsieur  Votre  tres  humble  et  tres  obeissant  serviteur, 


RC   (DLC).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  26  Mck.  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence. 

From  Benjamin  Hawkins 

DEAR  SIR  New-York  8th.  March  1787 

I  have  had  within  a  few  days  the  pleasure  to  receive  your  favor 
of  the  13th  august.  It  was  received  at  the  office  of  Foreign  affairs 
in  Novr.  and  has  been  traveling  since  southwardly  and  North- 
wardly to  meet  with  me.  I  have  been  attentive  to  your  other 
request,  and  expect  I  shall  be  able  to  send  you  a  few  plants  of  the 
Dionaea  muscipula  some  time  this  Spring.  Mr.  de  la  Forest  who 
returns  to  France  promises  to  take  charge  of  them:  and  a  very 
attentive  worthy  man  is  to  send  me  a  dozen  or  more  from  "Wilming- 
ton in  small  earthen  pots.  I  will  also  send  you  some  of  the  seed 
as  soon  as  it  is  practicable.  I  shall  send  you  by  Mr.  de  la  Forest 
the  little  Vocabulary  of  the  Cherokee  and  Choctaw  tongues:  and 
such  other  information  as  I  may  receive.  I  have  a  letter  from  Mr. 
McGillivray  which  gives  room  to  hope  by  that  period  he  will  have 
answered  fully  the  part  I  allotted  to  him. 

W&  are  not  here  in  so  profound  a  calm  as  in  Europe.  The  un- 
easinesses which  have  existed  in  Massachusets  for  some  time  past 
grew  into  a  serious  opposition  to  that  Government,  and  they  are 
now  by  the  vigorous  though  not  timely  opposition  of  the  government 
put  in  train  of  adjustment.  The  Southern  States  are  more  tranquil, 
and  are  emerging  fast  into  order;  and  if  the  Foederal  Government 
can  be  made  efficient  the  revolution  will  be  a  blessing  to  them. 
Virginia  taking  the  lead  for  this  most  desirable  object  proposed  a 
convention  to  be  in  may  next  at  Philadelphia.  North  Carolina  and 
some  other  States  have  followed  her  example  and  Congress  on  the 


8    MARCH    1787 

21st*  of  February  recommended  it  to  all  as  the  most  probable  mean 
of  establishing  a  firm  national  Government. 

Spain  availing  herself  of  probable  conjectures  bids  far  to  be 
the  first  power  who  will  strengthen  our  bonds  of  Union.  Unmind- 
ful of  her  true  interest,  she  seems  determined  to  oppose  her  partial 
contracted  policy,  to  that  generous  reciprocity  of  mutual  good 
offices,  which  being  the  basis  of  our  friendship  would  be  a  never 
failing  guarantee  to  both  Nations.  She  has  seized  some  of  our 
boats  on  the  Mississipi  and  refuses  us  absolutely  the  navigation 
thereof.  Our  citizens  view  this  as  an  infraction  of  their  rights.  The 
States  of  Virginia,  North  Carolina,  New  Jersey  and  some  others 
have  expressed  it  in  strong  terms;  the  words  of  North  Carolina 
are  "That  their  delegates  be  instructed  to  oppose  in  the  most 
unequivocal  terms  any  attempt  that  may  be  made  to  barter  or  sur- 
render to  any  Nation  the  right  of  this  State  to  the  free  and  common 
Navigation  of  the  Mississipi,  and  in  case  any  such  surrender  should 
take  place,  that  they  should  be  instructed  to  protest  against  the 
same,  as  an  unjust  depravation  of  the  right  of  this  State,  and  one 
which  Congress  are  not  authorized  to  make  by  the  articles  of 

This  arose  from  this  additional  circumstance.  Seven*  states  only 
counting  from  the  east  have  repealed  the  article  in  favor  of  the 
Missisipi  in  the  instructions  to  Mr.  Jay  and  he  is  now  at  full  liberty 
to  shut  up  or  not  the  Missisipi  and  he  appears  to  me  to  approve 
of  it  for  the  period  of  twenty  years.  Should  this  take  place,  I  know- 
not  what  consequences  may  ensue.  Our  Western  citizens  will  feel 
much  alarmed  for  their  situation.  They  will  have  less  confidence  in 
the  justice  of  Congress  and  be  disposed  to  carve  for  themselves. 
They  are  already  numerous  and  daily  increasing.  For  a  -violation  of 
a  treaty  Congress  -would  be  immediately  responsible  and  probably 
our  western  citizens  might  skirmish  for  some  years  -without  bring- 
ing about  an  open  rupture  and  -within  eight  or  ten  -we  -would  be 
able  to  support  our  right.  What  can  be  done?  Tou  may  eventually 
be  able  to  do  something.  If  the  French  court  had  the  Floridas  and 
would  establish  an  entrepot  at  New-Orleans  or  some  other  place 
equally  convenient  on  a  liberal  scale,  it  would  certainly  be  of  the 
first  consequence  to  them,  in  a  commercial  point  of  view,  as  we 
should  consume  their  manufactures  principally,  in  return  for  the 
raw  materials  which  we  could  supply  them  with  in  abundance. 
With  Spain  somthing  could  be  done  if  we  had  a  man  of  great 
abilities  and  prudence  at  Madrid  there  to  treat;  here  I  am  sure  we 

[202  } 

8    MARCH     1787 

have  nothing  to  hope  as  I  conjecture  Mr.  Gardoqui  has  duped 
himself  and  consequently  given  such  an  impression  of  things  here 
as  to  lead  his  court  to  be  very  sanguine  in  their  expectations.  And 
he  does  not  appear  to  me  to  be  a  man  oj  a  noble  mind  enough  to 
acknowledge  his  error  and  to  give  that  true  complexion  which  he 
has  certainly  learnt  to  discover. 

I  have  used  the  cypher  of  our  friend  Mr.  Madison.  He,  ex- 
pecting shortly  an  opportunity  more  certain  than  the  present  post- 
pones writing  untill  then,  and  he  presents  you  his  most  respectful 
compliments.  Your  acquaintance  Mr.  Nash  is  dead  and  I  am  in 
Congress  in  his  stead. 

I  am  with  sincere  esteem  &  regard  &  Friendship  Dear  Sir  your 
most  obedient  hie.  Servt.,  BENJAMIN  HAWKINS 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed;  partly  in  code.  (PPAP),  though  it  bears  an  endorse- 

Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  ment  in  TJ's  hand  as  follows:  **This  vo- 

at  Aue-en-Provence.  cabulary  was  from  Benjamin  Hawkins, 

THE    Lnrrjs    VOCABULARY    OF    THE  probably  before  1784." 


be  that  which  bears  the   caption  in   an  1  This    and    the    following    words    in 

unidentified    hand:     "A    Vocabulary    of  italics    are    written    in    code    and    have 

the   Cherokee   (over  hill)    and  Choctaw  been  decoded  by  the  editors,  employing 

languages  communicated  to  !Mr.  Jeflfer-  Code  No.  9. 
son      by      Col.      Benjamin       Hawkins" 

From  Martha  Jefferson 

Panthemont  february  [i.e.,  March]  8  1787 

Being  disapointed  in  my  expectation  of  receiving  a  letter  from 
my  dear  papa,  I  have  resolved  to  break  so  painful  a  silence  by  giving 
you  an  example  that  I  hope  you  -will  follow,  particularly  as  you 
know  how  much  pleasure  your  letters  give  me.  I  hope  your  wrist 
is  better  and1  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  your  voyage  is  rather  for 
your  pleasure  than  for  your  health.  However  I  hope  it  will  answer 
both  purposes.  I  will  now  tell  you  how  I  go  on  with  my  masters.  I 
have  began  a  beautiful  tune  with  balbastre,  done  a  very  pretty 
landskip  with  Pariseau,  a  little  man  playing  on  the  violin,  and 
began  another  beautiful  landskape.  I  go  on  very  slowly  -with  my 
tite  live,  its  being  in  such  ancient  Italian  that  I  can  not  read  with 
out  my  master  and  very  little  with  him  even.  As  for  the  dansing 
master  I  intend  to  leave  him  off  as  soon  as  nay  month  is  finished, 
Tell  me  if  you  are  still  determined  that  I  shall  dine  at  the  abesse's 
table.  If  you  are  I  shall  at  the  end  of  my  quarter.  The  kings  speach 
and  that  of  the  eveque  de  Narbone  has  been  copied  all  over  the 
convent.  As  for  Monseur  he  rose  up  to  speak  but  sat  down  again 

[203  } 

8    MARCH    1787 

Un  traite  de  commerce  fonde"  sur  Fint€re*t  des  deux  contrees  doit  les 
unir  de  plus  en  plus  intimement. 

Le  bien  moral  &  politique  des  deux  nations  doit  6tre  Fob  jet  &  le 
re"sultat  principal  de  ces  liaisons  de  commerce* 

Elles  ne  peuvent  s'e"tendre  qu'en  mettant  ces  deux  contrees  a  porte*e 
de  mieux  se  connottre  Tune  &  Fautre,  qu'en  rapprochant  Findividu  fran- 
gois  de  Findividu  ain6ricain. 

Rien  n'est  done  plus  necessaire  que  de  fixer  un  point,  un  centre,  oil 
Ton  depose  tout  ce  qui  se  fait  de  bien  dans  chaque  nation.  Notre  Societe" 
former  a  ce  centre. 

II  faut,  par  exemple,  qu*en  France  on  sache  tout  ce  qui  se  passe  dans 
les  fitats-Unis,  qu'on  y  enregistre  tout  ce  qui  s'y  fait  d'utile,  qu'on  le 
r6pande  &  qu'ensuite  la  Society  emploie  tout  son  influence  pour  faire 
adopter  les  institutions  utiles. 

Tel  est  un  des  objets  de  la  Socie"te"  Gallo-Am6ricaine  qu'on  6tablit  H 
Paris;  telles  sont  les  considerations  qui  lui  ont  donn6  naissance. 

S'il  s'en  forme  une  semblable  dans  FAm6rique  libre,  comme  il  y  a  lieu 
de  le  croire,  elle  s'occupera  du  soin  de  r6pandre  dans  FAm£rique,  tout 
ce  que  le  g6nie  frangois  peut  d^couvrir  d'utile,  tout  ce  que  Fadministra- 
tion  frangoise  peut  r€aliser  de  bien. 

II  seroit  inutile  de  d€tailler  les  avantages  qui  r6sulteront  pour  les  deux 
pays  de  P^tablissernent  de  pareilles  Soci6t€s. 

II  est  plus  n6cessaire  d'indiquer  les  objets  principaux  dont  la  Socie*te* 
Gallo-Amgricaine  doit  s'occuper  a  Paris. 

Le  commerce  r6ciproque  des  deux  pays,  fixera  sur-tout  Tattention  de 
la  SociSte".  Elle  s'occupera  des  r eerier ches  qui  peuvent  FSclairer,  des 
moyens  qui  peuvent  en  applanir  les  obstacles. 

L'gtat  de  Tagriculture,  les  canaux  nouveaux,  les  inventions  utiles,  les 
progre*s  de  1'industrie,  de  Fesprit  humain,  de  la  16gislation  soit  f€d6rale, 
soit  politique,  soit  civile  des  fitats-Unis.  Voila  les  points  les  plus  im- 
portans,  sur  lesquels  se  portera  son  attention. 

Pour  les  connottre,  elle  fera  venir  de  FAm6rique  libre,  les  gazettes, 
les  journaux,  les  livres,  les  actes  de  legislation,  les  journaux  du  congrfes, 
&c.  &  tout  ce  qui  pourra  FSclairer.  Elle  ea  formera  un  repertoire  toujours 
ouvert  aux  hommes  qui  voudront  ou  s'instruire  ou  instruire  le  public. 

Elle  se  procurer  a  des  correspondances  avec  les  Soci6tes  d'Am6rique 
qui  s'occupent  d'objets  utiles:  elle  accueillera  dans  ses  assemblies,  les 
Americains  que  leurs  affaires  ameneront  en  France,  &  que  leurs  con- 
noissances  mettront  a  port6e  de  donner  des  instructions. 

D'un  autre  c6t€,  pour  faire  connoltre  sans  cesse  en  Europe  Tetat  de 
FAm^rique  libre,  la  Society  prendra  tous  les  moyens  possibles  pour 
faire  publier  d^apres  Favis  de  Fassembl6e,  soit  dans  les  gazettes  &  jour- 
naux du  continent,  soit  dans  des  ouvrages  particuliers,  soit  autrement,  le 
r^sultat  de  ses  recherches. 

L'utilit6  des  deux  motides:  voila  le  but  de  cette  Societe,  tout  ce  qui 
se  rapporte  a  ce  but,  pourra  fixer  son  attention.  Elle  sera  compos€e 
dliommes  de  tout  pays,  de  toute  profession,  de  toute  religion,  pourvu 
qu'ils  soient  capables  de  s'occuper  constamment  8t  serieusement  du  bien 
de  lliumanite. 

{205  } 

9    MARCH     1787 

RC  <DLO-  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  26  Mch.  1787  at  ^-cn- 
Prolence  EncloSre  (DLC);  prmted  text,  three  numbered  pages;  endorsed  by  Tj 
on  blank  fourth  page:  "Warville." 

From  Alexander  McCaul 

^Glasgow,  9  Mch.  1787-  Recorded  in  SJTL  as  received  28  Mch.  1787 
at  Aix-en-Provence.  Not  found.] 

From  Sir  John  Sinclair 

DEAR  SIR  Whitehall  9th  March.   1787 

Accept  the  inclosed  sketch  of  the  journey  I  made  last  summer, 

I  hope  the  strain  is  better,  and  that  you  have  had  no  reason,  on 
that  account  to  quit  Paris,  and  believe  me  Yours,  with  very  sincere 
regard,  JOHN  SINCLAIR 

HC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  26  Mch.  1787  at  Aix-en- 
Provence.  Enclosure  not  identified. 

From  Madame  de  Tesse 

a  Paris  ce  11  fevrier  [i.e.,  March] 

Comme  vous  semble*s  m'avoir  choisie,  Monsieur,  pour  exercer 
plus  particuliSrement  votre  bienfaisance,  j'ai  attendu  la  Reception 
de  vos  derni&res  lib£ralite*s  pour  avoir  1'honnexir  de  vous  ecrire. 
J'ai  cm  ne  pouvoir  me  presenter  dMne  mani&re  plus  avantageuse 
qu'en  vous  annongant  que  la  fortune  avoit  second^  vos  vues  et  que 
les  plants  de  Caroline  £toient  arriv6s  en  bon  6tat.  C'est  ce  que  je 
puis  vous  attester  aujourdTiuy  en  vous  offrant  1'hommage  de  ma 
Reconnoissance.  La  meilleure  partie  des  magnolia  a  parfaitement 
soutenu  le  voyage  et  les  dionea  m*ont  paru  en  v6ge"tation  dans  leurs 
petites  mottes.  J'en  garde  deux  dans  ma  chambre  &  Paris,  pour  les 
soigner  journellement  moi  m£me,  jusqu'a  ce  que  j'aille  m'etablir  a 
CMville  oil  je  vais  aujourd'huy  planter  les  autres.  J'avois  menac6 
Mr.  Short  de  vous  avertir  s'il  demeuroit  toute  votre  absence  61oigne" 
de  Paris,  il  a  bien  voulu  diner  hier  die's  moi  et  m'assurer  que  ce 
n'6toit  pas  le  produit  de  sa  crainte.  L'avantage  de  passer  sa 
jeunesse  pr&s  de  vous,  secondant  en  Lui  les  dons  de  la  nature, 
j'aime  a  pr^sager  ce  qu'il  sera  un  jour,  pour  sa  famille  et  son  paYs. 

II  m'a  trouv€  dans  un  de  ces  mouvemens  d'efJervescence  qu'excite 


12    MARCH     1787 

Fassemblee  des  notables.  Je  me  suis  livree  devant  lui  a  une  con- 
versation un  peu  vive  contre  un  homme  qui  n'est  pas  favorable  a 
Mr.  de  la  Fayette;  il  seroit  embarasse  de  vous  faire  savoir  quelque 
chose  de  positif  sur  le  R£sultat  des  deliberations.  On  ne  s'est  encore 
explique  que  sur  les  objets  d'une  moindre  importance.  L'impQt, 
qui  est  sans  doute  le  principal,  peut  6tre  Leve,  mais  ne  peut  §tre 
approuv£  qu'avec  la  preuve  qu'il  est  absolument  n£cessaire.  Le 
controlleur  g£n£ral  s'apuie  sur  ce  qu'elle  a  6t6  foxirnie  au  Roy,  et 
les  notables  sur  ce  que  le  Roy  peut  6tre  tromp6  dans  ce  moment  cy, 
comme  Mr.  de  Calonne  assure  qu'il  Ta  &t€  par  le  compte  Rendu  de 
Mr.  Necker,  qui  d£montroit  que  la  Recette  etoit  au  pair  de  la 
depense,  quoiqu^au  dire  de  Mr.  de  Calonne  le  deficit  fut  alors  de 
trente  a  quarante  millions.  On  n'entrevoit  pas  le  moment  ou  le 
controlleur  g6n€ral  se  d6cidera  a  donner  ses  comptes,  ni  les  notables 
leur  avis  sans  les  avoir  obtenus,  ce  qui  fait  juger  que  Passemblee  se 
prolongera  beaucoup.  Si  vous  daign^s  vous  Rapeller  que  vous  av6s 
bien  voulu  me  souhaiter  une  petite  terre  en  Virginie,  je  serai 
aussit6t  dispensge  de  vous  imposer  mon  opinion  particuli^re  et 
vous  approuver6s  que  je  me  livre  uniquement  k  la  culture  de  mon 
jardin.  Me.  de  Tott,  qui  a  d£j&  eu  ITionneur  de  vous  £crire,  me 
charge  de  joindre  Phonneur  de  tous  ses  sentimens  S.  celui  de  la 
vive  Reconnoissance  et  de  Pattachement  profond  avec  lequel  j'ai 
Phonneur  d'etre,  Monsieur,  votre  tres  humble  et  tres  obeissante 
servante,  NOAILLES  DE  TESS£ 

RC  (DLC).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  26  Mcli.  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence;  entry- 
reads:   '"Tesse*  Mde.  de.  Paris.  Feb.   (for  Mar.)    11." 

From  William  Short 

MY  DEAR  SIR  Paris  March  12.  1787 

This  letter  with  the  others  inclosed  would  have  been  sent  two 
days  sooner  but  for  a  mistake  in  the  post-days  of  Aix.  I  waited 
until  Saturday  -without  writing  because  I  wished  to  be  able  to 
give  you  some  information  of  your  map;  and  from  Saturday  until 
to-morrow  the  post  does  not  set  out  for  Aix. — The  engraver  kept 
his  word  and  went  through  all  your  corrections  in  the  course  of 
the  last  week.  Saturday  I  went  over  the  three  first  parallels  of 
latitude  with  him  at  his  house  and  found  only  nineteen  errors.  This 
gave  me  great  hopes  for  the  rest,  but  my  expectations  have  been 
in  some  measure  disappointed.  I  employed  yesterday  in  going  over 
the  remainder  of  the  map  at  home.  The  errors  amount  to  sixty  three 

£207  3 

1  2    MARCH     1787 

Mr.  Petit  desires  I  will  let  you  know  that  your  horse,  which 
you  had  never  put  to  the  cabriolet  goes  in  it  comme  un  bijou.  From 
the  beginning  he  has  made  no  resistance  and  shews  that  he  has 
been  accustomed  to  it.  Mr.  Petit  drives  him  into  Paris  every  day 
and  purposes  doing  the  same  with  the  other  also  as  he  has  recovered 
from  his  sickness  which  was  for  one  while  alarming.  He  has  been 
well  taken  care  of  and  indeed  they  are  all  properly  attended  to. 

I  recieved  yesterday  letters  from  Virginia  via  London.  Among 
them  is  one  from  Mr.  F.  Skipwith  as  late  as  the  526.  Jany.  He  gave 
to  me  a  list  of  the  acts  passed  at  the  late  session  of  Assembly.  You 
will  see  how  numerous  they  are;  but  it  is  probable  the  number  is 
not  thought  sufficient  since  the  Adjournment  is  to  the  last  of  this 
month  only.  Mr.  Skipwith  gives  me  some  account  also  of  a  late 
dreadful  fire  in  Richmond.  It  has  consumed  all  the  houses  on  both 
sides  the  main  street  from  Currie's  dwelling  house  to  Truehearts 
long  store,  whether  these  incluse  I  cannot  say,  but  rather  suppose 
not  from  a  recollection  of  their  situation.  Mr.  Skipwith  adds  that 
the  principal  sufferers  among  my  acquaintance  are  Dr.  Currie — 
Dr.  Foushee,  £400  a  year  rent  in  his  houses.  Nothing  now  remains 
to  this  poor  and  perfectly  honest  man,  who  seems  pursued  by  fate, 
but  the  ground  on  which  his  houses  stood  and  his  profession,  with 
this  a  wife  and  family  to  support.  I  feel  for  his  distresses  really  in 
the  most  afflicting  manner.  Mr.  Skipwith  seems  also  more  affected 
by  them,  than  by  his  own. — The  loss  of  his  company  is  estimated 
at  £5000  in  goods  and  £2OOO  in  houses.  Another  misfortune  which 
he  had  not  heard  of  when  he  wrote  me,  and  which  I  learned  yester- 
day, from  Mr.  Ogilvy  who  inclosed  me  the  letters  from  Virginia, 
is  the  failure  of  Mr.  Eyre  an  old  and  well  established  merchant  of 
London  with  whom  Mr.  Skipwith  had  entered  into  partnership.  Mr. 
Ogilvy  thinks  this  will  irrecoverably  ruin  the  credit  of  the  company. 
I  have  never  felt  myself  so  sincerely  distressed  by  the  pecuniary 
losses  of  a  friend.  There  is  a  something  in  the  fortunes  of  those 
who  have  been  always  struggling  against  unfavorable  circum- 
stances and  situations  in  life  that  attaches  us  much  more  to  them, 
than  to  those  who,  sailing  under  prosperous  gales,  have  never  met 
with  a  storm. — Mr.  Ogilvy  adds  that  he  has  written  to  Mr.  Skip- 
with  to  desire  his  immediate  return  to  London  in  order  to  put  his 
deranged  affairs  into  a  train  of  settlement.  This  circumstance  joined 
to  a  paragraph  in  Mr.  Skipwith's  letter  will  shew  you  that  there 
is  a  certainty  your  daughter  Polly  will  come  to  Europe  under  his 
care. — Mr.  Skipwith  after  desiring  me  to  inform  you  that  your 
daughter  and  the  family  of  Eppington  were  in  perfect  health,  says 

C  209  } 

12    MARCH    1787 

he  has  lately  recieved  a  letter  from  Mr.  Eppes  desiring  he  would 
take  charge  of  Miss  Polly  in  case  it  was  his  intention  to  return  to 
Europe  in  the  Spring.  He  adds  the  pleasure  it  would  have  given 
him  had  that  been  the  case:  but  as  it  was  not  he  had  advised  Mr. 
Eppes  to  send  her  under  the  care  of  Capt.  Roberts  of  the  Judith 
Randolph,  an  exceedingly  prudent  and  gentlemanly  man.  I  know 
not  if  this  is  the  same  of  whom  Mr.  Eppes  has  already  spoken  to 


I  recieved  two  days  ago  by  the  Rhinegrave  of  Salm,  a  letter 
from  Mr.  Dumas  inclosing  one  for  Mr.  Jay.  He  tells  me  that  this 
is  sent  open  that  I  may  read  it  and  extract  from  it  such  parts  as 
you  would  chuse  to  see  on  your  return  here.  He  desires  me  also  to 
let  him  know  If  I  know  what  is  meant  by  the  ouverture  of  which 
he  speaks,  in  order  that  he  may  write  to  me  confidentially  on  the 
subject,  and  send  me  such  information  as  may  be  proper  to  forward 
to  Congress  in  your  absence.  I  have  answered  him  in  the  affirma- 
tive, and  have  taken  the  extracts  from  his  letter  as  he  requested. 

I  wrote  to  M.  de  Reyneval  after  your  departure  and  have  re- 
cieved the  two  passeports;  one  has  been  given  to  Petit,  the  other 
is  inclosed  to  you. 

I  have  been  forced  by  M.  de  Crevecoeur  and  Mr.  Barrett  to 
engage  to  press  again  M.  de  Colonia;  and  in  consequence  wrote 
him  a  letter  this  morning  desiring  he  would  give  me  a  rendezvous. 
He  was  not  at  home,  so  that  I  have  as  yet  no  answer.  I  have  been 
induced  into  this  measure  not  so  much  from  an  expectation  of 
success  as  to  avoid  the  appearance  of  neglect  and  inattention  in 
the  eyes  of  those  gentlemen,  whom  I  cannot  bring  to  believe  that 
I  have  not  the  honor  of  being  Charg6  des  affaires  under  the  com- 
mission of  Congress  and  of  course  cannot  be  known  of  right  to  any 
of  these  bureaux,  except  as  sent  in  the  character  of  a  common 
messenger.  M.  de  Crevecoeur  insists  with  obstinacy  that  if  I  do 
not  succeed  with  M.  de  Colonia  I  must  go  to  Versailles  to  pay  a 
visit  to  the  Duke  of  Harcourt.  You  will  readily  concieve  how 
disagreeable  the  alternative  of  risquing  to  do  an  impropriety  or  of 
meeting  the  censures  of  M.  de  Crevecoeur,  M.  Barrett,  and  all  the 
American  merchants  who  are  suffering  or  may  suffer  by  this  affair. 
I  am  very  anxious  my  dear  Sir  to  hear  from  you,  as  well  to  know 
whether  you  feel  any  good  effects  from  your  journey  as  to  satisfy 
the  incessant  enquiries  of  all  your  friends  here  whom  I  see.  None 
of  whom  however  can  be  half  so  much  attached  to  you  either  by  the 
ties  of  affection  or  gratitude  as  Your  friend  &  servant, 


1  3    MARCH    1787 

I  saw  M.  de  la  f  ayette  yesterday  morning  at  his  house.  He  hopes 
you  will  not  follow  the  example  of  M.  de  Simiane  (the  husband  of 
the  beauty  of  that  name)  who  lately  put  an  end  to  himself  by  a 
coup  de  pistole t  at  Aix. 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  PrC  (DLC: 
Short  Papers).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  re- 
ceived 26  Mch.  1787  at  Aix-en-Pro- 
vence.  Enclosures:  In  addition  to  the 
three  from  Martha  (8  Mch.),  Madame 
de  Tott  (4  Mch.),  and  Madame  de 
Tesse  (11  Mch.),  Short  enclosed  the 
following  TWELVE  LETTERS  from  Adams 
(20  Feb.  and  1  Mch.),  Clerici  (5 
MchO,  Gordon  (20  Feb.),  Guichen  (7 
Mch.),  Jones  (25  Feb.),  Jones  (22 
Jan.),  Lavoisier  (S  Mch.),  St.  Paterne 
(3  Mch.),  Sir  John  Sinclair  (9  Mch.), 
Vaughan  (ca.  1  Mch.),  Warv511e  (8 
Mch.).  In  addition  to  these  fifteen  and 
the  present  covering"  letter,  TJ  also  re- 
ceived on  26  Mch.  at  Aix  one  from 
Petit  (17  Mch.)  and  another  from  Short 
(14  Mch.). 

For  the  TWO  IPASSEPORTS  (one  of 
•which  Short  enclosed  in  the  present 
letter),  see  TJ  to  Vergennes,  11  Feb. 
1787.  The  MAGNETS  were  sent  by 
Vaug-han  (see  Vaughan  to  TJ,  26  Jan. 
1787).  The  PARAGRAPH  nsr  MR.  SKEP- 
WTTBt's  LETTER  reads:  "I  must  urge  my 
most  aifectionate  Compliments  to  Mr. 
Jefferson,  with  information  that  his 

Daughter  and  the  family  of  Eppin^ton 
were  in  good  health.  I  have  lately  re- 
ceived a  letter  from  Mr,  Eppes  request- 
ing that  I  would  take  charge  of  his 
Daughter  on  a  passage  to  London, 
should  my  Intention  be  to  return  in 
the  Spring.  This  not  being  the  case  I 
have  recommended  a  mode  of  Convey- 
ance which  I  imagine  Mr.  Eppes  will 
approve  of,  and  that  is  to  entrust  her 
with  Capt.  Roberts  of  the  Judy  Ran- 
dolph.— This  Vessel  is  commodious  and 
safe  and  Roberts  is  an  exceeding  pru- 
dent, gentlemanly  Man.  Polly  will  of 
course  be  sent  to  the  particular  Care 
of  Colo.  Smith  or  Mr.  Adams,  -who  will 
no  doubt  have  an  Opportunity  of  con- 
veying her  in  some  eligible  way  to 
Paris."  Skipwith  enclosed  the  LIST  OF 
THE  ACTS  PASSEI>,  and  Short  evidently 
forwarded  the  same  list  in  the  present 
letter,  though  he  neglected  to  add 
another  bit  of  information  in  Skipwith's 
letter  that  would  have  interested  TJ: 
"They  have  also  voted  £6,OOO  towards 
compleating  the  Capitol,  to  be  raised 
out  of  what  they  call  the  2 

To  Parent 

MONSIEUR  &  Lyons  ce  13  me.  Mars.  1787* 

Quoique  Monsieur  de  la  Tour  nous  a  demande  pour  son  vin  de 
Monrachet  plus  que  nous  n'avions  attendu,  encore  je  me  propose 
de  prendre  une  feuillette  de  celui  de  Fannee  1782.  dont  nous  avons 
goutg  chez  lui  le  8me.  de  ce  mois,  au  prix  qu'il  nous  a  nomm6, 
c'est  a  dire  £.  275ft  pour  la  feuillette.  Vous  avez  bien  voulu  vous 
charger  de  ces  petites  commissions  pour  raoi.  Je  vous  prie  done 
Monsieur  d'en  acheter  une  de  ces  memes  feuillettes  tout  de  suite. 
Vous  aurez  la  bont€  de  tirer  sur  Messieurs  Finguerlin  et  Scherer 
banquiers  S.  Lyons  pour  le  montant  du  vin,  des  bouteilles,,  du 
transport  S.  Paris,  des  autres  petits  frais,  et  de  vos  propres  peines. 
Quand  vous  saurez  que  ces  Messieurs  auront  duement  pay6  la 
somme  pour  laquelle  vous  tirerez  sur  eux,  vous  aurez  la  bontg  de 
faire  mettre  le  vin  en  bouteilles,  et  de  le  faire  transporter  a  Paris 


13    MARCH    1787 

&  Padresse  de  Monsieur  Jefferson,  ministre  plenipotentiaire  des  etats 
unis  ffAmerique,  &  la  grille  des  champs  elysees,  a  Paris.  Mes  vins 
Octant  pas  sujets  &  payer  les  droits  d'entrSe  &  Paris,  il  faudra  que 
le  voiturier  les  depose  aux  bureaux  de  la  douane  de  Paris,  et  que 
vous  le  chargiez  en  arrivant,  d'en  avertir  Monsieur  Petit,  mon 
maitre  dTaotel,  &  fin  qu'il  aille  les  retirer  de  la  douane.  II  faudra 
encore,  pour  que  nous  soyons  plus  surs,  que  vous  ayez  la  bont€ 
d'ecrire  un  mot  par  poste  a  Monsieur  Petit,  pour  lui  avertir  du  jour 
que  le  vin  doit  arriver  S.  Paris,  et  de  la  voiture  qui  en  sera  chargS, 
et  de  lui  remettre  Pincluse  avec  votre  lettre.  Quoique  je  ne  serai 
pas  £  Paris  qu'au  mois  de  Mai  prochain,  meme  je  souhaite  que 
nous  nous  profitons  de  la  saison  favorable,  en  y  f aisant  transporter 
le  vin  tout  de  suite. 

Vous  avez  [eu  aussi]  la  bonte,  [Monsieur,  de  me  dire]  que  vous 
vous  chargeriez  de  me  faire  passer  des  ceps  de  vigne  &  Paris.  Je 
vous  en  prie  done  de  vouloir  bien  me  procurer  une  douzaine  de 
ceps  des  vignes  dont  on  fait  le  vin  de  Monrachet,  et  autant  de  celles 
du  vin  de  Vougeau,  ou  de  Chambertin.  Vous  aurez  bien  le  soin  de 
les  faire  tirer  de  ces  vignobles  vous  meme  &  fin  d^eviter  toute  pos- 
sibilitg  de  manquer  des  veritables  especes.  Vous  les  enverrez  par  la 
meme  voiture,  et  les  annoncerez  aussi  dans  votre  lettre  &  Mon- 
sieur Petit.  II  ne  faudra  pas  qu'ils  soient  laiss^s  si  la  douane,  mais 
que  le  voiturier  les  porte  chez  moi  &  Monsieur  Petit,  quand  il  ira 
Pavertir  de  I'arriv6e  du  vin.  Comme  je  me  propose  de  me 
profiter  de  vos  bonnes  offices  quand  f aurai  besoin  des  vins  de  la 
Bourgogne,  je  vous  prierai  de  vous  donner  la  peine  de  me  detailler 
par  ecrit  les  qualitgs  et  les  prix  de  ceux  de  Chambertin,  Vougeau, 
Romanic,  Veaune,  Nuys,  Beaune,  Pommard,  Voulenay,  Meursault 
et  Monrachet.  Je  vous  charge  de  cette  peine,  crainte  d'avoir  mal 
entendu  ce  que  vous  m'avez  deja  dit  ladessus,  et  qu^en  demandant 
de  ces  vins  ci-apr£s  je  pourrai  manquer  des  qualitgs  que  j'attendrois, 
sans  les  renseignemens  ulterieures  que  vous  etes  bien  dans  le  cas 
de  me  donner.  Je  crois  particulierement  que  vous  m'avez  dit  que  les 
vins  des  vignobles  qui  touchent  a  celles  de  Monrachet  sont  precise- 
ment  de  la  meme  qualitg  des  vins  de  Monrachet,  et  que  Ton  pour- 
roit  les  acheter  ^  beaucoup  meilleure  march6.  Dites  moi,  je  vous 
prie,  si  je  vous  aurai  bien  entendu,  et  si  Ton  pourroit  conter  ladessus. 

Voila,  Monsieur,  bien  de  la  peine,  Mais  je  souhaite  que  vous 
vous  en  dedommagerez  dans  Teffet  que  vous  tirerez  sur  Messrs. 
Finguerlin  et  Scherer.  Je  desire  que  vous  vous  contentiez,  et  je 
ne  crains  pas  de  me  remettre  £  vous-meme.  J'aurai  un  veritable 


14    MARCH    1787 

plaisir  &  trouver  des  occasions  de  vous  etre  utile  et  je  suis  avec 
bien  de  Pestime,  Monsieur,  votre  tres  humble  et  tres  obeissant 
serviteur,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC    (MHi);    at   foot   of   first   page:  Teuriet,  from  Saincaize;  that  lie  should 

"Monsieur    Parent,    maitre    tonnelier    a  be  paid  34  livres  1O  sols  and  not  more; 

Beaune,    fauxbourgs    Bretonniere."   En-  that  he   would   have   sent   vines   if   the 

closure:  Probably  TJ  to  Petit,  15  Mch.  season  had  not  been   so  far   advanced, 

1787    (missing);   but  see  TJ  to   Petit,  but  would,  send  some  in  October  (MHi). 

527  Mch,  1787  and  Short  to  TJ,  22  Mch.  Parent  made  no  mention  of  an  enclosure 

1787.  such   as  TJ  had   directed  him   to   send 

On    9    Apr.     1787    Parent    wrote    to  AVEC  VOTBE  LETTKE,  a  fact  which  may 

Petit  as  TJ  here  requests,  advising  him  explain  why  TJ's  letter  to  Petit  of   15 

that  the  wine  should  reach  Paris  on  17  Mch.  has  not  been  found, 
or  18  Apr.;  that  the  carrier's  name  was 

From  William  Short 

MY  DEAR  SIR  Paris  March  14.  1787 

In  my  letter  the  day  before  yesterday  I  mentioned  to  you  the 
progress  I  had  made  with  the  engraver.  Yesterday  his  part  of  the 
work  was  entirely  completed.  I  have  employed  him  to  have  250 
copies  taken  for  you,  not  knowing  any  better  mode  of  having  it 
done  as  you  left  no  directions  with  me  respecting  it.  He  enquired 
of  me  yesterday  if  I  was  charged  with  the  payment  of  these  mat- 
ters &c.  I  have  told  him  that  his  disbursements  for  the  paper  and 
striking  the  maps  should  be  refunded  him  immediately.  With 
respect  to  the  corrections  he  had  made  I  should  write  to  know 
your  intentions.  I  could  not  learn  from  him  what  would  be  his 
demand — the  nearest  I  could  get  to  it  was  "nous  arrangerons  cela 
quand  vous  aurez  des  nouvelles  de  M.  Jefferson.'* 

Young  Walton  has  come  to  Paris  and  purposes  sailing  on  this 
packet.  I  only  heard  of  it  this  morning  and  saw  him  to-day  for 
the  first  time. 

Pio  was  here  this  morning.  He  is  quite  unhappy  about  you  and 
cannot  concieve  that  you  are  in  existence  as  you  have  not  written 
since  your  departure.  He  is  the  more  uneasy  as  you  set  off  alone. 
He  has  figured  it  to  himself  as  a  most  daring  enterprise  and  thinks 
much  danger  is  to  [be]  apprehended  in  it.  A  thousand  accidents 
may  happen — "Ou  peut  tomber  malade  sur  la  route  enfin"  and  in 
such  a  case  what  could  a  man  do.  In  short  I  suppose  nothing  could 
bring  him  to  believe  himself  equal  to  such  an  undertaking.  Al- 
though I  have  not  the  same  alarms  with  Monsr*  de  Pio  yet  I  hope 
you  do  not  doubt  of  my  anxiety  to  hear  from  you,  and  my  desire 
to  know  that  you  recieve  the  wished  for  benefit  from  the  change 

IS    MARCH    1787 

of  air   For  be  assured  my  dear  Sir  no  body  can  be  more  attached 
to  your  health  and  happiness  than  Your  sincere  friend, 

3  W  SHORT 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  PrC   (DLC:   Short  Papers).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received 
26  Mch.  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence. 

To  Adrien  Petit 

ILyons,  IS  Mch.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  under  this  date.  Not  found; 
but  see  TJ  to  Petit,  27  Mch.;  TJ  to  Parent,  13  Mch.;  and  Short  to  TJ, 
22  Mch.  1787. 1 

To  William  Short 

DEAR  SIR  Lyons  Mar.  15.  1787. 

So  far  all  is  well.  No  complaints;  except  against  the  weather- 
maker,  who  has  pelted  me  with  rain,  hail,  and  snow,  almost  from 
the  moment  of  my  departure  to  my  arrival  here.  Now  and  then 
a  few  gleamings  of  sunshine  to  chear  me  by  the  way.  Such  is  this 
life:  and  such  too  will  be  the  next,  if  there  be  another,  and  we  may 
judge  of  the  future  by  the  past.  My  road  led  me  about  60  miles 
through  Champagne,  mostly  a  corn  country,  lying  in  large  hills 
of  the  colour  and  size  of  those  in  the  neighborhood  of  Elkhill.  The 
plains  of  the  Yonne  are  of  the  same  colour,  that  is  to  say,  a  brownish 
red;  a  singular  circumstance  to  me,  as  our  plains  on  the  water 
side  are  always  black  or  grey.  The  people  here  were  ill  clothed, 
and  looked  ill,  and  I  observed  the  women  performing  the  heavy 
labours  of  husbandry;  an  unequivocal  proof  of  extreme  poverty.  In 
Burgundy  and  Beaujolois  they  do  only  light  work  in  the  fellds, 
being  principally  occupied  within  doors.  In  these  counties  they 
were  well  clothed  and  appeared  to  be  well  fed.  Here  the  hills  be- 
come mountains,  larger  than  those  of  Champagne,  more  abrupt, 
more  red  and  stony.  I  passed  thro  about  180  miles  of  Burgundy; 
it  resembles  extremely  our  red  mountainous  country,  but  is  rather 
more  stony,  all  in  corn  and  vine.  I  mounted  a  bidet,  put  a  peasant 
on  another  and  rambled  thro'  their  most  celebrated  vineyards,  going 
into  the  houses  of  the  labourers,  cellars  of  the  Vignerons,  and  mix- 
ing and  conversing  with  them  as  much  as  I  could.  The  same  in 
Beaujolois,  where  nature  has  spread  it's  richest  gifts  in  profusion. 
On  the  right  we  had  fine  mountain  sides  lying  in  easy  slopes,  in 


15    MARCH    1787 

corn  and  vine,  and  on  the  left  the  rich  extensive  plains  of  the  Saone 
in  corn  and  pasture.  This  is  the  richest  country  I  ever  beheld.  I 
passed  some  time  at  the  Chateau  de  Laye  Epinaye,  a  seignory  of 
about  15,000  acres,  in  vine,  corn,  pasture  and  wood,  a  rich  and 
beautiful  scene.  I  was  entertained  by  Madame  de  Laye  with  a 
hospitality,  a  goodness  and  an  ease  which  was  charming-,  and  left 
her  with  regret.  I  beg  of  you  to  present  to  the  good  Abb€s  Chalut 
and  Arnoud  my  thanks  for  their  introduction  to  this  family:  indeed 
I  should  be  obliged  to  you  if  you  could  see  Monsr.  de  Laye  and 
express  to  him  how  sensible  I  am  of  my  obligation  to  him  for  the 
letter  to  Madame  de  Laye,  and  of  her  attention  and  civilities.  I 
have  been  much  indebted  here  too  for  the  letters  from  the  Abbes, 
tho'  the  shortness  of  my  stay  does  not  give  me  time  to  avail  myself 
of  all  their  effect.  A  constant  tempest  confined  me  to  the  house  the 
first  day:  the  second,  I  determined  to  see  every  thing  within  my 
plan  before  delivering  my  letters,  that  I  might  do  as  much,  in  as 
little  time,  as  possible.  The  third  and  fourth  have  been  filled  up 
with  all  the  attentions  they  would  admit,  and  I  am  now  on  the 
wing,  as  soon  as  this  letter  is  closed.  I  enter  into  these  details  be- 
cause they  are  necessary  to  justify  me  to  the  Abb£s  for  the  little 
time  I  had  left  to  profit  of  the  good  dispositions  of  their  friends.  Six 
or  seven  hundred  leagues  still  before  me,  and  circumscribed  in 
time,  I  am  obliged  to  hasten  my  movements.  I  have  not  visited  at 
all  the  manufactures  of  this  place:  because  a  knowlege  of  them 
would  be  useless,  and  would  extrude  from  the  memory  other 
things  more  worth  retaining.  Architecture,  painting,  sculpture, 
antiquities,  agriculture,  the  condition  of  the  labouring  poor  fill 
all  my  moments.  Hitherto  I  have  derived  as  much  satisfaction  and 
even  delight  from  my  journey  as  I  could  propose  to  myself.  The 
plan  of  having  servants  who  know  nothing  of  me,  places  me  per- 
fectly at  my  ease.  I  intended  to  have  taken  a  new  one  at  every 
principal  city,  to  have  carried  him  on  to  serve  me  on  the  road  to 
the  next  and  there  changed  him*  But  the  one  I  brought  forward 
from  Dijon  is  so  good  a  one  that  I  expect  to  keep  him  through  the 
greater  part  of  the  journey,  taking  additionally  a  valet  de  place 
wherever  I  stay  a  day  or  two.  You  shall  hear  from  me  from  Aix 
where  I  hope  to  meet  letters  from  you  giving  me  news  both  great 
and  small.  Present  me  affectionately  to  my  friends  and  more  par- 
ticularly to  Madame  de  Tessg  and  Madame  de  Tott:  and  accept 
assurances  of  my  perfect  esteem  &  friendship  to  yourself.  Adieu. 

RC     (ViW);    unsigned;    endorsed    in       18."  PrC  (DLC). 
part:    "Jefferson    March    15    [received]  On   trie    UETTERS    FROM    THE    ABBES 


17   MARCH    1787 

(not  found),  see  TJ  to  Arnoux  and  to  an  American,  as  in  that  country  they 

Chalut,   12  Apr.    1787,-Shortly   after  are  always  black  or  grey."  Short  also 

receiving  the  present  letter,  Short  wrote  informed  Madison    of   Lafayette's  pre- 

to   James    Madison:    "Mr.    Jefferson's  occupation    with   the    business    of  the 

absence  preventing  his  writing  to  you  Assembly  of  Notables  and  said  that  in 

by  this  Packet,  I  suppose  it  may  not  be  a   letter   just   received,   Lafayette  had 

disagreeable  to  you  to  hear  of  him  from  asked  him  **to  let  his  friends  in  America 

other  hands.  He  left  this  place  the  last  know  that  he  is  well— which  by  the  bye 

of  February,  in  order  to  see  whether  is  not  true";  and  that  his  preoccupation 

the  waters  of  Aix  would  be  of  service  to  with  business  prevented  his  writing  by 

his  wrist  put  out  of  place  some  months  the  favorable  opportunity  afforded  by 

ago,  and  I  fear  badly  set.  I  received  Walton.    Perhaps    remembering    Madi- 

a  letter  from  him  on  the  15th.  [sic]  son's  opinion  of  Lafayette  (see  notes  to 

when  he  had  got  as  far  as  Lyons.  He  Madison  to  TJ,  17  Oct.   1784),  Short 

was  much  pleased  with  his  journey  that  added:  "I  mention  this  circumstance  to 

far.  He  had  attended  very  particularly  you  Sir  because  I  know  there  are  none 

to  the  soil,  agriculture,  and  condition  of  his  friends  south  of  the  Potowmac, 

of  the  labouring  poor,  in  Champagne,  to  whom  he  is  more  attached  than  your- 

Btirgundy,  and  Beaujolois.  The  latter  self,   or  any  whose  correspondence  he 

he  considers  as  the  *richest  country'  he  values   more"    (Short   to   Madison,  23 

ever   beheld.— He   observed    in    Cham-  Mch.     1787 j     PrC     in     DLC:      Short 

pagne  that  the  low  grounds  were  of  a  Papers), 
brownish  red— a  singular  circumstance 

From  Adrian  Petit 

[Paris,  17  Mch.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  26  Mch.  1787  as  received  at 
Aix-en-Provence.  Not  found.] 

From  John  Ledyard 

SlR  St.  Petersbourg  March  19th.  1787 

It  will  be  one  of  the  remaining  pleasures  of  my  life  to  thank 
you  for  the  many  instances  of  your  friendship  to  me  and  wherever 
I  am  to  pursue  you  incessantly  with  the  tale  of  my  gratitude. 

If  Mr.  Barclay  should  be  at  Paris  let  him  rank  with  you  as  my 
next  friend:  I  hardly  know  how  to  estimate  the  goodness  of  the 
Marquis  la  Fayette  to  me,  but  I  think  a  french  nobleman  of  the 
first  character  in  his  country  never  did  more  to  serve  an  obscure 
citizen  of  another  than  the  Marquis  has  done  for  me:  and  I  am  as 
sure  that  it  is  impossible  (without  some  kind  of  soul  made  express 
for  the  purpose)  that  an  obscure  citizen  in  such  a  situation  can  be 
more  gratefull  than  I  am:  may  he  be  told  so  and  with  my  Compli- 
ments to  hs  Lady.  My  Compliments  wait  on  Mr.  Short,  Com- 
modore Jones  and  Colo.  Franks  if  at  Paris-with  thanks  for  their 
favours  also.  If  I  was  sure  Mr.  Barday  wag  ^  parig  l  ^^  ^ 

him,  for  no  man  less  acquainted  with  him  esteems  him  more  than 
1  do,  believing  verily  that  of  such  as  him  consisteth  the  kingdom 

1  9    MARCH    1787 

of  heaven.  I  cannot  tell  you  by  what  means  I  came  to  Petersbourg, 
and  hardly  know  by  what  means  I  shall  quit  it  in  the  further 
prossecution  of  my  tour  round  the  -world  by  Land:  if  I  have  any 
merit  in  the  affair  it  is  perseverence,  for  most  severely  have  I  been 
buffeted,  and  yet  still  am  I  even  more  obstinate  than  before — and 
fate  as  obstinate  continues  her  assaults.  How  the  matter  will 
terminate  I  know  not:  the  most  probable  Conjecture  is  that  I  shall 
Succeed,  and  be  kicked  round  the  world  as  I  have  hitherto  been 
from  England  thro  Denmark,  thro  Sweeden,  thro  Sweedish  lapland, 
Sweedish  finland  and  the  most  unfrequented  parts  of  Russian 
finland  to  this  Aurora  Borealis  of  a  City.  I  cannot  give  you  a  his- 
tory of  myself  since  I  saw  you,  or  since  I  wrote  you  last:  however 
abridged,  it  would  be  too  long:  upon  the  whole,  mankind  have 
used  me  well,  and  tho  I  have  as  yet  reached  only  the  first  stage 
of  my  journey,  I  feel  myself  much  indebted  to  that  urbanity  which 
I  always  thought  more  general  than  many  think  it  to  be,  and  was 
it  not  for  the  villianous  laws  and  bad  examples  of  some  Govern- 
ments I  have  passed  thro,  I  am  persuaded  that  I  should  have  been 
able  to  have  given  you  still  better  accounts  of  our  fellow  creatures. 

But  I  am  hastning  to  those  countries  where  goodness  if  natural 
to  the  human  heart  will  appear  independant  of  example  and  furnish 
an  Annecdote  of  the  character  of  man  not  unworthy  the  attention 
of  him  who  wrote  the  declaration  of  American  Independence. 

I  did  not  hear  of  the  death  of  Monsieur  de  Vergenes  untill  I 
arived  here.  Permit  me  to  express  my  regret  at  the  loss  of  so  great 
a  man  and  of  so  good  a  Man.  Permit  me  also  to  congratulate  you 
as  the  minister  of  my  Country  on  account  of  the  additional  com- 
mercial privileges  granted  by  france  to  america  and  to  send  you 
my  ardent  wishes  that  the  friendly  spirit  which  dictated  them  may 
last  forever:  I  was  extremely  pleased  at  reading  this  account,  and 
to  heighten  the  satisfaction  I  felt  I  found  the  name  of  la  Fayette 
there.  There  was  a  report  a  few  days  ago  of  which  I  have  heard 
nothing  since,1  that  the  french  ships  under  the  Command  Capt. 
Lapereux  had  arived  at  Kamchatka.  There  is  an  equipment  now  on 
foot  here  for  that  ocean  and  it  is  first  to  -visit  the  N.  W.  Coast  of 
America:  it  is  to  consist  of  four  ships.  This  and  the  equipment  that 
went  from  here  112  months  since  by  land  to  Kamchatka  are  to  coop- 
erate in  a  design  of  some  sort  in  the  northern  pacific  Ocean — the 
lord  knows  what — nor  does  it  matter  what  with  me — nor  need  it 
with  you,  or  any  other  Minister  or  any  Potentate  southward  of 
50°  of  Latitude.  I  can  only  say  that  you  are  in  no  danger  of  having 
the  luxurious  repose  of  your  charming  climates  disturbed  by  a 


19    MARCH    1787 

second  incursion  of  either  Goth  Vandal  Hun  or  Scythian.  I  dined  to 
day  with  Doctr.  Pallas  Professor  of  Natural  history  &c.  &c.—  an 
Accomplished  Sweed:  my  friend:  has  been  all  thro  European  and 
asiatic  Russia.  I  find  the  little  french  I  have  of  infinite  service  to 
me:  I  could  not  do  with  out  it.  It  is  a  most  extraordinary  language: 
I  believe  that  wolves,  rocks,  woods  and  snow  understand  it,  for 
I  have  addressed  them  in  it  and  they  have  all  been  very  complaisant 
to  me.2  But  I  dined  in  a  shirt  that  I  had  worn  four  days*  I  have  but 
tivo:  and  I  suppose  when  I  write  you  next  I  shall  have  none. 

We  had  a  Scythian  at  table  that  belongs  to  the  royal  society  of 
Physicians  here:  the  moment  the  savage  knew  me,  and  my  designs 
he  became  my  friend  and  it  will  be  by  his  generous  assistance 
joined  with  that  of  Doctr.  Pallas  that  I  shall  be  able  to  procure  a 
royal  passport  without  which  I  can  not  stir:  but  this  must  be  done 
thro  the  application  of  the  french  Minister  (there  being  no  Ameri- 
can one  here)  and  to  whose  secretary  I  shall  apply  with  Dr.  Pallas 
to  morrow:  and  beg  liberty  to  Make  use  of  your  name  and  the 
Marquis  la  f  ayettes  as  to  my  character.  As  all  my  Letters  of  recom- 
mendation have  been  English  and  as  I  have  been  hitherto  used  by 
them  with  the  greatest  kindness  and  respect  I  first  applied  to  the 
English  Embassy:  but  without  success:  the  ostensible  apology 
was  that  the  present  political  moment  between  England  and  Russia 
would  make  it  disagreeable  for  the  English  minister  to  ask  any 
favour:  but  I  saw  the  reason  —  the  true  reason  in  the  specula  of  the 
secretarys  eye  —  and  so  damn  his  eyes  —  which  in  this  case  particu- 
larly I  concieve  to  be  polite  language:  I  hate  ill  nature  and  pity  a 

Sir,  I  have  waited  on  the  Secretary  of  the  french  embassy  who 
will  dispatch  my  Letter  with  one  of  his  accompanying  it  to  the  Count 
Segur  to  morrow  morning.  I  will  endeavour  to  write  you  again 
before  I  leave  Petersbourg  and  give  you  some  further  accounts  of 
myself.-—  In  the  meantime  I  wish  you  health.  I  have  wrote  a  very 
short  Letter  to  the  Marquis.  Adieu! 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  respect  &  friendship  Sr.  Your  much 
obliged  &  most  obt.  &  most  hbl.  Servt.,  LEDYARD 

)va1^Sfd^and^end.°rSedi    Tr     (Mrs'    Jane    Ledyard    Remington, 
N.Y.,  1951).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  25  May  1787  at  Bordeaux, 

1  Preceding:  seven  words  are  not  in  Tr. 

2  This  and  preceding-  sentence  are  not  in  Tr 


From  James  Madison 

N.  York.  March  19th.  1787. 
was  of  the  15th.  of  Feby,  and  -went  by  the  packet.  This 

England  in  the  care  of  a  French,  gentleman  who  will 
to  the  care  of  Mr.  Adams* 

>ointments  for  the  Convention  go  on  auspiciously.  Since 
Borgia,  S.  Carolina,  N.  York,  Massts.  and  N.  Hampshire 

into  the  measure.  The  first  and  the  last  of  these  States 
lissioned  their  delegates  to  Congress,  as  their  representa- 
nvention.  The  deputation  of  Massts.  consists  of  Messrs. 
)ana.  King,  Gerry,  and  Strong.  That  of  N.  York,  Messrs. 

Yates  and  Lansing,  That  of  S.  Carolina,  Messrs.  J. 
Laurens,  Pinkney  (General)  Butler,  and  Chas.  Pinkney 
aber  of  Congress,  The  States  which  have  not  yet  ap- 
e  R.  Island,  Connecticut,  and  Maryland.  The  last  has 
sures  which  prove  her  intention  to  appoint,  and  the  two 
s  not  doubted  will  follow  the  example  of  their  neighbours, 
-n  from  the  Governor  of  Virginia  that  Mr.  Henry  has 
is  place  in  the  deputation  from  that  State,  and  that  Genl. 

put  into  it  by  the  Executive  who  were  authorised  to 
^es.  The  Governor,  Mr.  Wythe  and  Mr.  Blair  will  attend, 
hopes  are  entertained  of  Col.  Mason's  attendance.  Genl. 
Dn  has  prudently  authorised  no  expectations  of  his  at- 
but  has  not  either  precluded  himself  absolutely  from 
nto  the  field  if  the  crisis  should  demand  it.  What  may 
ult  of  this  political  experiment  cannot  be  foreseen.  The 

which  present  themselves  are  on  one  side  almost  suf- 
dismay  the  most  sanguine,  whilst  on  the  other  side  the 
L  are  compelled  to  encounter  them  by  the  mortal  diseases 
isting  constitution.  These  diseases  need  not  be  pointed 

who  so  well  understand  them.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  they1 
ssent  marked  by  symptoms  which  are  truly  alarming, 
e  tainted  the  faith  of  the  most  orthodox  republicans,  and 
illenge  from  the  votaries  of  liberty  every  concession  in 
table  Government  not  infringing  fundamental  principles, 
ly  security  against  an  opposite  extreme  of  our  present 

I  think  myself  that  it  will  be  expedient  in  the  first  place 
foundation  of  the  new  system  in  such  a  ratification  by  the 
^mselves  of  the  several  States  as  will  render  it  clearly 
t  to  their  Legislative  authorities.  2dly.  Over  and  above 

19    MARCH     1787 

the  positive  power  of  regulating  trade  and  sundry  other  matters 
in  which  uniformity  is  proper,  to  arm  the  federal  head  with  a 
negative  in  all  cases  -whatsoever  on  the  local  legislatures.  Without 
this  defensive  power  experience  and  reflection  have  satisfied  me 
that  however  ample  the  federal  powers  may  be  made,  or  however 
Clearly  their  boundaries  may  be  delineated,  on  paper,  they  will  be 
easily  and  continually  baffled  by  the  Legislative  sovereignties  of 
the  States.   The  effects   of  this  provision  would   be   not   only  to 
guard  the  national  rights  and  interests  against  invasion,  but  also 
to  restrain  the  States  from  thwarting  and  molesting  each  other, 
and  even  from  oppressing  the  minority  within  themselves  by  paper 
money  and  other  unrighteous  measures  which  favor  the  interest 
of  the  majority.  In  order  to  render  the  exercise  of  such  a  negative 
prerogative  convenient,  an  emanation  of  it  must  be  vested8  in  some 
set  of  men  within  the  several  States  so  far  as  to  enable  them  to 
give  a  temporary  sanction  to  laws  of  immediate  necessity.4  Sdly, 
to  change  the  principle  of  Representation  in  the  federal  system. 
Whilst  the  execution  of  the  Acts   of  Congress   depends   on  the 
several  legislatures,  the  equality  of  votes  does  not  destroy  the  in- 
equality of  importance  and  influence  in  the  States,  But  in  case  of 
such  an  augmentation  of  the  federal  power  as  will  render  it  efficient 
without  the  intervention  of  the  Legislatures,  a  vote  in  the  general 
Councils  from  Delaware  would  be  of  equal  value  with  one  from 
Massts.  or  Virginia.  This  change  therefore  is  just.  I  think  also 
it  will  be  practicable.5  A  majority  of  the  States  concieve  that  they 
will  be  gainers  by  it,  It  is  recommended  to  the  Eastern  States  by 
the  actual  superiority  of  their  populousness,  and  to  the  Southern  by 
their  expected  superiority.  And  if  a  majority  of  the  larger  States 
concur,  the  fewer  and  smaller  States  must  finally  bend  to  them. 
This  point  being  gained,  many  of  the  objections  now  urged  in  the 
leading  States  against  renunciations  of  power  will  vanish.  4thly. 
to  organise  the  federal  powers  in  such  a  manner  as  not  to  blend 
together  those  which  ought  to  be  exercised  by  separate   depart- 
ments. The  limited  powers  now  vested  in  Congress  are  frequently 
mismanaged  from  the  want  of  such  a  distribution  of  them.  What 
would  be  the  case,  under  an  enlargement  not  only  of  the  powers, 
but  the  number,  of  the  federal  Representatives?— These  are  some  of 
the  leading  ideas  which  have  occurred  to  me,  but  which  may  appear 
to  others  as  improper,  as  they  appear  to  me  necessary. 

Congress  have  continued  so  thin  as  to  be  incompetent  to  the 
despatch  of  the  more  important  business  before  them.  We  have 


19    MARCH    1787 

at  present  nine  States   and  it  is  not  improbable  that  something 
may  now  be  done.  The  report  o£  Mr.  Jay  on  the  mutual  violations 
of  the  Treaty  of  peace  will  be   among  the   first  subjects  of  de- 
liberation.6 He  favors7  the  British  claim  oj  interest  but  refers  the 
question  to  the  court.  The  amount  of  the  report  -which  is  an  able 
one  is  that  the  treaty  should  be  put  in  force  as   a  law  and  the 
exposition  of  it  left  like  that  of  other  laws  to  the  ordinary  tribunals. 
The  Spanish  project  sleeps.  A  perusal  of  the  attempt  of  se-oen 
states  to  make  a  netv  treaty  by  repealing  an  essential  condition  of 
the   old  satisfied  me  that  Mr.  Jay^s   caution  would  revolt  at  so 
irregular  a  sanction.  A  late  accidental  conversation  with  Guardoqui 
proved  to  me  that  the  negociation  is  arrested.  It  may  appear  strange 
that  a  member  of  Congress  should  be  indebted  to  a  foreign  minister 
for  such  information.   Tet  such  is  the  footing  on  -which  the  in- 
temperance of  party  has  put  the  matter  that  it  rests  wholly  with 
Mr.  Jay  how  far  he  will  communicate  -with  Congress  as  well  as 
ho-w  far  he  -will  negociate  -with  Guardoqui.  But  although  it  appears 
that  the  intended  sacrifice  of  the  Missisipi  will  not  be  made,  the 
consequences  of  the  intention  and  the  attempt  are  likely  to  be  very 
serious.  I  have  already  made  known  to  you  the  light  in  which  the 
subject  was  taken  up  by  Virginia.  Mr.  Henry's  disgust  exceeded 
all  measure    and  I   am  not  singular  in   ascribing  his   refusal  to 
attend  the   Convention  to  the  policy  of  keeping  himself  free  to 
combat  or  espouse  the  result  oj  it  according  to  the  result  of  the 
Missisipi    business    among    other    circumstances.    North    Carolina 
also  has  given  pointed  instructions  to  her  delegates.  So  has  New 
Jersey.  A  proposition  for  the  like  purpose  was  a  jetv  days  ago 
made  in  the  legislature  of  Pennsylvania  but  went  off  without  a 
decision    on    its    merits.    Her   delegates   in   Congress   are    equally 
divided  on  the  subject.   The  tendency  of  this  project  to  foment 
distrusts  among  the  Atlantic  states  at  a  crisis  -when  harmony  and 
confidence  ought  to  have  been  studiously  cherished  has  not  been 
more  -verified  than   [by]   its  predicted  effect  on  the  ultra-montane 
settlements.  I  have  credible  information  that  the  people  Irving  on 
the  Western  -waters  are  already  in  great  agitation  and  are  taking 
measures,    for   uniting    their   consultations.    The   ambition   of   in- 
dividuals will  quickly  mix  itself  with  the  original  motives  of  re- 
sentment  and  interest.  A  communication  -will  gradually  take  place 
-with  their  British  neighbors.  They  will  be  led  to  set  up  for  them- 
selves, to  seise  on  the  -vacant  lands,  to  entice  [emigrants]8  by  boun- 
ties^ and  an  exemption  from  federal  burdens,  and  in  all  respects 
to  play  the  part  of  Vermont  on  a  larger  theatre.  It  is  hinted  to  me 


19    MARCH    1787 

that  British  partisans  are  already  feeling  the  pulse  of  some  of  the 
Western  settlements.  Should  these  apprehensions  not  be  imaginary 
Spain  may  have  equal  reason  with  the  United  States  to  rue  the 
unnatural  attempt  to  shut  the  Missisipi.  Guardoqui  has  been  ad- 
monished of  the  danger  and  I  believe  is  not  Insensible  to  it  the?  he 
affects  to  be  otherwise  and  talks  as  if  the  dependance  of  Britain  on 
the  commercial  favors  oj  his  court  would  induce  her  to  play  into 
the  hands  of  Spain.  The  eye  of  France  also  can  not  Jail  to  -watch 
over  the  Western  prospects.  I  learn  from  those  who  confer  here 
-with  Otto  and  de  la  forest  that  they  favor  the  opening  oj  the  Mis- 
sisipi disclaim  [ing]8  at  the  same  time  any  authority  to  speak  the 
sentiments  of  their  court.  I  find  that  the  Virginia  delegates  during 
the  Missisipi  discussions  last  fall  entered  into  -very  confidential 
interviews  -with  these  gentlemen*  In  one  of  them  the  idea  -was  com- 
municated to  Otto  of  opening  the  Missisipi  for  exports  but  not 
for  imports  and  of  giving  to  France  and  Spain  some  exclusive 
privileges  in  the  trade.  He  promised  to  transmit  it  to  Vergennes  to 
obtain  his  sentiments  on  the  whole  matter  and  to  communicate 
them  to  the  delegates.  Not  long  since  Grayson  called  on  him  and 
revived  the  subject.  He  assured  G  that  he  had  recieved  no 

answer  [from]8  France  and  signified  his  -wish  that  you  might  pump 
the  count  de  Vergennes  observing  that  he  -would  deny  to  you  his 
h&ving  recieved  any  information  from  America.9  I  discover  thro 
several  channels  that  it  -would  be  very  grateful  to  the  French  poli- 
ticians here  to  see  our  negociations  "with  Spain  shifted  into  your 
hands  and  carried  on  under  the  mediating  auspices  of  their  court. 

Van  Berkel  has  remonstrated  against  the  late  acts  of  Virginia 
giving  privileges  to  French  wines  and  brandies  in  French  bottoms^ 
contending  that  the  Dutch  are  entitled  by  their  treaty  to  equal 
exemptions  with  the  most  favored  nation  without  being  subject  to 
a  compensation  for  them.  Mr.  Jay  has  reported  against  this  con- 
struction but  considers  the  act  of  Virginia  as  violating  the  treaty. 
First  because  it  appears  to  be  gratuitous,  not  compensatory  on  the 
face  of  it.  Secondly  because  the  states  have  no  right  to  form  tacit 
compacts  with  foreign  nations.  No  decision  of  Congress  has  yet 
taken  place  on  the  subject. 

The  expedition  under  General  Lincoln  against  the  insurgents 
has  effectually  succeeded  in  dispersing  them*  "Whether  the  calm 
which  he  has  restored  will  be  durable  or  not  is  uncertain.  From 
the  precautions  taking  by  the  Government  of  Massts.  it  would 
seem  as  if  their  apprehensions  were  not  extinguished.  Besides 
disarming  and  disfranchising^  for  a  limited  time  those  who  have 


1  9    MARCH     1787 

been  in  arms,  as  a  condition  of  their  pardon,  a  military  corps  is 
to  be  raised  to  the  amount  of  1000,  or  1500  men,  and  to  be  sta- 
tioned in  the  most  suspected  districts.  It  is  said  that  notwithstand- 
ing these  specimens  of  the  temper  of  the  Government,  a  great 
proportion  of  the  offenders  chuse  rather  to  risk  the  consequences  of 
their  treason,  than  submit  to  the  conditions  annexed  to  the 
amnesty,  that  they  not  only  appear  openly  on  public  occasions  but 
distinguish  themselves  by  badges  of  their  character,  and  that  this 
insolence  is  in  many  instances  countenanced  by  no  less  decisive 
marks  of  popular  favor  than  elections  to  local  offices  of  trust  and 

A  proposition  is  before  the  Legislature  of  this  State  now  sitting 
for  renouncing  its  pretensions  to  Vermont,  and  urging  the  ad- 
mission of  it  into  the  Confederacy.  The  different  parties  are  not 
agreed  as  to  the  form  in  which  the  renunciation  should  be  made, 
but  are  likely  to  agree  as  to  the  substance.  Should  the  offer  be 
made,  and  Vermont  should  not  reject  it  altogether  I  think  they  will 
insist  on  two  stipulations  at  least,  1st.  that  their  becoming  parties 
to  the  Confederation  shall  not  subject  their  boundaries,  or  the 
rights  of  their  citizens  to  be  questioned  under  the  9th.  art:  2dly. 
that  they  shall  not  be  subject  to  any  part  of  the  public  debts  already 

The  Geographer  and  his  assistants  have  returned  surveys  on 
the  federal  lands  to  the  amount  of  about  8OO,OOO  acres  which  it 
is  supposed  would  sell  pretty  readily  for  public  securities,  and 
some  of  it  lying  on  the  Ohio  even  for  specie.  It  will  be  difficult  how- 
ever to  get  the*2  proper  steps  taken  by  Congress,  so  many  of  the 
states  having  now  lands  of  their  awn  at  marklet]*  It  is  supposed 
that  this  consideration  had  some  share  in  the  zeal  for  shutting  the 
Missisipi.  Ne*w  Jersey  and  some  others  having  no  -western  land 
which  favored  this  measure  begin  now  to  penetrate  the  secret. 

A  letter  from  the  Governor  of  Virga.  informs  me  that  the 
project  of  paper  money  is  beginning  to  recover  from  the  blow 
given  it  at  the  last  Session  of  the  Legislature.  //  Mr.  Henry13 
espouses  it  of  -which  there  is  little  doubt  I  think  an  emission  "will 
take  place.  The  Governor  mentioned  the  death  of  CoL  A.  Gary 
Speaker  of  the  Senate. 

This  letter  will  be  accompanied  by  another  inclosing  a  few 
Peccan  nuts.  When  I  sent  the  latter  to  the  Gentleman  who  is 
charged  with  it,  I  doubted  whether  I  should  be  able  to  finish  this 
in  time,  and  I  only  succeed  by  having  written  to  the  last  moment. 
Adieu.  Yrs.  Afy.,  Js.  MADISON  JR 

£223  } 

19    MARCH    1787 

RC  (DLC:  Madison  Papers);  en- 
dorsedj  partly  in  code.  Tr  (VitT);  ex- 
tract,  partly  in  the  hand  of  N.  P.  Trist 
and  partly  in  an  unidentified  hand;  en- 
dorsed: "Madison,  James  N.Y.  Mar.  19. 
1787.  To  Thomas  Jefferson.  Copied 
from  the  original  at  Montpellier,  for, 
and  compared  by,  N.  P.  Trist  Oct.  1. 
1834."  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  16 
June  1787  at  Paris. 

TION with  Gardoqui,  as  shown  by  Madi- 
son's lengthy  memorandum  on  it,  took 
place  on  13  Mch.  1787.  Madison  wrote: 
"Called  with  Mr.  Bingham  to-day  on 
Mr.  Guardoqui,  and  had  a  long  conver- 
sation touching:  the  Western  ^  country, 
the  navigation  of  the  Mississippi,  and 
commerce,  as  these  objects  relate  to 
Spain  and  the  United  States,  Mr,  Bing- 
ham  opened  the  conversation  with 
intimating'  that  there  was  reason  to 
believe  the  Western  people  were  exceed- 
ingly alarmed  at  the  idea  of  the  pro- 
jected treaty  which  was  to  shut  up  the 
Mississippi,  and  were  forming  commit- 
tees of  correspondence,  Sec.,  for  uniting 
their  councils  and  interests.  Mr.  Gardo- 
qui,  with  some  perturbation,  replied, 
that  .  .  .  they  mistook  their  inter- 
est. .  .  ,n  (H,  D.  Gilpin,  ed.,  Papers  of 
James  Madison*  n,  590-1.)  The  conver- 
sation was  not  only  long,  but  ranged 
over  all  aspects  of  the  Mississippi  ques- 
tion. Gardoqui  regretted  the  Virginia 
resolutions,  and  said  that  troops  and 
stores  would  certainly  be  sent  to  rein- 
force New  Orleans  in  consequence;  he 
said  that  he  **had  not  conferred  at  all 
with  the  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs 
since  October,  and  did  not  expect  to 
confer  again."  There  followed  a  long 
discussion  of  riparian  rights  under  inter- 
national law,  and  Gardoqui  "was  re- 
minded of  the  doctrine  maintained  by 
Spain  in  16O8,  as  to  the  Scheldt." 
Madison's  memorandum  concluded: 
*6When  we  rose  to  take  leave,  he  begged 
us  to  remember  what  he  had  said  as 
to  the  inflexibility  of  Spain  on  the  point 
of  the  Mississippi,  and  the  consequences 
to  America  of  her  adherence  to  her 
present  pretensions"  (same,  p.  592-4). 
If,  as  Madison  endeavored  to  convey  to 
TJ,  it  was  strange  that  A  MEMBER  OF 

TION, his  own  memorandum  of  the 
conversation  proves  that,  if  this  was  a 


so  also  was  the  interference  of  mem- 
bers of  Congress  in  matters  properly 
under  the  direction  of  the  secretary  for 

foreign  affairs.  For  the  conversation 
with  Gardoqui  was  scarcely  ACCIDEN- 
TAL, as  proved  by  Madison's  memoran- 
dums it  was  a  part  of  the  pattern  by 
which  delegates  in  Congress,  particu- 
larly those  from  Virginia,  had  been 
for  some  time  carrying  on  VERY  CON- 
DE  LA  FOREST  in  an  effort  to  enlist  Ver- 
gennes'  protection  and  influence  in  the 
conduct  of  negotiations  with  Spain,  an 
object  which  Madison  here  supported 
by  transmitting  the  suggestion  that  TJ 

MIGHT      FUMIP      THE      COUNT      DE      VER- 

GENNES.  See  note  to  TJ  to  Ramsay,  27 
Oct.  1786,  and  note  to  Otto  to  TJ,  14 
Feb.  1787.— On  2O  June  1787  TJ  ac- 
knowledged the  receipt  of  two  letters 
from  Madison  of  18  and  19  Mch.  1787, 
which  led  Gaillard  Hunt  into  the  error 
of  supposing  that  two  different  extracts 
from  the  present  letter  as  printed  by 
Gilpin,  Papers  of  Madison,  n,  622-7, 
and  in  Letters  and  Other  Writings  of 
James  Madison^  I,  284-6,  -were  in  fact 
separate  letters;  Hunt  therefore  printed 
them  separately  and  assigned  to  the 
latter  (which  embraced  the  first  two 
paragraphs  of  the  present  letter)  the 
date  of  "March  19th  [18th],  1787" 
(Madison,  Writings^  ed.  Hunt,  n,  324-8, 
328-33);  the  extract  published  by  Gil- 
pin  includes  almost  all  of  the  present 
text  not  hi  Letters,  but  omits  the  final 
paragraph  in  which  Madison  stated 

PANIED BY  ANOTHER.  This  other  letter, 
as  shown  by  TJ's  acknowledgment  and 
by  the  entry  in  sjx,  under  16  June 
reading  "Madison  Jas.  N.Y.  Mar.  19.— 
18  (with  Paccans),"  was  actually  dated 
18  Mch.  1787.  It  was  probably  only  a 
note  written  to  accompany  the  few 
pecans  sealed  up  in  it  (see  Madison  to 
TJ,  6  June  1787);  it  has  not  been 

1  At  this    point   Madison   deleted  the 
following:    "have    proceeded   to   such   a 

2  This  word  in  Tr  is  keyed  to  a  mar- 
ginal note  in  Trist's  hand,  which  reads: 
"That  is  to  say,  Monarchy.  This  is  the 
obvious  meaning.  Moreover,  in  reading 
the   letter   to   me    to-day,   Mr.    Madison 
made    a    parenthetical    remark    to    that 
effect.  N.P.T.  Montpellier  Oct.  2.   '34." 

s  Madison  deleted  "somewhere"  at 
this  point. 

*  This  sentence  in  Tr  is  keyed  to  a 
marginal  note  in  Trist's  hand,  -which 
reads:  "In  reading  this  Mr.  Madison 
paused  here;  and  said  he  had  subse- 


1  9    MARCH     1787 

quently  satisfied  Himself  that  there 
would  be  difficulties,  perhaps  insuper- 
able, in  reducing-  this  idea  to  practice." 

s  Tr  ends  at  this  point,  begins  with 
the  first  sentence  of  this  paragraph, 
and  omits  all  of  the  passage  reading 
"The  first  and  the  last  of  these  States 
,  .  .  but  has  not  either  precluded  himself 
absolutely  from  stepping-  into  the  field 
if  the  crisis  should  demand  it,"  an  omis- 
sion accompanied  by  the  following1  note 
in  Tr:  "(Here  follow  details  about  the 
elections  and  members}." 

s  At  this  point  Madison  deleted  a 
sentence  which  seems  to  read:  "He 
favors  the  claim  of  interest  [.  .  .]."  This 
was  evidently  done  contemporaneously, 
for  Madison  then  decided  to  put  the 
statement  in  code. 

7  This  and  the  following-  words  in 
italics,  unless  otherwise  noted,  are  writ- 
ten in  code  and  most  of  them  were 
decoded  interlineally  by  TJ.  However, 
TJ  occasionally  failed  to  write  down  the 
decoding  of  familiar  symbols  (for 
example,  he  omitted  the  phrase  46in 
Congress")  and  Madison,  late  in  life 
when  he  had  received  his  letters  back 
from  Monticello  after  TJ's  death,  sup- 
plied the  missing  -words  so  as  to  com- 
plete the  decoding-;  see  the  following 
notes  for  other  changes  by  Madison. 

Their  decoding  has  been  verified  by  the 
editors,  employing  Code  No.  9. 

s  The  text  in  brackets  (supplied) 
was  inserted  interlineally  by  Madison 
late  in  life;  he  had  omitted  both  the 
text  and  the  corresponding  code  sym- 
bols, though  TJ  could  easily  understand 
from  the  context  what  the  -writer  in- 
tended. In  one  instance  ("from"  before 
'Trance")  Madison  rectified  the  omis- 
sion by  writing-  the  word  above  a  code 
symbol  as  if  the  two  corresponded, 
whereas  they  were  wholly  unrelated. 

s  The  preceding  fourteen  words  are 
underscored  in  MS;  they  are  also  in 
code  and  were  decoded  interiineally  by 

10  The    words    <cin    French    bottoms" 
are  underscored  in  MS;  they  are  also  in 
code  and  were  decoded  interlineally  by 

11  This  word  underscored  in  MS,  but 
not  written  in  code. 

12  Neither  TJ   nor  Madison   decoded 
the    symbol     for    this    word,    Madison 
evidently    preferring    to    have    the    text 
read   as   if  the   article  had  been  inten- 
tionally  omitted. 

is  Madison  wrote  only  the  symbol  for 
"H"  and  TJ  so  decoded  it,  but  late  in 
life  Madison  completed  the  name 

To  Jose  da  Maia 

Nismes  19me.  Mars 

Je  profile  Monsieur  du  moment  de  mon  arrivee  £l  Nismes  pour 
vous  en  faire  part.  Je  resterai  ici  3.  ou  4.  jours,  apr6s  lesquels  je 
partirai  pour  Avig[non],  Marseilles],  &c.  Pen  serais  enchant^ 
si  ce  rapprochement  de  vous  me  donnera  le  moyen  de  vous  voir  ici. 
Dans  ce  cas  ayez  la  bont£  de  demander  seulement  le  Voyageur 
etranger  qui  est  arriv6  d'aujourdhui.  C'est  en  simple  particulier 
que  je  m'annonce  et  qu'on  me  connoit.  Peutetre  que  vous  trouverez 
commode  de  vous  loger  dans  le  meme  hotel.  Ce  me  sera  d'autant 
plus  agreable  qu'il  me  mettra  plus  a  portee  de  m'entretenir  avec 
vous  et  de  vous  assurer  des  sentiments  &c. 

Dft  (ViWC);  without  indication  of  In  TJ*s  list  of  names  and  addresses 
addressee  or  the  year;  with  numerous  of  persons  he  "wished  to  see  or  consult 

on  Ms  journey  (CSmH),  there  is  an 
entry  reading:  *eMontpelier.  M.  Maya, 
chez  M.  Franc  a  la  petite  Ste.  Anne." 
See  TJ  to  Jay,  4  May  1787. 

abbreviations  and  some  deletions;  on 
margin  TJ  wrote:  "que  vous  trouverez 
necessaires  M.  21.9bre."—  a  phrase 
taken  from  Da  Maia's  letter  to  TJ  of 
21  Nov.  1786.  Not  recorded  in  SJL. 


To  Madame  de  Tesse 

Nismes.  Mar.  2O.  1787. 

Here  I  am,  Madam,  gazing  whole  hours  at  the  Maison  quarrge, 
like  a  lover  at  his  mistress.  The  stocking-weavers  and  silk  spinners 
around  it  consider  me   as   an  hypochondriac  Englishman,   about 
to  write  with  a  pistol  the  last  chapter  of  his  history-  This  is  the 
second  time  I  have  been  in  love  since  I  left  Paris.  The  first  was  with 
a  Diana  at  the  Chateau  de  Laye  Kpinaye  in  the  Beaujolois,  a 
delicious  morsel  of  sculpture,  by  Michael  Angelo  Slodtz.   This, 
you  will  say,  was  in  rule,  to  fall  in  love  with  a  fine  woman:1  but, 
with  a  house!  It  is  out  of  all  precedent!  No,  madam,  it  is  not  with- 
out a  precedent  in  my  own  history.  While  at  Paris,  I  was  violently 
smitten  with  the  hotel  de  Salm,  and  used  to  go  to  the  Thuileries 
almost  daily  to  look  at  it.  The  loueuse  des  chaises,  inattentive  to 
my  passion,  never  had  the  complaisance  to  place   a  chair  there; 
so  that,  sitting  on  the  parapet,  and  twisting  my  neck  round  to  see 
the  object  of  my  admiration,  I  generally  left  it  with  a  torticollis. 
From  Lyons  to  Nismes  I  have  been  nourished  with  the  remains  of 
Roman  grandeur.  They  have  always  brought  you  to  my  mind, 
because  I  know  your  affection  for  whatever  is  Roman  and  noble. 
At  Vienne  I  thought  of  you.  But  I  am  glad  you  were  not  there; 
for  you  would  have  seen  me  more  angry  than  I  hope  you  will  ever 
see  me-  The  Pretorian  palace,  as  it  is  called,  comparable  for  it's 
fine  proportions  to  the  Maison  quarrge,  totally  defaced  by  the  Bar- 
barians who  have  converted  it  to  it's  present  purpose;  it's  beautiful, 
fluted,  Corinthian  columns  cut  out  in  part  to  make  space  for  Gothic 
windows,   and  hewed   down   in  the  residue  to  the   plane   of  the 
building.  At  Orange  too  I  thought  of  you.  I  was  sure  you  had  seen 
with  rapture2  the  sublime  triumphal  arch3  at  the  entrance  into  the 
city.  I  went  then  to  the  Arenas.  Would  you  believe  Madam,  that 
in   [this   18th.   centurly,*  in   France,   und[er   the   reign   of   Louis 
XVI,  they]  are  [at  this  mo]ment  pulling  down  the  circular  wall 
of  this  superb  remain  [to  pave  a  ro]ad?  And  that  too  from  a  hill 
which  is  itself  an  entire  mass  of  stone  just  as  fit,  and  more  accessi- 
ble. A  former  Intendant,  a  Monsr.  de  Baville  has   rendered  his 
memory  dear  to  travellers  and  amateurs  by  the  pains  he  took  to 
preserve  and  to  restore  these  monuments  of  antiquity.  The  present 
one  (I  do  not  know  who  he  is)  is  demolishing  the  object  to  make 
a  good  road  to  it.  I  thought  of  you  again,  and  I  was  then  in  great 
good  humour,  at  the  Pont  du  Gard,  a  sublime  antiquity,  and  [well] 

20    MARCH    1787 

preserved.  But  most  of  all  here,  where  Roman  taste,  genius,  and 
magnificence  excite  ideas  analogous  to  yours  at  every  step,  I  could 
no  longer  oppose  the  inclination  to  avail  myself  of  your  permission 
to  write  to  you,  a  permission  given  with  too  much  complaisance  by 
you,    taken    advantage    of   with   too    much    indiscretion    by    me.5 
Madame  de  Tott  too  did  me  the  same  honour.  But  she  being  only 
the  descendant  of  some  of  those  puny  heroes  who  boiled  their 
own  kettles  before  the  walls  of  Troy,  I  shall  write  to  her  from  a 
Graecian,  rather  than  a  Roman  canton;  when  I  shall  find  myself 
for  example  among  her  Phocean  relations  at  Marseilles.  Loving, 
as  you  do  Madam,  the  precious  remains  of  antiquity,  loving  archi- 
tecture, gardening,  a  warm  sun,  and  a  clear  sky,  I  wonder  you  have 
never   thought   of  moving    Chaville   to   Nismes.   This   is   not   so 
impracticable  as  you  may  think*  The  next  time  a  Surintendant  des 
bailments  du  roi,  after  the  example  of  M,  Colbert,  sends  persons 
to  Nismes  to  move  the  Maison  [Car]ree  to  Paris,  that  they  may 
not  come  empty-handed,  desire  them  to  bring  Chaville  with  them 
to  replace  it.  A  propos  of  Paris.  I  have  now  been  three  weeks  from 
there  without  knowing  any  thing  of  what  has  past.  I  suppose  I 
shall  meet  it  all  [at  Aix,  where]  I  have  directed  my  letters  to  be 
lodged  poste  restante.  My  journey  has  given  me  leisure  to  reflect 
on  this  Assemble  des  Notables.  Under  a  good  and  young  king 
as  the  present,  I  think  good  may  be  mfade  of  it.]  I  would  have  the 
deputies  then  by  all  means  so  conduct  themselves  as  [to  encorage] 
him  to  repeat  the  calls  of  this  assembly.  Their  first  step  should 
be  to  get  th[emselves]  divided  into  two  chambers,  instead  of  seven, 
the  Noblesse  and  the  commons  separately.  The  2d.  to  persuade  the 
king,  instead  of  chusing  the  deputies  of  the  commons  himself,  to 
summon  those  chosen  by  the  people  for  the  Provincial  administra- 
tions. The  3d.  as  the  Noblesse  is  too  numerous  to  be  all  admitted 
into  the  assemble,6  to  obtain  permission  for  that  body  to  chuse  it's 
own  deputies.  The  rest  would  follow.7  Two  houses  so  elected  would 
contain  a  mass  of  wisdom  which  would  make  the  people  happy, 
and  the  king  great;  would  place  him  in  history  where  no  other  act 
can  possibly  place  him.  This  is  my  plan  Madam;  but  I  wish  to 
know  yours,  which  I  am  sure  is  better.8 

[From  a  correspondent  at  N]ismes  you  will  not  expect  news. 
Were  I  [to  attempt  to  give  you  news,  I  shoul]d  tell  you  stories  a 
thousand  years  old.  [I  should  detail  to  you  the  intrigue]s  of  the 
courts  of  the  Caesars,  how  they  [affect  us  here,  the  oppressions  of 
their]  Praetors,  Praefects  &c.  I  am  immersed  [in  antiquities  from 
morning  to  night].  For  me  the  city  of  Rome  is  actually  [existing 

2  1    MARCH     1787 

in  all  the  splendor  of  it's]  empire.  I  am  filled  with  alarms  for  [the 
event  of  the  irruptions  dayly  m]aking  on  us  by  the  Goths,  Ostro- 
goths, [Visigoths  and  Vandals,  lest  they  shouljd  reconquer  us  to 
our  original  bar[barism.  If  I  am  sometimes  ind]uced  to  look  for- 
ward to  the  eighteenth  [century,  it  is  only  when  recalled]  to  it  by 
the  recollection  of  your  goodness  [and  friendship,  and  by  those 
sentiments  of]  sincere  esteem  and  respect  with  which  [I  have  the 
honor  to  be,  Madam,  your]  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servant, 


PrC  of  first  page  (MHi).  PrC  of 
second  and  third  pages  (MoSHi)j  en- 
dorsed by  TJ:  "Tessg  Mar.20.87";  MS 
is  worn  and  faded,  with  lower  left 
quarter  of  third  page  missing.  Tr 
(DLC);  in  TJ's  hand,  differing-  some- 
what in  phraseology,  as  indicated  below; 
words  for  the  missing  or  illegible  parts 
of  PrC  have  been  supplied  from  Tr. 
The  exact  date  at  which  TJ  made  this 
copy,  or  the  purpose  for  which  it  was 
made,  is  not  certain;  however,  it  is  to 
be  noted  that  he  also  made  a  Tr  of  the 
letter  to  Madame  de  Tott  of  5  Apr. 
1787;  both  of  these  copies  are  on  very 
similar  paper — probably  having  been, 
in  fact,  parts  of  the  same  folio  sheet — 
and,  since  the  paper  on  which  the  Tr 
of  the  letter  to  Madame  de  Tott  was 
written  bears  the  watermark  "R  BAR- 
NARD 1809,""  both  copies  were  written 
sometime  between  1809  and  1826  and 
both  were  evidently  written  at  the  same 
time.  From  this  it  is  clear  that  TJ 
sought  to  "improve"  his  text  with  some 
particular  purpose  in  mind. 

*  Tr  reads  instead:    'female  beauty." 
2  Tr  reads  instead:    "pleasure." 

3  Tr  adds  at  this  point:   "of  Marius." 

4  The    text    in     this     and    succeeding 
brackets     (supplied)     is    either    illegible 
or    missing    from    PrC     and    lias    been 
taken   from    Tr. 

s  Instead  of  the  preceding*  nine  "words, 
Tr  reads:  "and  used  by  me  -with  too 
much  indiscretion." 

a  Instead  of  the  preceding-  four  words> 
Tr  reads:  "of  the  assembled." 

T  This  sentence  is  not  in  Tr. 

s  At  this  point  and  in  place  of  this 
sentence,  TJ  inserted  the  following  in 
Tr:  "They  would  thus  {place}  put  them- 
selves in  the  track  of  the  best  guide 
they  can  follow,  they  would  soon  over- 
take it,  become  it's  iruide  in  turn,  and 
lead  to  the  wholesome  modifications 
wanting:  in  that  model,  and  necessary 
to  constitute  a  rational  government. 
Should  they  attempt  more  than  (not 
the  opinion  of  the  moment  but)  the 
established  habits  of  the  people  are  ripe 
for,  they  may  lose  all,  and  retard  in- 
definitely the  ultimate  object  of  their 
aim.  These,  madam,  are  my  opinions; 
but  I  wish  to  know  yours  which  I  am 
sure  will  be  better." 

From  Richard  Gary 

**•  SIR  Virga.  Warwick  March  21st.  1787 

I  received  your  kind  and  obliging  Letter,  by  Mr.  Le  Croix  with 
the  Copy  of  the  new,  English  Edition  of  Linnseus's  System  of 
Vegetables;  it  got  to  me  in  excellent  Order  sometime  in  Octr.  last, 
and  I  now  return  you  best  thanks  for  this  Book  and  your  friendly 
Intention  of  sending  me  some  of  the  vegetable  Productions  of 
France  which  I  shall  most  gladly  receive. 

The  Book  is  valuable  and  compiled  with  great  Care  and  with 
much  Pains,  and  what  stil  pleases  me  is  that  by  Advertisements 

[228  ] 

2  1     MARCH     1787 

in  it  I  observe  the  Editors  intend  to  publish  English  Translations 
of  Linnseus's  Genera  and  Species  Plantarum,  which  will  perhaps 
induce  others  to  publish  the  whole  Works  of  that  learned  and 
ingenous  Naturalist  in  the  same  Language. 

Your  Favor  of  Augt.  12th.  1786  I  did  not  get  'til  late  in  Novr. 
which  put  it  out  of  my  Power  to  attempt  sending  you  any  Part  of 
the  Plants,  Shrubs  Jkc.  which  you  have  requested,  as  it  woud  have 
been  imposible  to  get  'em  to  France  in  Time;  Indeed  I  am  ap- 
prehensive it  will  hardly  be  practicable  to  send  the  Trees  with  any 
Prospect  of  Success.  Those  Gentlemen  who  I  should  be  proud  to 
please  (especially  thro'  your  Medium)  must  I  am  affraid  be 
obliged  to  rest  satisfied  with  the  Seeds.  The  wild  trees  I  have 
found  from  Experience,  are  much  more  difficult  to  make  live,  by 
transplanting,  than  what  is  usually  called  the  domestic  trees;  and 
many  of  the  Sorts  you  want  I  have  planted  in  an  Hour  or  two 
after  taking  them  up,  to  no  Purpose.  I  have  seen  to  the  taking  up 
and  planting  of  at  least  30  of  the  Umbrella  trees  myself,  and  tho' 
the  greatest  Care  and  Caution  were  used  I  have  not  been  able  to 
raise  one.  Add  to  this  the  Inattention  of  Shippers,  the  Room  they 
must  take  up;  besides  transplanted  trees  when  transported  a  great 
Distance  seldom  or  never  make  either  so  large,  beautiful  or  thrifty 
Plants  as  those  raised  from  Seeds  and  removed  from  a  Nursery  to 
a  moderate  Distance* 

What  further  confirms  in  this  Opinion:  I  have  by  Means  of 
Mr.  Oster  the  Consul  procured  for  the  royal  Gardens  a  Number  of 
different  things  in  this  Way  and  the  Gentlemen  who  wrote  for 
'em  were  very  particular  in  requesting  that  the  Seeds  should  only 
be  sent,  for  that  they  had  frequently  received  the  Plants,  Trees 
&c.  from  America  but  cou'd  never  succeed  that  Way. 

I  have  received  several  things  in  Return  and  have  entered  into 
a  Correspondence  with  the  Ct.  Dangivilliers  and  the  Abb€  Nolin 
and  shall  also  be  highly  pleased  to  do  the  same  -with  any  Gentle- 
men you  will  be  so  good  as  to  recommend  if  they  should  think  it 
worth  accepting.  One  disagreable  Circumstance  is,  I  do  not  under- 
stand any  thing  of  the  French  Language. 

Be  assured  my  dear  Sir  that  I  shall  always  esteem  it  as  one 
[of]  the  happy  Incidents  of  my  Life  if  I  can  do  any  thing  that  can 
oblige  you  or  Your  Friends,  especially  those  of  France,  a  Country 
from  whom  we  have  received  such  emminent  Assistance  and  Serv- 
ices, such  as  ought  never  to  be  forgotten  but  had1  in  perpetual 

Some  Books  directed  to  me  for  Mr.  Maddison  and  Mr.  Balleni 

[229  ] 

2  1    MARCH     1787 

came  safe  to  Hand  and  I  sent  'em  to  those  Gentlemen.  They  were 
the  Genl.  Chattelux's  Journals  and  a  Poem  wrote  by  Colo.  Hum- 
phreys. As  I  am  unacquainted  with  the  French,  I  can't  have  the 
Pleasure  of  perusing  the  General's  Work,  so  can  only  have  it  at 
second  Hand.  It  seems  the  General's  Journal  is  in  some  Sort  found 
Fault  with,  especially  the  Passages  relative  to  some  Military  Oper- 
ations which  passed,  before  the  Arrival  of  the  French  Troops  in 
America;  Tis  said  the  General  has  received  bad  Information,  or 
has  been  partial  in  his  Relation  of  them. 

To  what  I  shall  send  you,  I  shall  subjoin  a  List  with  some  Re- 
marks as  to  the  Culture  &c.  which  I  suppose  will  be  acceptable. 
Some  Articles  you  wrote  for  are  not  to  be  found  or  procured  in 
Virga.  These  I  shall  also  note  and  endeavour  to  supply  the  De- 
ficiency by  some  others  and  I  again  repeat  it  that  I  am  truly  affraid 
it  will  be  lost  Labor  to  attempt  sending  Trees  except  in  a  very 
few  Instances;  but  111  try  for  the  best. 

I  suppose  you  have  heard  of  the  Insurrection  in  the  Massachu- 
setts. Genl.  Lincoln  has  dispersed  the  Insurgents  and  from  the 
last  Accounts  'tis  said  the  affair  will  soon  be  terminated.  By  what 
I  can  learn  tis  something  like  the  Matter  of  the  Regulators  of 
No.  Carolina,  tho'  more  formidable,  but  they  seem  to  have  no 
certain  Object  or  System  in  View* 

Mr.  Ed.  Randolph  has  resigned  his  Office  of  Attorney  General 
and  is  appointed  Governor  and  Colo.  Jas.  Innis  succeeds  Mr. 
Randolph  as  Attorney. 

Your  friends  of  Mr.  Wilson  Gary's  Family  (who  are  my  near 
Neighbours )  are  well. 

I  have  the  Honor  to  be  Dr.  Sir  with  every  Sentiment  of  Attach- 
ment &  Respect  Yr.  most  obt.  Servt.  &  Friend, 


RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  31  May  1787  at  Nantes.  The 
subjoined  LIST  WITH  SOME  BEMARKS,  if  appended  to  the  letter,  has  not  been  found. 
i  Thus  in  MS;  "held"  was  probably  intended. 

William  Short  to  the  Governor  of  Virginia 

SlR  Paris  March  21.  1787 

By  direction  of  Mr.  Jefferson  who  is  absent,  I  have  the  honor 
of  forwarding  to  your  Excellency,  the  proceedings  of  the  city  of 
Paris  on  the  reception  of  the  Marquis  de  la  f  ayette's  bust  presented 
to  them  by  the  State  of  Virginia.  The  French  Packet  which  sails 


2  1    MARCH    1787 

in  a  few  days  furnishes  the  first  opportunity  which  has  been 
offered,  of  conveying  these  proceedings  and  I  make  use  of  it  with 
very  great  pleasure  as  it  allows  me  to  assure  you  Sir,  of  the 
sentiments  of  the  most  profound  respect  and  perfect  esteem  with 
which  I  have  long  had  the  honor  of  being  Your  Excellency's  most 
obedient  &  most  humble  servant,  W  SHORT 

PrC  (DLC:  Short  Papers);  endorsed.  Enclosure:  See  note  to  Le  Pelletier  to  TJ, 
1  Feb.  1787,  and  to  De  Corny  to  TJ,  20  Feb.  1787. 

William  Short  to  John  Jay 

SIR  Paris  March  21.  1787 

Agreeably  to  Mr:  Jefferson's  directions  on  his  leaving  Paris, 
I  have  the  honor  of  forwarding  to  Your  Excellency,  the  medal 
engraved  for  Genl.  Greene,  under  the  resolution  of  Congress. 
There  is  one  of  gold  and  twenty  three  of  bronze,  all  of  which  are 
committed  to  the  care  of  Mr.  Walton  of  New  York,  who  sails  in 
the  French  Packet  the  25th.  of  this  month.  The  medal  for  Genl. 
Gates  ordered  by  Congress  and  contracted  for  by  Colo.  Humphries 
is  not  yet  finished;  but  will  certainly  be  in  time  to  be  sent  by  the 
May  Packet. 

I  have  the  honor  of  inclosing  to  your  Excellency  a  letter  from 
Mr.  Dumas  sent  to  me  some  time  ago:  He  gave  me  reason  at  the 
same  time  to  expect  others  which  he  purposed  sending  here  to  be 
forwarded  by  this  packet,  and  which  he  said  would  contain  in- 
formation of  the  greatest  importance  for  Congress  on  the  subject  on 
which  he  had  lately  written  to  them.  As  yet  no  such  letters  have  ar- 
rived. I  hope  Your  Excellency  will  be  persuaded  of  the  punctuality 
with  which  I  should  have  attended  to  them. 

I  take  the  liberty  of  sending  to  your  Excellency  the  Speech  of 
the  King,  and  that  of  the  Comptroller-general  at  the  opening  of 
the  Assembly  as  yet  sitting  at  Versailles.  I  do  not  presume  to 
obtrude  longer  on  you  Sir  than  to  assure  you  of  the  sentiments  of 
the  most  profound  respect  with  which  I  have  the  honor  to  be, 
Your  Excellency's  most  obedient  &  most  humble  Servant, 


RC    (DNA:    PCC,   No.    98,   n);    en-  THE  SPEECH  OF  THE  KING,  AND  THAT 

dorsed    in    an    unidentified    Hand.    PrC  OF     THE     COMPTROLLER-GENERAL     are 

(I>LC:  Short  Papers).  Enclosures:    (1)  printed    in    Proces-Verbal    de    ISAssem- 

Dumas    to    Jay,     27    Feb.     1787      (see  blee    de    Notables?    Tenue    a    Versailles 

Dumas   to    Short,   2    Mch.    1787).    (2)  ...  1787*  Paris,  1788,  p.  52,  56-81. 


From  William  Short 

MY  DEAR  SIR  Paris  March  22 

Yours  of  the  15th.  from  Lyons  arrived  here  on  Sunday  last,  and 
gave  great  pleasure  to  all  your  friends,  to  me  a  double  portion  be- 
cause it  shewed  you  were  pleased  with  your  journey  and  because 
it  furnished  me  details  on  the  country  you  passed  through  of  which 
I  was  very  desirous  to  be  informed.  I  hope  you  will  be  so  good  as 
to  continue  them.  Should  I  ever  be  able  to  make  the  same  trip, 
they  will  be  to  me  an  useful  guide.  Should  I  not,  they  will  be 
pleasing  and  useful  information.  The  objects  you  propose  to  your 
attention  are  precisely  those  which,  in  my  mind  are  the  most  worthy 
of  it.  As  to  manufactures  they  can  be  little  useful  to  an  American 
and  for  cabinets  of  curiosities  he  who  has  seen  one  complete  one, 
has  nothing  left  to  see  of  the  kind  since  he  can  have  no  farther 
curiosity  on  the  subject. 

I  went  to  see  the  Abbe's  as  you  desired.  They  had  heard  of  you 
from  their  friends  at  Lyons  and  seemed  much  pleased,  with  my 
communications  to  them  of  your  gratitude.  I  waited  on  Mr.  de 
Laye  also  agreeably  to  your  request.  He  desires  me  to  assure  you 
how  happy  he  is  that  his  house  has  been  agreeable  to  you  and  how 
much  more  happy  he  shall  be  if  you  will  revisit  it  when  he  shall  be 
there.  I  prepared  a  great  many  civil  things  to  say  to  him  of  Mde. 
de  laye,  and  the  satisfaction  you  had  recieved  from  her  civilities, 
but  before  I  had  half  finished  them  he  skipped  over  her  to  a  certain 
groupe  in  his  salon,  executed  by  a  great  artist  and  estimated  at 
60,000*tt  He  seems  anxious  to  know  what  you  thought  of  it,  how 
you  liked  the  arrangement  of  his  estate  and  his  mode  of  husbandry, 
to  which  he  seems  much  attached*  I  told  him  you  had  not  had  time 
to  enter  into  any  details  and  that  you  had  seemed  perfectly  occupied 
by  your  gratitude  for  the  bonte  extreme  of  Mde.  de  laye.  She  had 
written  him  a  great  many  civil  things  about  you,  and  was  au 
desespoir  at  having  a  cold  during  your  short  stay,  which  precluded 
her  from  procuring  you  a  greater  number  of  pleasures. 

I  have  complyed  with  the  other  directions  of  your  letter  also, 
in  presenting  your  compliments  to  your  friends  and  more  par- 
ticularly to  Mdes.  de  Tess6  and  de  Tott.  They  both  expressed  the 
greatest  satisfaction  at  hearing  from  you,  and  particularly  at  seeing 
that  they  were  remembered  by  you.  Their  expressions  were  wound 
up  to  fortissimo,  reducing  them  to  forte,  which  I  take  to  be  the  true 
tone  of  their  friendship,  and  I  think  you  may  rely  on  the  sincerity 


22    MARCH     1787 

of  all  they  said.  Whilst  on  the  subject  of  Mde.  de  Tess6,  it  may  be 
proper  to  mention  to  you  something  of  the  seeds  expected  from 
London.  You  recollect  the  letter  I  wrote  to  Mr.  Ogilvy  on  that 
subject,  which  was  solely  to  desire  him  to  send  the  box,  if  in  his 
hands,  by  the  diligence.  He  acknowleged  some  time  ago  the  re~ 
ciept  of  several  of  my  letters  and  particularly  that,  without  saying 
one  word  of  the  box  of  seeds.  Before  the  arrival  of  his  letter  Mr. 
Carnes  set  out  for  London.  I  gave  him  a  memorandum  to  enquire 
of  Mr.  Ogilvy  about  this  box,  and  if  such  an  one  had  arrived  to 
have  it  immediately  forwarded  by  the  diligence.  Mr.  Carnes  has 
only  attended  to  one  half  of  my  memorandum,  as  appears  by  a  letter 
just  recieved  from  him.  He  tells  me  the  box  has  arrived  and  that 
he  has  advised  Mr.  Ogilvy  to  look  out  for  a  vessel  going  to  Havre, 
in  order  to  forward  it.  If  one  cannot  be  found  soon  says  he,  I  shall 
advise  him  to  forward  the  box  by  the  diligence,  as  you  seemed  very 
pressing.  Was  there  ever  such  a  bundle  of  errors  one  upon  another? 
I  have  written  this  morning,  being  the  first  post,  to  beg  he  will 
look  for  no  vessel  but  send  the  box  immediately  on  here,  to  your 
address.  I  explained  all  these  matters  yesterday  to  Mde.  de  Tess6. 
It  did  not  serve,  as  you  may  suppose,  to  heighten  her  idea  of 
American  punctuality. 

Since  my  last  the  engraver  has  been  busily  employed  in  striking 
off  your  maps.  He  promises  the  250  copies  shall  be  delivered  with- 
out fail  the  day  after  to-morrow.  His  charges  are  1.  for  his  work 
106V,  2.  for  250  sheets  of  paper  60V,  3.  for  striking  them  off 
37tt  10s.  I  find  that  Mr.  de  Crevecoeur  thinks  himself  entitled  also 
to  one  of  these  maps.  I  suppose  his  claim  founded  on  his  possession 
of  one  of  your  books  and  of  course  good  in  the  equity  of  the  case. 
If  I  mistake  not  I  heard  you  say  that  a  map  was  destined  for  each 
of  the  copies  you  had  given,  and  therefore  shall  deliver  it  to  him 
or  his  order. — His  third  volume  has  not  yet  appeared,  but  he  ex- 
pects it  will  in  time  to  let  him  carry  some  copies  of  it  to  America 
in  May. 

Mr.  Walton  who  sat  out  this  morning  for  Havre  took  charge  of 
the  medals  for  Congress,  that  is  those  of  Genl.  Greene.  I  have  heard 
nothing  farther  from  the  engraver  of  Genl.  Gates's.  I  was  not 
certain  of  my  etiquette  with  respect  to  Mr.  Jay  on  this  occasion. 
I  knew  not  how  to  send  the  medals  tout  liniment,  without  saying 
a  word  on  the  subject.  Nor  did  I  know  whether  it  would  not  be 
presumption  in  me  to  address  him  a  letter.  However  I  risqued  a 
short  one,  and  as  1  have  the  honor'  *and  your  Excellency'  are  as 
often  repeated  as  there  are  lines  in  the  letter,  I  hope  it  will  not  be 

£233  J 

22    MARCH     1787 
supposed  that  I  have  forgotten  the  proper  distance  between  him 

and  myself. 

Duquesnay  was  here  a  few  days  ago.  He  says  he  has  put  so 
many  engines  in  motion  that  he  cannot  fail  of  success.  Still  he  is 
sorry  you  are  not  here  to  countenance  his  patriotic  enterprize.  He 
has  begged  my  protection,  which  I  suppose  was  to  counterbalance 
Mazzei,  who  he  fears  will  prejudice  his  schemes  in  the  view  of 
Mr.  de  1.  f,  'comme  ils  sont  tre"s  intimement  lie's  ensemble.'  Mazzei 
has  thrown  him  into  some  consternation,  notwithstanding  his  cer- 
tainty of  success  by  demonstrating  that  there  is  no  geometrical 
certainty  in  the  case.  He  has  insisted  that  I  should  mention  to  all 
my  friends  in  America  his  arrival  here,  the  sensation  it  has  made, 
notwithstanding  the  critical  moment,  as  Government  was  occupied 
on  subjects  of  a  very  important  nature,  and  in  fine  the  certain  pros- 
pect of  his  succeeding. 

Mr.  Capitame*s  attorney  came  here  some  time  ago  with  powers 
to  recieve  the  bill  of  exchange  you  left  for  him.  He  left  with  me 
his  powers  and  took  the  bill  of  exchange. 

In  my  last  I  mentioned  my  letter  to  M.  de  Colonia.  As  yet  I  have 
recieved  no  answer.  I  have  taken  no  further  steps,  because  as  yet 
M.  de  Crevecoeur  and  Mr.  Barrett  have  pressed  the  matter  no 

I  mentioned  in  a  former  letter  the  adjournment  of  the  Assembly 
to  the  last  of  this  month.  The  new  elections  in  April  had  entirely 
escaped  me;  a  recollection  of  that  circumstance  makes  me  suppose 
the  adjournment  to  March  a  thing  of  course  and  of  form  only. 

Most  of  your  friends  here  enquire  of  me  whether  you  visited 
the  works  of  Mount  Cenis.  I  have  not  been  able  to  satisfy  their 
enquiries.  As  you  said  nothing  of  so  important  an  object,  I  am 
rather  disposed  to  imagine  you  did  not  visit  it.  And  yet  I  think  you 
would  hardly  have  left  it  behind  you  without  casting  on  it  un 
coup  tfoeiL 

I  forgot  to  mention  that  Mr.  Games  informs  me  in  his  letter 
that  Colo.  Smith  told  him  he  should  set  out  for  Paris  about  the 
24th.  of  this  month.  He  says  nothing  of  the  object  of  his  journey. 
I  inclose  you  Sir  three  letters,  one  of  which  I  have  read  because 
it  was  delivered  to  me  open  by  Petit  on  my  return  here  from  St. 
Germains.  It  was  brought  here  with  the  objects  it  mentions  by  a 
gentleman  from  Bordeaux.  These  objects  are  here  in  my  care. 
There^is  also  here  a  large  packet,  of  the  size  and  shape  of  the 
memoire  of  the  Hotel  Dieu.  It  was  sent  by  the  Swedish  Ambassador. 


2  3    MARCH    1787 

I  mention  its  size  that  you  may  let  me  know  whether  you  chuse  it 
should  be  sent  to  you  by  post.  I  had  doubts  on  the  subject  but  Mr. 
Petit  insists  that  it  would  not  be  proper  to  send  it  by  post  and  I 
subscribe  to  his  opinion,  en  attendant  cependant  ~oos  ordres  d  cet 

Petit  tells  me  that  agreeably  to  your  letter  he  waited  on  Miss 
Jefferson,  and  that  she  was  and  is  perfectly  well.  I  communicate 
this  circumstance  because  I  am  sure  of  the  pleasure  it  will  give  you. 

Since  your  departure  I  have  passed  my  time  alternately  two  or 
three  days  at  a  time  here  and  at  St.  Germains :  yet  in  such  a  manner 
as  to  neglect  nothing.  It  has  been  three  days  since  I  have  returned 
from  thence  and  do  not  purpose  going  there  again  before  monday 
next.  In  the  interim  I  hope  to  have  the  pleasure  of  hearing  from 
you.  Be  persuaded  my  dear  Sir,  of  the  pleasure  it  will  give  Your 
sincerest  friend  &  servant,  W  SHORT 

RC    (DLC);    endorsed.    PrC     (DL.C:  coup  dc  choses  qui  me  sont  essentieUes"; 

Short  Papers).  Recorded  in  SJL  as   re-  there  is  also  in  MHi  a  copy  of  a  power 

ceived    28    Mch.    1787    at    Aix-en-Pro-  of  attorney  executed  by  **Michel   Capi- 

vence.  Enclosures:  On  28  Mch.,  accord-  taine,  Major  au  Service  des  Etats  urns 

ing1  to  entries  in  SJL,  TJ  received  only  d'Amerique,     chevalier     de    L'ordre     de 

two  letters  in   addition   to  Short's:     (1)  Cincinatus,   demeurant   ordinairement  a 

Hopkinson  to  TJ,  8  Nov.  1786,  and  (2)  Mezieres  en  champagne,  e"tant  depresent 

McCaul  to  TJ,  9  Mch.  1787.  The  third  a    Paris,    Log-e    rue    des    prouvaires     a 

of  the  THREE  LETTERS  enclosed  by  Short  ITiotel  des  Colonies,'*  in  which  he  named 

must  have  been  the  one  brought  BY  A  Jean  Baptiste  Le  Roux  of  Paris  as  his 

GENTKEMAN    FROM   BORDEAUX;    neither  attorney     to    receive     any     interest     or 

it    nor    its    accompanying-    objects    has  capital   sums   due    him    by   the    United 

been  identified.  States    and    paid    through    Grand,    and 

On  the  BILL  OF  EXCHANGE  for  Capi-  to  receive  from.  Lafayette  and  any  others 

taine,    see    TJ    to    Capitaine,    25    Feb.  the  different  sums  due  him.  Presumably 

1787;  to  Peters,   26   Feb.   1787.  There  Le  Roux  was  the  ATTORNEY  who   left 

is  in  MHi  a  letter   from   Capitaine  to  His    POWERS    with    Short,    though    this 

Short,    23    Mch.    1787,    acknowledging  could   not   have   been    the    copy    of    the 

the   receipt    of   TJ's    letter    of    25    Feb.  power  of  attorney  just  quoted, 
and  also  *6le  montant  de  Cette  lettre  de  It    was    not    in    Short's    LAST    letter 

Change    en    une    rescript!  on     que    m'a  (that  of  14  Mch.)  but  in  that  dated  12 

envoyg   M.    Gibert   mon    Notaire,"    and  Mch.  that  he  MENTIONED  MY  UETTER 

saying   that   he   was    astonished   not   to  TO  M.  DE  COLONIA.  TJ's  letter  to  PETIT 

have  received   any   letters   from   Peters,  was  that  of  15  Mch.   1787.  For  a  note 

adding:     "J'ignore    pour    mes     affaires  on  the  CERTAIN  GROUPS  at  the  Chateau 

dont  il   a  bien  voulu  se  charger  beau-  de  Laye,  see  TJ  to  Short,  29  Mch.  1787. 

From  the  Governor  o£  Georgia 

SIR  23  March  1787 

I  am  honored  with  your  Excellencys  favor  of  the  22  December 
1785  and  have  taken  the  earliest  Opportunity  of  laying  it  before 
the  Hble.  House  of  Assembly  of  this  State,  and  for  your  informa- 
tion and  the  Chevalier  de  Mezieres  inclose  you  a  Resolution  of 

25    MARCH    1787 

that  honorable  body  taken  thereon.  You  may  rest  assured  that 
the  disposition  of  the  Inhabitants  of  this  State  to  the  King  of 
France  and  his  Subjects  are  founded  on  the  most  firm  and  generous 
principles,  and  will  always  be  supported]  by  facts  when  oppor- 
tunity offers,  and  should  the  Chevalier  de  Mezieres  be  able  to  dis- 
cover any  property  of  the  late  General  Oglethorp,  this  State  will  not 
be  wanting  in  their  aid  to  forward  his  right  to  the  Same.  It  only 
remains  for  me  to  assure  you  every  personal  service  in  my  power 
shall  be  given  to  subjects  of  real  merit,  of  the  King  of  France.  I 
am  &CM  G[EORGE].  M[ATHEWS], 

FC  (Governor's  Letter  Book,  1786-1789,  G-Ar).  Enclosure  missing-.  On  the 
same  date  Gov.  Mathews  wrote  to  the  French  consul  at  Charleston,  acknowledging- 
his  letter  of  2O  Dec.  1786  on  the  same  subject  and  enclosing:  him  a  copy  of  the 
resolution  (  same  ) . 

From  William  Carmichael 

DEAR  SIR  Madrid  March  25th.  1787 

I  received  somewhat  later  than  I  should  have  expected  from  its 
date  the  Letter  you  did  me  the  honor  to  write  me  the  18th.  Ulto.  I 
have  forwarded  the  duplicate  of  the  recall  of  Mr.  Lamb  to  that 
Gentleman  and  have  also  transmitted  to  Mr.  Barclay  the  joint  con- 
firmation of  the  Morrocco  treaty  together  with  the  Letter  to  Fen- 
nish  which  however  is  without  your  signature. 

Mr.  Barclay  writes  me  from  Barcelona,  where  he  is  at  present, 
that  he  chuses  to  forward  it  thro'  my  channel  and  that  he  intends 
to  return  it  me  for  that  purpose.  It  is  not  probable  that  he  will  meet 
Mr.  Lamb  who  writes  me  from  Minorca  that  he  means  shortly  to 
proceed  to  N.  York.  The  Latter  has  occasioned  me  much  chagrin. 
In  the  autumn  of  1784  Doctor  Franklin  transmitted  me  a  resolution 
of  Congress  relative  to  a  Claim  of  the  State  of  S.  Carolina  founded 
on  the  aid  rendered  by  a  frigate  commanded  by  Commodore  Gil- 
Ion,  in  taking  of  the  Bahama  and  Providence  Islands,  but  without 
any  information  respecting  the  amount  of  the  Claim,  for  in  truth 
I  believe  he  had  received  none. 

In  consequence  however  of  this  resolution  I  addressed  the  Ct. 
de  F.  B.  and  obtained  a  promise  from  that  Minister  to  instruct 
Mr.  Gardoqui  then  going  to  America  to  examine  and  liquidate  this 
claim  conjointly  with  the  Ct.  de  Galves  who  directed  the  expedi- 
tion in  question  and  who  was  also  on  his  way  to  the  Havanna.  I 
well  knew  that  before  any  arrangement  could  take  place  for  the 

C236  } 

2  5    MARCH     1787 

Satisfaction  of  the  State  of  S.  Carolina  the  Latter  would  be  con- 
sulted by  this  Court  and  As  his  Absence  and  distance  from  this 
Country  must  occasion  Inevitable  delays  in  a  matter  which  the 
State  seemed  to  have  at  heart,  I  thought  it  most  prudent,  unin- 
formed as  I  was  and  am  still  of  particular  Circumstances,  to  put 
it  in  the  train  I  did. 

Not  having  heard  further  intelligence  on  the  Subject,  I  concluded 
that  the  affair  had  been  arranged,  until  by  a  Letter  from  Mr.  Jay 
dated  the  I  was  advised  that  the  Claim,  still  subsisted.  With 

this  second  information  however  I  had  no  account  of  the  particular 
services  rendered  nor  of  the  amount  of  the  claim  demanded  for 
those  services:  I  therefore  could  only  speak  generally  on  the  sub- 
ject, and  have  had  no  reason,  from  the  Answers  I  received,  to  think 
the  aid  of  another  particularly  in  the  present  circumstances^  neces- 
sary, Had  I  been  possessed  of  proper  documents. 

I  shall  be  happy  however  to  cooperate  with  the  Due  de  Vauguyon 
and  until  his  arrival  or  until  I  receive  the  dispatches  in  question,  I 
must  let  the  Affair  remain  as  it  is. 

I  have  been  informed  of  the  compliment  you  paid  the  New' 
Minister  the  first  Audience  he  gave  the  Corps  Diplomatique,  You 
will  find  in  the  Ct.  de  Montmorin,  unless  I  am  Strangely  deceived 
in  my  Ideas  of  him,  a  much  honester  Man  than  Ministers  are  gen- 
erally supposed  to  be.  He  Appeared  to  me  to  have  an  enlarged 
liberal  and  noble  Manner  of  thinking  and  acting.  He  is  endowed 
with  great  penetration  and  is  capable  of  finesse,  but  seems  to  dis- 
dain to  employ  that  sort  of  Talent,  unless  to  combat  others  with 
their  own  weapons,  weapons  which  those  who  know  his  Character 
and  Abilities  will  be  unwise  to  employ.  I  lately  received  the  porta- 
ble copying  press  which  you  did  me  the  honor  to  send  me.  You  will 
see  that  I  make  use  of  the  Ink  which  accompanied  it.  I  dare  not 
express  to  you  how  sensible  I  am  of  this  mark  of  your  notice  of 
me.  I  hope  however  I  shall  never  feel  remorse,  for  having  from  my 
earliest  youth  wished  to  acquire  the  esteem  of  those  few  who 
possess  general  esteem. 

It  seems  that  G.  B.  means  to  negotiate  its  treaty  of  commerce 
here.  That  court  has  chosen  an  able  and  indefatigable  Minister, 
who  can  only  err  from  a  desire  to  distinguish  himself  while  at  the 
same  time  he  forms  projects,  which  others  like  himself  must  be 
employed  to  bring  to  maturity,  and  this  is  not  to  be  expected  where 
system  changes  but  too  often  with  a  change  of  Ministers.  I  hope 
your  tour  will  reestablish  your  health  while  it  will  contribute  to 


25    MARCH    1787 

your  Information  and  amusement.  I  am  constrained  to  tread  the 
same  beaten  track.  You  will,  If  your  hand  permits  you,  think  some- 
times that  my  most  material  Information  of  American  affairs  comes 

from  you. 

With  the  highest  sentiments  of  respect  &  Esteem  I  have  the 
honor  to  be  Your  Excellency's  Obliged  &  Hble,  Sevt., 


RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  compliment  that  TJ  PAID  THE  NEW 
SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-  MINISTER  appears  not  to  Have  been  re- 
Provence,  corded,  but  the  fact  that  it  was  repeated 

The  LETTER  FROM  MR.   JAY  on  the  in  Madrid  indicates  that  it  was  perhaps 
South  Carolina  demands  on  Spain  was  comparable    to    TJ's    famous    reply    at 
that   of   1   Dec.    1786   with  its   various  the  French  court  on   succeeding  Frank- 
enclosures      (printed     in     Dipl.     Corr.,  lin. 
1783-89,  rn,  323-47).  Unfortunately  the 

From  Martha  Jefferson 

MY  DEAR  PAPA  March  25th,  1787 

Though  the  knowledge  of  your  health  gave  me  the  greatest 
pleasure,  yet  I  own  I  was  not  a  little  disappointed  in  not  receiving 
a  letter  from  you.  However,  I  console  myself  with  the  thought  of 
having  one  very  soon,  as  you  promised  to  write  to  me  every  week. 
Until  now  you  have  not  kept  your  -word  the  least  in  the  world,  but 
I  hope  you  will  make  up  for  your  silence  by  writing  me  a  fine, 
long  letter  by  the  first  opportunity.  Titus  Livius  puts  me  out  of 
my  wits.  I  can  not  read  a  word  by  myself,  and  I  read  of  it  very 
seldom  with  my  master;  however,  I  hope  I  shall  soon  be  able  to 
take  it  up  again.  All  my  other  masters  go  on  much  the  same — 
perhaps  better.  Every  body  here  is  very  well,  particularly  Madame 
L'Abbesse,  who  has  visited  almost  a  quarter  of  the  new  building — 
a  thing  that  she  has  not  done  for  two  or  three  years  before  now. 
I  have  not  heard  any  thing  of  my  harpsichord,  and  I  am  afraid  it 
will  not  come  before  your  arrival.  They  make  every  day  some  new 
history  on  the  Assemble  des  Notables.  I  will  not  tell  you  any,  for 
fear  of  taking  a  trip  to  the  Bastile  for  my  pains,  which  I  am  by 
no  means  disposed  to  do  at  this  moment.  I  go  on  pretty  well  with 
Thucydides,  and  hope  I  shall  very  soon  finish  it.  I  expect  Mr. 
Short  every  instant  for  my  letter,  therefore  I  must  leave  you.  Adieu, 
my  dear  papa;  be  assured  you  are  never  a  moment  absent  from  my 
thoughts,  and  believe  me  to  be,  your  most  affectionate  child, 

C238  ] 

26     MARCH     1787 

MS  not  found;  text  from  the  printing:  may  Have   addressed  TJ  by  his   official 

in    Randolph,    Domestic    Life,    p.    114.  title,   knowing    that   he    was    travelling: 

Recorded    in    SJL    as    received    6    Apr.  as    a  private    citizen    and   knowing    also 

1787  at  Marseilles.  Martha,  on   a  dare  that   the    address    would   be   hidden   by 

by   one   of  her   schoolmates,    g-ave   some  Short's    covering    letter     (see    Short    to 

sort    of    playful    address    to    the    letter,  TJ,    26    Mch.    1787). 
thougrh    its    nature    is    not   known;    she 

From  William  Short 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  March  26.  1787 

By  my  calculation  I  hoped  to  recieve  your  letter  from  Aix 
yesterday.  Although  it  has  not  arrived  I  shall  go  into  the  country 
to-day,  not  foreseeing  that  the  delay  of  one  day  in  recieving  it  can 
be  attended  with  any  bad  consequences.  It  will  come  to  me  at  St. 
Gerrnains  in  four  and  twenty  hours  and  perhaps  less  after  Its 
arrival  here  if  that  should  be  before  my  return.  I  shall  be  four  or 
five  days  absent  and  then  come  to  Paris  in  order  to  do  the  honors  of 
your  house  at  Longchamp.  I  mentioned  yesterday  to  Mde.  de  Tesse 
with  whom  I  dined,  what  you  had  desired  me,  on  this  subject.  She 
and  Mde.  de  Tott  -were  both  much  pleased  with  your  attention. 
The  latter  declined  it  because  as  she  added  'ye  suis  les  offices  de  cette 
semaine  mais  Mamma  qui  n'en  a  aucun  scrupule  peut  tr&s  bien  y 
aller?  Long  debates  pour  et  contre.  Mde.  de  Tesse  has  never  seen 
Longchamp,  which  I  hardly  supposed  any  Parisian  of  her  age  could 
say.  She  will  come  and  bring  some  lady  whose  name  I  don't  recol- 
lect.— She  told  me  it  was  well  I  had  not  made  the  proposition  to 
Mde.  de  la  f ayette;  her  piety  would  have  been  shocked  and  there- 
fore I  shall  say  nothing  to  her  on  the  subject.  She  was  a  part  of 
the  evening  at  Mde.  de  Tessas.  "When  Mazzei  arrived  he  ap- 
proached her  and  said  whether  from  mechancetg  or  not  I  cannot 
say  that  he  had  that  moment  come  from  the  Hdtel  de  la  fayette 
where  he  had  been  to  wait  on  her  but  that  they  told  him,  Madame 
la  Marquise  was  gone  to  *v$pres. 

Mazzei  tells  me  that  the  men  of  letters  here  think  very  poorly  of 
Mr.  Adams  book.  It  is  easy  to  see  that  these  are  the  disciples  of 
M.  Turgot.  Mazzei  asked  me  what  I  thought  of  it,  taking  great 
pains  to  impress  well  on  my  mind  that  he  had  not  yet  read  it  and 
of  course  had  not  been  able  to  form  his  opinion.  I  had  just  finished 
it  and  of  course  was  able  to  give  him  mine,  which  is  that  it  shews 
Mr.  Adams's  profound  researches  on  the  subject  he  treats,  that 
there  are  a  great  many  valuable  ideas  developped  in  the  work,  and 
that  it  puts  the  reader  in  the  plain  way  of  developping  others;  but 

{239  ] 

26    MARCH    1787 

that  it  has  neither  order  in  its  matter  or  taste  in  its  style.— He  de- 
sired to  know  if  I  thought  the  translation  would  succeed  here.  Of 
that  I  have  my  doubts;  but  should  rather  suppose  it  would  not  as 
an  article  of  Librairie.  It  is  not  the  kind  of  work  that  would  be 
generally  read  in  Paris  I  should  imagine,  A  few  men  of  learning  no 
doubt  would  be  pleased  with  it;  but  most  of  that  class  would  prefer 
the  original.  His  translator  has  read  it.  I  inferred  from  what  Maz- 
zei  said  that  his  opinion  was  not  the  most  favorable.  Yet  I  take 
it  for  granted  that  the  translation  is  going  on. 

The  Maps  are  all  delivered,  and  I  gave  notice  to  the  Abb£ 
Morellet  two  days  ago  that  the  plate  was  at  present  at  his  disposal, 
begging  him  at  the  same  time  to  return  it  as  soon  as  he  possibly 
could  as  I  wished  to  send  it  immediately  to  London. 

General  Gates's  medal  is  at  length  advanced  to  that  point  at 
which  by  the  contract  the  engraver  is  entitled  to  recieve  12OOft. 
I  have  told  him  I  would  write  to  you  on  the  subject.  He  promises 
to  finish  it3  without  fail,  in  time  to  go  by  the  May  Packet.  I  think  the 
likeness  is  very  good  considering  the  manner  in  which  it  has  been 

On  my  way  to  dinner  yesterday  I  called  on  Miss  Patsy  to  re- 
cieve her  commands  for  you.  She  gave  me  the  inclosed  letter;  telling 
me  one  of  her  companions  had  made  her  a  defi  to  put  the  address  as 
you  will  observe  it.  I  can  join  my  testimony  to  her's  that  she  is 
perfectly  well.  She  seems  resigned  to  faire  ses  paques,  and  esuivre 
les  offices'  de  la  semaine  sainte  au  con-vent. 

You  will  see  that  a  packet  has  arrived  and  among  the  letters 
brought  for  you  I  recognise  one  with  the  hand  and  seal  of  Mr. 
Wythe.  Will  you  be  so  good  as  to  let  me  know  Sir,  if  he  mentions 
the  arrival  of  Majr.  Martin,  who  carried  the  Arms  of  Taliaferro.  I 
wrote  by  him,  and  therefore  am  interested  in  his  safe  arrival.  A 
bundle  of  newspapers  came  addressed  to  you  by  post  from  Mr.  Jay. 
Within  it  were  two  letters  for  you  which  I  inclose,  a  letter  from 
Congress  to  His  Most  Christian  Majesty,  one  for  Mr.  Dumas  and 
another  for  M.  Carmichael  and  a  third  for  Mr.  Lamb.  I  will  en- 
deavour to  find  some  private  hand  to  whom  I  can  commit  a  letter 
for  Mr.  Carmichael  inclosing  that  for  Lamb.  "With  respect  to  that  for 
the  King  I  shall  await  your  instructions.  Lest  Mr.  Jay  should 

have  omitted  particular  facts  with  respect  to  the  eastern  disturb- 
ances it  may  be  well  to  mention  to  you  that,  from  the  Papers  sent, 
it  appears  by  Genl.  Lincoln's  letter  to  Govr.  Bowdoin  of  the  4th. 
of  Febry.  that  he  had  come  up  by  surprize  with  the  main  body  of 


2  6    MARCH     1787 

the  insurgents  under  Shays,  had  made  15O  prisoners  with  little 
or  no  bloodshed  and  dispersed  the  rest  so  effectually  as  to  advise 
the  Governor  to  countermand  his  orders  for  re-inforcing  him  -with 
other  militia. — Govr.  Bowdoin  in  his  speech  to  the  house  convened 
the  3d.  of  Febry.  advises  vigorous  measures,  although  there  was 
nothing  in  fact  to  be  apprehended;  he  founds  his  advice  on  the  in- 
surgents having  treated  with  contempt  the  late  mild  offer  held  out 
to  them  by  the  acts  of  the  former  session.  It  appears  on  the  whole 
that  if  Government  will  only  be  mild  and  at  the  same  time  firm, 
the  whole  affair  is  at  an  end.  I  am  more  certain  of  their  firmness 
than  their  mildness.  I  observe  by  GenL  Lincoln's  letter  that  Wheeler 
had  desired  an  interview  with  Genl.  Putnam,  that  they  had  accord- 
ingly met,  that  'Wheeler's  principal  object  seeming  to  be  to  provide 
for  his  personal  safety  and  no  encouragement  on  this  head  being 
given  him,  he  retired.'  "Would  it  not  have  been  wise  to  have  given 
him  every  encouragement  on  this  head?  A  letter  from  Shays  to 
Genl.  Lincoln  without  date  also  appears  in  the  latest  paper  that 
has  arrived  Febry.  16.  It  is  not  published  officially.  He  offers  to 
lay  down  his  arms  as  well  as  those  of  his  followers  on  the  condi- 
tion of  a  general  pardon.  He  begs  Genl.  Lincoln  to  desist  from 
hostilities  until  an  answer  can  be  given  by  the  General  Court 
to  their  petition  for  that  purpose. 

The  same  papers  shew  that  Pennsylvania  and  N.  Carolina  have 
acceded  to  the  plan  of  Virginia  by  appointing  commissioners  to 
meet  at  Philadelphia  in  May. 

I  have  lately  recieved  a  letter  from  an  American  Merchant  at 
Nantes  just  on  his  return  from  Virginia.  He  tells  me  the  Assembly 
have  annulled  the  duties  on  Brandies  shipped  in  American  or 
French  bottoms  and  doubled  those  on  rum  and  all  liquors  imported 
by  British  Subjects.  I  suppose  it  is  in  consequence  of  M.  de 
Calonne's  letter  to  you* 

The  Assembles  des  notables  have  not  yet  put  the  finishing  hand 
to  any  of  the  great  works  they  have  begun-  This  is  all  that  is  as 
yet  known  with  certainty  in  public  of  their  proceedings.  Accept 
my  best  &  sincerest  wishes  my  dear  Sir  &  believe  me  your  most 
faithful  &  affectionate  friend,  W  SHORT 

RC     (DLC);    endorsed.    PrC     (DLC:  1787.    (5)    Grand  to  TJ,  undated. 
Short  Papers).   Recorded  in   SJL   as  re- 
ceived  6   Apr.    1787   at  Marseilles.   En-  TJ    did    not    write    Short    a    LETTER 
closures:    (1)    Martha  Jefferson  to  TJ,  FROM  ATX  until  27  Mch*;  in  that  from 
25   Mch.    1787,    (2)    Wythe  to   TJ,    13  Lyons  of   15   Mch.    1787  TJ  had   said: 
Dec.    1786.    (3)    Jay  to  TJ,   9    and    14  "You    shall    hear    from    me    from    Aix 
Feb.    1787.    (4)     Otto    to    TJ,    14    Feb.  where  I  hope  to  meet  letters  from  you." 

£241  1 

From  Edward  Bancroft 

Charlotte  Street  Rathbone  Place. 
DEAR  SIR  London  March  27th.  1787 

I  have  been  deprived  much  longer  than  I  expected  of  the  Pleasure 
of  seeing  you  in  Paris,  and  I  am  afraid  my  business  here  will  not 
permit  my  return  to  that  Capital  until  the  middle  or  latter  End  of 
may.  It  is  however  at  the  desire  of  Mr.  Paradise  that  I  now  address 
myself  to  you,  as  the  present  State  of  his  mind  (from  the  recent 
Elopement  and  marriage  of  his  eldest  Daughter  to  Count  Barziza  a 
Venetian  Nobleman)  joined  to  his  general  ill  health  renders  him 
unable  to  write  to  you  himself.  Both  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paradise  seem 
convinced  from  past  experience  and  the  present  contrariety  of  their 
tempers  and  dispositions  that  it  will  be  impossible  for  them  to 
Live  happily  together;  and  it  is  therefore  agreed  that  the   Lady 
shall  return  to  Virginia  and  be  allowed  a  House  in  Williamsburgh, 
and  three  hundred  Pounds  sterling  ^  An.  for  her  Separate  main- 
tenance, whilst  Mr.  Paradise  will  probably  fix  himself  in  some  more 
retired  and  Cheap  situation  than  his  present,  perhaps  at  Oxford, 
or  someplace  in  France.  But  as  this  Plan  precludes  all  probability 
of  his  going  to  America,  at  least  for  some  years,  he  is  Sollicitous 
to  Commit  the  Superintendance  of  his  Affairs,  and  of  his  Stewards 
Conduct,  to  one  or  two  Gentlemen,  whose  Situations  are  not  too 
far  removed  from  his  Estate,  and  who  are  properly  qualified,  and 
may  be  induced,  by  their  Care  of  his  intrests  to  prevent  the  ill 
Consequences  which  might  otherwise  arise  from  his  Absence.  And 
as  Mr.  Paradise  has  the  utmost  Confidence  in  your   friendship, 
as  well  as  in  your  Judgment  of  men  and  things  in  that  Country, 
he  earnestly  intreats,  as  a  favour  of  the  highest  importance  that 
you  will  be  so  kind  as  to  point  out  one  or  two  Persons  to  whom 
he  may  with  Propriety  send  a  Power  of  Attorney  for  these  Pur- 
poses, and  that  you  would  at  the  same  time  by  Letter  employ  your 
good  offices,  to  induce  these  persons  to  undertake  the  trust  which 
he  wishes  to  place  in  them.  You  are  sensible  that  Mr.  Paradise  is 
very  much  disinclined  towards  the  Lee's  and  those  who  may  be 
particularly  Connected  with  them,   and  as   Mrs.   Paradise    is   to 
receive  her  separate  allowance  without  having  any  Concern  in  the 
Managment  of  her  Husbands  affairs,  he  much  wishes  that  the  pro- 
posed powers  should  be  sent  to  persons  out  of  this   Connection. 
Mr.  Paradise  requests  me  to  assure  you  of  the  high  esteem  and 
sincere  respect  which  he  entertains  for  you  and  of  his  grateful  sense 

[242  ] 

2  7    MARCH     1787 

of  your  former  favours.  Permit  me  also  to  join  the  like  assurance 
respecting  myself,  and  beleive  me  to  be  with  the  greatest  truth 
Dear  Sir  Your  most  affectionate  &  faithful  Humble  Servant, 


RC   (DLC);  addressed  and  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL,  as  received  3  May  1787 
at  Aix-en-Provence. 

From  Buffon 

IJardin  du  Roi,  Paris,  27  Mch.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received 
3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence.  Not  found.] 

To  Adrien  Petit 

[Aix]  en  Provence.  27me.  Mars.  1787. 

Je  vous  ai  ecrit.  Monsieur  Petit,  de  Lyons  pour  vous  prevenir 
que  j'avois  achetg  des  vins  de  [Mon]rachet,  que  le  nomm6  Monsr. 
Parrain,  de  la  ville  de  Beaune  devoit  faire  passer  a  Paris,  en  vous 
en  avertissant.  Comme  Poccasion  sera  bonne  pour  faire  mon  ap- 
provisionnement  de  vin  en  passant  a  Marseille  a  Lunel  et  a  Bour- 
deaux,  je  vous  prie  de  m'envoyer  a  Aix  tout  de  suite  Tetat  actuel  de 
tous  les  vins  que  vous  avez  dans  la  cave,  £fin  que  je  puisse  decider 
de  la  quantit6  dont  j'aurai  besoin.  JPai  regu  en  arrivant  ici  votre 
lettre  du  17me.  Je  me  porte  bien,  mais  jusques  ici  pas  mieux  pour 
les  eaux,  dont  j'ai  pris  onze  douches.  Faites  passer  la  lettre  a  ma 
fille  et  soyez  assure  de  mon  amiti£.  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (MHi);  sligrhtly  mutUated.  En-  to  have  been  sent  through  MONSR.  PAR- 

closure:  TJ  to  Martha  Jefferson,  28  RAIN  (see  TJ  to  Parent,  13  Mch. 

Mch.  1787.  1787).  Petit's  HETTRE  DU  17ME.  has 

TJ's  letter  to  Petit  from  LYONS  was  not  been  found,  though  it  is  recorded 

evidently  that  of  15  Mch.  which  appears  in  SJL. 

C.  W.  F.  Dumas  to  William  Short 

MONSIEUR  Paris1  27e.  Mars  1787 

Je  vous  suis  bien  oblig£  de  la  bontg  avec  laquelle  vous  avez  pris 

la  peine  de  m'instruire  du  sort  de  mes  Lettres,  et  de  ma  Traite. 
Voici  une  autre  Lettre  pour  le  Congrfcs,  qui  partira  quand  elle 

pourra:    ce   sera  du  moins    le    1O   de   May   prochain,    s'il   ne    se 

pr6sente  pas  d'occasion  plus  prompte  et  aussi  sure.  Vous  aurez  le 


27    MARCH     1787 

temps  tTen  noter  a  loisir  ce  que  vous  jugerez  digne  de  Mr.  Jefferson. 
Le  contenu  vous  fera  voir  avec  combien  de  raison  je  dois  6viter  Ie 
passage  par  PAngleterre. 

Je  crois  que  dor6navant  il  faudra  laisser  dormir  Faff aire  que 
vous  savez,  sans  en  plus  parler,  jusqu'a  la  r6ponse  que  Mr.  Jefferson 
attend  dans  4  mois.  Dites-mol,  Mon  cher  Monsieur,  si  vous  devinez 
le  personnage  dont  je  parle  a  Mr.  Jay,  qui  voudroit  qu'on  Penvoyat 
Ministre  ici.  Si  vous  Pavez  devin6,  je  compte  absolument  sur  le 
plus  grand  secret  de  votre  part.  Ce  que  fen  ai  dit,  est  par  devoir 
indispensable:  on  m'en  a  prie  fortement.  II  ne  pourroit  £tre  d'aucune 
utilite  aux  Etats-Unis  ici,  et  ne  donneroit  que  de  Pombrage  a  nos 
republicans  et  &  la  France,  £  cause  de  ses  liaisons  eclatantes  avec 

le  Chev.  H s;  on  travailleroit  a  le  faire  rappeller,  comme  on  a 

fait  tout  recemment  quant  a  un  autre  Ministre,  dont  je  parle  dans 
cette  m£me  Lettre.  De  mon  c6t6  je  ne  pourrois  rien  avoir  de  cotn- 
mun  avec  lui,  sans  perdre  la  confiance  de  mes  meilleurs  amis. 
J'aimerois  autant  perdre  la  vie.  Ce  n'est  pas  tout;  il  gateroit  aussi 
Paffaire  de  PEmprunt,  par  ses  liaisons  avec  une  maison  de  Com- 
merce avec  laquelle  mes  Proposants  ne  veulent  point  Pentreprendre 
par  des  raisons  personnelles,  outre  que  la  partie  est  d£ja  Ii6e  avec 
d'autres. — Je  pourrois  en  dire  bien  d'Avantage,  si  je  voulois  r6peter 
la  Chronique  scandaleuse.  Mais  a  Dieu  ne  plaise.  II  seroit  vu  de 
trds-mauvais  oeil:  Cela  suffit,  et  rend  tout  le  reste  superfhi.  Je  serois 
bien  aise  seulement  de  savoir  si  vous  le  devinez.  II  vient  lui-m^me 
de  m^crire  une  Lettre,  et  Duplicat,  out  je  vois  clairement  que  mes 
amis  ici  sont  bien  informSs  de  ses  desseins.  Je  suis  dans  le  plus 
grand  embarras  que  lui  r6pondre.  Je  ne  puis  ni  lui  dire  la  v€rit£ 
ni  le  tromper.  On  croit  ici  que  c'est  sa  moiti6,  a  qui  les  Bals,  festins, 

&c.  du  Ch.  H s,  &c.  ont  tourn£  la  t^te,  qui  le  talonne  pour 

venir  s'etaler  sur  ce  theatre  diplomatique,  ou  il  ne  pourroit  se 
soutenir  d'une  maniere  qui  fut  vraiment  honorable  et  avantageuse 
a  PAm€rique. 

Mon  Epouse  et  ma  fille,  sensibles  a  votre  obligeant  souvenir, 
vous  prient  d'agreer  leurs  sinceres  complimens. 

J'ai  Phonneur  d'etre  parfaitement  Monsieur  Votre  tr£s  humble  et 
tr^s-ob6issant  serviteur  C  W  F  DUMAS 

J*espere  que  vous  avez  de  bonnes  nouvelles  de  la  sante  de  Mr. 

RC  (DLC:  Short  Papers).  Enclosure:       Jay  of  SO  Mch.  1787  and  its  enclosures 

cS?"fw?M  ^M^;^87r,(Z)^    (same-  m'  571-6)-  Bott  °f  these 

Corr.,  1783-89,  m,  567-70).  Dumas  were  forwarded  by  Short  in  his  to  Jay 
may  also  have  enclosed  his  letter  to  of  4  May  1787,  q.v. 


2  7    MARCH     1787 


JAY:  This  was  William  Bingham, 
who  Dumas  feared  would  be  appointed 
minister  to  Holland  from  the  United 
States  (see  TJ  to  Jay,  22  May  1786). 
In  Ills  enclosed  letter  to  Jay,  Dumas 
•warned  again  that  Bingham's  appoint- 
ment "would  give  pleasure  neither  here 
nor  in  France,"  and  in  his  letter  to  Jay 
of  27  Feb.— 2  Men.  he  had  inserted  a 
private  "Note,  which  I  beseech  you, 
sir,  to  keep  for  yourself  alone,  -without 
letting  any  one  else  see  It,  or  know 
that  I  wrote  it."  In  this  note  he  said: 
"Under  the  present  circumstances,  and 
certainly  for  a  long  time  to  come,  as  it 
is  my  duty  to  repeat,  it  is  worse  than 
useless  to  send  any  one  here  as  Minister, 
who,  by  consorting  with  the  Anglo- 
manes  and  idle,  sensual,  gaming  diplo- 
matists, who  are  always  to  be  found 

at  Sir  J H 's,  would  only  give 

umbrage  to  the  party  of  the  Patriots, 
and  of  France,  which  is  fortunately  the 
superior  here.  I  am  authorized,  nay, 
entreated,  sir,  to  impress  this  upon  you, 
and  to  assure  you  that  the  party  I 
have  mentioned  do  not  wish  Congress 
to  send  them  a  mere  Minister  of  eti- 
quette and  ostentation.  In  the  present 
state  of  affairs,  political  as  well  as 
financial,  being  is  better  than  seeming™ 
(Dipl.  Corr.,  1783-89,  m,  567,  570). 

UE  CHEV.  H S  was  Sir  James  Harris 

(  1746-1 82O),  British  minister  to  Hol- 
land who  so  well  understood  the  intri- 
cacies of  parties  in  that  country  that  he 
resorted  not  only  to  BALS,  ITESTINS,  &c. 
but  also  to  bribery,  intrigue,  and  all  the 
other  arts  of  diplomacy  of  -which  he  was 
master.  "Hospitality,"  he  reported  to 
Carmarthen  3  Jan.  1787,  "is  the  life 
and  soul  of  a  party  here,  and  an  able 
cook  goes  as  far,  if  not  further,  than  an 
able  secretary"  (Diaries  and  Corre- 
spondence of  James  Harris,  Pirst  Earl 
of  Malmesbury,  London,  184*5,  H,  222). 
Harris'  grandson,  in  a  single  compre- 
hensive paragraph  and  without  too 
gross  an  exaggeration,  set  forth  the 
important  role  played  by  this  able 
diplomat  in  Holland:  *eThe  Bourbons 
had  been  and  were  still  playing  the 
blind  and  desperate  game  against  us 
in  Holland,  which  they  had  successfully 
used  in  America;  and  encouraged  the 
Dutch  Democrats  with  money,  and 
promises  to  establish  a  pure  Republic 
independent  of  the  Stadtholder.  THEY 
hoped  thus  to  render  the  States  a 
French  province.  OXJR  object  was  to 
fortify  the  national  independence  of 
Holland  under  its  ancient  constitution, 
and  recover  her  friendship  and  alliance. 

In  this  trial  of  skill  we  were  completely 
victorious,  mainly  owing  to  the  boldness 
and  ability  of  Sir  J.  Harris,  who  may 
be  said  to  have  created,  fostered,  and 
matured  a  counter-revolution  in  the 
States,  which  restored  to  the  Stadtholder 
his  power,  to  England  her  ally,  and 
left  nothing  for  the  King  of  France 
but  the  deeper  infection  of  those  dan- 
gerous doctrines,  which  his  Ministers, 
in  their  eagerness  to  spread  them 
amongst  his  enemies,  received  into  the 
vitals  of  his  kingdom,  to  burst  forth 
for  its  destruction  in  1789.  History 
affords  no  instance  of  a  political  retribu- 
tion so  rapid  and  so  crushing"  (same, 
n,  9).  Harris  was  considerably  aided 
in  his  plan  of  an  alliance  between 
England  and  Prussia  to  support  the 
Stadtholder's  party  when,  in  May  1787, 
the  British  ministry  made  available  to 
him  £20,OOO  sterling1  of  secret  service 
money.  Even  before  this  Dumas  re- 
ported that  Harris  "is  employing  every 
means  to  increase  the  Anglomania. 
Pleasures,  fetes,  play,  intrigue,  espio- 
nage, and  corruptions  of  every  kind  are 
set  at  work,  and  with  but  too  much 
success.  The  representatives  of  all  the 
other  Powers,  except  France  and  Spain, 
have  fallen  into  the  snare,  and  become 
devoted  slaves"  (Dumas  to  Jay,  27 
Feb.  1787;  Dipl.  Corr.,  1783-89,  m, 
566).  But  Harris'  success  was  even 
more  insured  by  the  factor  that  caused 
TJ  such  disturbed  reflections— that  is, 
the  failure  of  France  to  give  firm  and 
decisive  support  to  the  republican  cause. 
Soon  after  the  signing  of  the  treaty 
between  Prussia  and  England  in  1788 
Harris  was  created  Earl  of  Malmesbury 
and  was  invested  with  the  Prussian 
Order  of  the  Black  Eagle.  In  these 
interventions  by  the  great  powers  in 
Holland's  internal  struggles  it  is  not 
likely  that  either  B ing-ham's  appoint- 
ment or  Dumas*  continuance  would 
have  affected  the  outcome,  though 
Dumas  was  undoubtedly  correct  in 
thinking  that  Bingham  would  have  been 
drawn  into  the  British  ambassador's 
orbit  (see  TJ  to  Anne  Willing:  Bingham, 
7  Feb.  1787;  TJ  to  Madison,  SO  Jan. 
1787).  For  the  principal  comments  by 
TJ  on  the  civil  conflict  in  Holland,  see 
Autobiography,  Ford,  i,  101-7;  TJ  to 
Jay,  6  Aug1.,  22  and  24  Sep.,  and  3 
Nov.  1787;  16  Mclu  1788;  TJ  to 
Adams,  13  Nov.  1787. 

i  Dumas  erroneously  wrote  "Paris'"; 
this  was  corrected  by  Short,  who  wrote 
"La  Haye"  above  it. 


To  William  Short 

DEAR  SIR  &**  en  Provence  March.  27.  1787. 

I  wrote  to  you  on  the  15th.  from  Lyons,  and  on  my  arrival  here 
had  the  pleasure  to  find  your  favors  of  the  12th.  and  14th.  with 
the  letters  accompanying  them*  In  the  hurry  of  my  departure  from 
Paris  I  omitted  to  explain  myself  to  you  on  the  subject  of  the  map. 
The  kind  of  paper  on  which  they  are  struck  is  not  very  material.  I 
had  intended  50  on  such  paper  as  the  proof  was,  and  200  on  a 
thinner  paper,  more  proper  to  fold  into  a  book.  If  the  plate  is  not 
gone,  I  would  still  wish  to  have  the  latter  parcel  struck  to  give  to 
those  who  have  my  book.  The  250  which  you  may  have  had  struck 
on  thick  paper  will  in  that  case  be  proper  for  sale.  I  would  also  be 
glad  to  have  a  dozen  on  bank  paper,  on  account  of  it's  thinness  and 
not  breaking  on  the  folds.  These  may  be  put  conveniently  into  a 
traveller's  pocket  book.  But  if  the  plate  be  gone,  no  matter,  I  can 
have  all  this  done  in  England.  As  to  the  price  of  the  corrections  it 
was  impossible  for  me  to  settle  that,  as  it  would  depend  on  the  time 
employed.  A  workman  of  that  kind  works  in  England  I  believe  for 
about  two  guineas  a  week,  and  I  conjectured  he  would  be  employed 
two  or  three  weeks:  but  the  real  time  he  was  employed,  and  the 
value  of  his  time  in  France,  I  know  not.  I  will  be  obliged  to  you  if 
you  will  arrange  it  with  him  as  well  as  you  can,  and  draw  the  money 
on  my  account  from  Mr.  Grand.  You  did  perfectly  right  with  M. 
Desmaretz:  I  will  only  beg  you  to  present  him  two  copies  instead  of 
one,  with  my  compliments  and  thanks.—  The  magnets  and  Lack- 
ington's  catalogue  may  await  my  return  to  Paris,  as  I  would  wish 
generally  all  printed  papers  to  do,  except  where  from  their  nature 
and  importance,  you  judge  it  necessary  for  me  to  receive  them 
here.  Have  you  ever  had  an  answer  from  Mr.  Ogilvie  on  the  subject 
of  the  seeds  sent  by  Mr.  Eppes?  If  not,  I  will  beg  of  you  to  write 
again,  as  they  may  be  rotting  in  Mr.  Skipwith's  magazine.  I  thank 
you  for  the  list  of  Virginia  acts.  Does  not  the  adjournment  to  the 
last  of  March  shew  they  are  not  to  meet  again?  That  was  the  day 
formerly  which  preceded  the  expiration  of  their  appointment.— 
With  respect  to  the  ultimate  act  necessary  to  enforce  the  new  com- 
mercial arrangements  promised  by  M.  de  Calonnes,  you  will  cer- 
tainly be  received  and  considered  in  the  bureaux,  not  as  a  common 
messenger,  but  as  speaking  in  my  name;  the  only  difference  between 
yourself  and  a  Secretary  of  legation,  in  this  particular,  being  that 
the  latter  speaks  in  the  name  of  his  state.  But  the  only  bureaux  to 


27    MARCH     1787 

which  we  can  apply  with  propriety,  or  without  offence,  are  those  of 
M.  de  Calonne,  or  M.  de  Montmorin,  and  applications  to  these 
should  only  be  so  made  as  to  prevent  the  objects  being  forgotten, 
and  not  so  as  to  produce  any  soreness,  or  to  revolt  them  against  us. 
We  have  the  promise  that  the  regulation  shall  be  retrospective  to 
the  date  of  M.  de  Calonne's  letter  to  me,  and  that  if  any  duties  are 
paid  in  the  mean  time,  they  shall  be  refunded.  On  a  question  there- 
fore whether  temporary  advancements  by  individuals,  or  an  irrita- 
tion of  the  minister,  will  produce  the  greatest  ill  to  the  public,  there 
can  be  no  hesitation.  Mr.  Barrett's  good  sense  in  particular  will 
relieve  you  from  all  difficulty  in  this  matter,  and  the  easiest  way 
to  get  out  of  every  difficulty,  invariably,  is  to  do  what  is  right.  The 
M.  de  la  fayette,  seeing  M.  de  Calonnes  every  day,  will  be  able 
perhaps  to  obtain  his  order  for  expediting  it.  I  do  not  know  whether 
to  condole  with,  or  to  congratulate  the  Marquis  on  the  death  of  M. 
de  [Simiane].  The  man  who  shoots  himself  in  the  climate  of  Aix 
must  be  a  bloody  minded  fellow  indeed. — I  am  now  in  the  land  of 
corn,  wine,  oil,  and  sunshine.  What  more  can  man  ask  of  heaven?  If 
I  should  happen  to  die  at  Paris  I  will  beg  of  you  to  send  me  here, 
and  have  me  exposed  to  the  sun.  I  am  sure  it  will  bring  me  to  life 
again.  It  is  wonderful  to  me  that  every  free  being  who  possesses  cent 
ecus  de  rente,  does  not  remove  to  the  Southward  of  the  Loire.  It  is 
true  that  money  will  carry  to  Paris  most  of  the  good  things  of  this 
canton.  But  it  cannot  carry  thither  it's  sunshine,  nor  procure  any 
equivalent  for  it.  This  city  is  one  of  the  cleanest  and  neatest  I  have 
ever  seen  in  any  country.  The  streets  are  straight,  from  20.  to  100 
feet  wide,  and  as  clean  as  a  parlour  floor.  Where  they  are  of  width 
sufficient  they  have  1.  2.  or  4.  rows  of  elms  from  10O  to  150  years 
old,  which  make  delicious  walks.  There  are  no  portes-cocheres,  so 
that  the  buildings  shew  themselves  advantageously  on  the  streets. 
It  is  in  a  valley  just  where  it  begins  to  open  towards  the  mouth  of 
the  Rhone,  forming  in  that  direction  a  boundless  plain  which  is 
an  entire1  grove  of  olive  trees,  and  is  moreover  in  corn,  lucerne,  or 
vines,  for  the  happiness  of  the  olive  tree  is  that  it  interferes  with  no 
superficial  production.   Probably  it  draws  it's  nourishment  from 
parts  out  of  the  reach  of  any  other  plant.  It  takes  well  in  every  soil, 
but  best  where  it  is  poorest,  or  where  there  is  none.  Comparing 
the  Beaujolois  with  Provence,  the  former  is  of  the  richest  soil,  the 
latter  richest  in  it's  productions.  But  the  climate  of  Beaujolois  can- 
not be  compared  with  this.  I  expect  to  find  the  situation  of  Mar- 
seilles still  pleasanter:  business  will  carry  me  thither  soon,  for  a 


2  8    MARCH    1787 

pleasure  in.  shewing  every  attention  which  can  contribute  to  make 
the  passage  more  comfortable.— At  the  request  of  this  lady  I  am  to 
sollicit  your  favour,  in  a  matter,  which  is  not  in  your  official  line 
(in  that  indeed  I  could  have  nothing  to  say  to  you)  but  in  which, 
as  justice  is  concerned  in  it,  you  probably  will  think  it  not  an  un- 
pleasant business  to  interfere,  only  so  far  as  she  requests. — This 
return  to  her  country  is  designed  as  a  separation  from  Mr.  Oster, 
being  the  effect  of  an  inveterate  connubial  disagreement.  She  thinks 
that  she  has  reason  to  believe,  that  he  has  writen  to  the  Minister, 
to  have  her  confined  in  a  convent,  where  she  might  be  kept  at  less 
cost  to  him  than  in  any  other  way.  He  charges  her  with  extrava- 
gance and  insanity,  of  neither  of  which  have  I,  or  those  who  are  more 
intimate  with  her  than  my  self,  been  able  to  discover  the  smallest 
sign.  Those  who  have  had  the  best  opportunity  of  knowing  her  are 
impressed  with  sentiments  much  in  her  favour;  and  altho  I  am  free 
to  confess,  that  in  disputes  of  this  sort  I  am  apt  to  suspect  that  there 
are  some  faults  perhaps  on  both  sides,  yet  it  seems  very  probable 
that  Mr.  Oster's  aversion  discolours  in  his  eyes  her  whole  conduct, 
and  makes  him  see  faults  where  others  can  find  none. — It  is  by  no 
means  my  wish  to  raise  any  prejudice  against  Mr.  Oster;  to  me 
he  has  been  uniformly  polite,  nor  am  I  acquainted  with  any  thing 
in  his  character,  which  can  be  the  subject  of  reprehension,  except 
in  the  single  instance  of  his  behaviour  to  his  wife.  My  only  wish  is 
to  guard  against  prejudice,  and  to  prevent  the  condemnation  of  a 
lady  unheard.  Mrs.  Oster  only  requests,  that  [no]  measures  may  be 
taken  against  her,  without  gtiving  her  a]n  opportunity  of]  pro- 
ducing such  satisfactory  vouchers  res[pecting  her  character?]   as 
she  thinks  she  can  at  any  time  procure. — If  [those  immediately?] 
connected  with  it,  were  to  come  on  before   a  public  tribunal  of 
justice,  it  would  be  proper  to  leave  it  there,  upon  the  proofs  adduced 
on  each  side.  But  if,  as  Mrs.  Oster  fears,  the  shorter  method  should 
be  taken,  her  friends  here  have  no  opportunity  of  informing  the 
mind  of  the  Minister,  unless  you,  Sir,  should  see  nothing  amiss  in 
using  the  access  which  your  public  character  gives  you,  to  lay  be- 
fore him  a  caveat  in  her  behalf. — I  request  the  favour  that  your 
Excellency  would  present  my  very  respectful  compliments  to  Mr. 
Short,   and  Mr.  Mazzei;   tell  the  latter  that  I  have  in   vain   en- 
deavoured to  procure  some  money  for  him,  but  I  believe  Mr.  Mattw. 
Anderson  will  makq  him  a  remitance  shortly,  if  he  have  not  done 
it  already.  If  I  were  writing  to  him  now,  I  would  ask  him,  if  he 
did  not  think  it  possible  for  wives  to  be  less  in  the  wrong  than  their 


28    MARCH    1787 

husbands,— I  have  the  pleasure  to  acquaint  you,  that  all  your  friends 
this  way  are  well,  except  that  Mr.  Wythe  seems  to  have  much  un- 
easiness on  account  of  his  lady's  ill  state  of  health.  Yet  this  is  not 
likely  to  hinder  his  going  to  Philadelphia  in  May,  in  order  to  attend 
the  convention,  which  is  to  take  under  consideration  the  amend- 
ments necessary  to  be  made  in  the  American  Confederation. 

With  the  greatest  respect,  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Your  Ex- 
cellency's most  obedient  &  affectionate  servant,         JOHN  BLAIR 

RC   (DLC);  endorsed.  MS  is  slightly  June   1787. 

torn  at  both  edges  of  text;  the  words  in  TJ's     YOUNGER    DAUGHTER     (Mary) 

brackets  have  been   supplied   conjectur-  did    not    accompany    Mrs.     Oster     (see 

ally.   Recorded   in   SJL    as    received   22  Banister  to   TJ,    6   May    1787). 

To  Martha  Jefferson 

Aix  en  Provence  March.  28.  1787. 

I  was  happy,  my  dear  Patsy,  to  receive,  on  my  arrival  here,  your 
letter  informing  me  of  your  health  and  occupations.  I  have  not  writ- 
ten to  you  sooner  because  I  have  been  almost  constantly  on  the 
road*  My  journey  hitherto  has  been  a  very  pleasing  one.  It  was 
undertaken  with  the  hope  that  the  mineral  waters  of  this  place 
might  restore  strength  to  my  wrist.  Other  considerations  also  con- 
curred. Instruction,  amusement,  and  abstraction  from  business,  of 
which  I  had  too  much  at  Paris.  I  am  glad  to  learn  that  you  are 
employed  in  things  new  and  good  in  your  music  and  drawing1.  You 
know  what  have  been  my  fears  for  some  time  past;  that  you  do  not 
employ  yourself  so  closely  as  I  could  wish.  You  have  promised  me 
a  more  assiduous  attention,  and  I  have  great  confidence  in  what 
you  promise.  It  is  your  future  happiness  which  interests  me,  and 
nothing  can  contribute  more  to  it  (moral  rectitude  always  excepted  ) 
than  the  contracting  a  habit  of  industry  and  activity.  Of  all  the 
cankers  of  human  happiness,  none  corrodes  it  with  so  silent,  yet 
so  baneful  a  tooth,  as  indolence.  Body  and  mind  both  unemployed, 
our  being  becomes  a  burthen,  and  every  object  about  us  loathsome, 
even  the  dearest.  Idleness  begets  ennui,  ennui  the  hypochrondria, 
and  that  a  diseased  body.  No  laborious  person  was  ever  yet  hys- 
tericaL  Exercise  and  application  produce  order  in  our  affairs,  health 
of  body,  chearfulness  of  mind,  and  these  make  us  precious  to  our 
friends.  It  is  while  we  are  young  that  the  habit  of  industry  is 
formed.  If  not  then,  it  never  is  afterwards.  The  fortune  of  our  lives 
therefore  depends  on  employing  well  the  short  period  of  youth.  If 


2  8    MARCH     1787 

at  any  moment,  my  dear,  you  catch  yourself  in  idleness,  start  from 
it  as  you  would  from  the  precipice  of  a  gulph.  You  are  not  however 
to  consider  yourself  as  unemployed  while  taking  exercise.  That  is 
necessary  for  your  health,  and  health  is  the  first  of  all  objects.  For 
this  reason  if  you  leave  your  dancing  master  for  the  summer,  you 
must  increase  your  other  exercise.  I  do  not  like  your  saying  that 
you  are  unable  to  read  the  antient  print  of  your  Livy,  but  with  the 
aid  of  your  master.  We  are  always  equal  to  what  we  undertake  with 
resolution.  A  little  degree  of  this  will  enable  you  to  decypher  your 
Livy.  If  you  always  lean  on  your  master,  you  will  never  be  able  to 
proceed  without  him.  It  is  a  part  of  the  American  character  to 
consider  nothing  as  desperate;  to  surmount  every  difficulty  by  res- 
olution and  contrivance.  In  Europe  there  are  shops  for  every  want- 
It's  inhabitants  therefore  have  no  idea  that  their  wants   can  be 
furnished  otherwise.  Remote  from  all  other  aid,  we  are  obliged  to 
invent  and  to  execute;  to  find  means  within  ourselves,  and  not  to 
lean  on  others.  Consider  therefore  the  conquering  your  Livy  as  an 
exercise  in  the  habit  of  surmounting  difficulties,  a  habit  which  will 
be  necessary  to  you  in  the  country  where  you  are  to  live,  and  with- 
out which  you  will  be  thought  a  very  helpless  animal,  and  less 
esteemed.  Music,  drawing,  books,  invention  and  exercise  will  be 
so  many  resources  to  you  against  ennui.  But  there  are  others  which 
to  this  object  add  that  of  utility.  These  axe  the  needle,  and  do- 
mestic oeconomy.  The  latter  you  cannot  learn  here,  but  the  former 
you  may.  In  the  country  life  of  America  there  are  many  moments 
when  a  woman  can  have  recourse  to  nothing  but  her  needle  for 
employment.  In  a  dull  company  and  in  dull  weather  for  instance. 
It  is  ill  manners  to  read;  it  is  ill  manners  to  leave  them;  no  card- 
playing  there  among  genteel  people;  that  is  abandoned  to  black- 
guards. The  needle  is  then  a  valuable  resource.  Besides  without 
knowing  to  use  it  herself,  how  can  the  mistress  of  a  family  direct 
the  works  of  her  servants?  You  ask  me  to  write  you  long  letters. 
I  will  do  it  my  dear,  on  condition  you  will  read  them  from  time  to 
time,  and  practice  what  they  will  inculcate.   Their  precepts  will 
be  dictated  by  experience,  by  a  perfect  knowlege  of  the  situation 
in  which  you  will  be  placed,  and  by  the  fondest  love  for  you.  This 
it  is  which  makes  me  wish  to  see  you  more  qualified  than  common. 
My  expectations  from  you  are  high:  yet  not  higher  than  you  may 
attain.  Industry  and  resolution  are  all  that  are  wanting.  No  body 
in  this  world  can  make  me  so  happy,  or  so  miserable  as  you.  Re- 
tirement from  public  life  will  ere  long  become  necessary  for  me. 


28    MARCH    1787 

To  your  sister  and  yourself  I  look  to  render  the  evening  of  my  life 
serene  and  contented.  It's  morning  has  been  clouded  by  loss  after 
loss  till  I  have  nothing-  left  but  you.  I  do  not  doubt  either  your 
affection  or  dispositions.  But  great  exertions  are  necessary,  and 
you  have  little  time  left  to  make  them.  Be  industrious  then,  my  dear 
child.  Think  nothing  unsurmountable  by  resolution  and  applica- 
tion, and  you  will  be  all  that  I  wish  you  to  be.  You  ask  me  if  it  is 
my  desire  you  should  dine  at  the  abbess's  table?  It  is.  Propose  it 
as  such  to  Madame  de  Traubenheim  with  my  respectful  compli- 
ments and  thanks  for  her  care  of  you.  Continue  to  love  me  with 
all  the  warmth  with  which  you  are  beloved  by,  my  dear  Patsy, 
yours  affectionately,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

RC   (NNP).  PrC   (MHi). 

From  the  Rev.  James  Madison 

DEAR  SIR  Cca.  28  Mch.  1787] 

Mrs.  Oster,  an  agreable  and  amiable,  but  unfortunate  French 
Lady  will  deliver  this.  And  tho'  I  have  Nothing  worth  communicat- 
ing, I  could  not  refrain,  on  so  favourable  an  opportunity,  of  once 
more  testifying  the  sincere  Wishes  I  always  entertain  for  your 
Happiness  whilst  so  remote  from  your  native  land,  and  also  Ac- 
knowledgments which  are  due  for  past  Favours. 

I  sent,  some  Time  past,  a  small  Collection  of  Marine  Produc- 
tions, which  I  hope  arrived  safe.  I  wish  however  I  had  reserved 
them  for  this  opportunity,  as  you  may  probably  think  them  not 
unworthy  of  attention. 

In  this  State  we  enjoy  a  perfect  Tranquility.  It  could  be  wished 
the  situation  was  the  same  to  the  North  of  us.  The  Beginnings  of  a 
civil  war  there,  appear  to  some  as  Proofs  of  the  Instability  and 
misery  inseperable  from  a  Republican  Government.  But  to  others, 
who  I  trust  judge  better,  they  appear  only  as  the  Symptoms  of  a 
strong  and  healthy  Constitution,  which,  after  discharging  a  few 
peccant  Humours,  will  be  restored  to  new  Vigour. 

All  the  States  except  Connecticut  have  agreed  to  send  Deputies 
to  the  Convention  which  is  to  meet  at  Phila.  in  May  for  the 
Purpose  of  strengthening  the  Confederacy.  And  it  is  supposed  that 
Connecticut  will  finally  come  into  the  Plan,  from  which  the  good 
Patriots  expect  permanent  Advantages. 

Believe  me  to  be,  Dr.  Sir,  with  the  most  sincere  Esteem  Yr. 
Friend  &  Servt.,  j  MADISON 

2  9    MARCH     1787 

I  have  just  been  honoured  by  Genl.  Chastellux  with  a  Copy 
of  his  Travels  thro  N.  America.  I  find  It  is  but  little  relished  by 
most  here. 

RC      (DLC);      endorsed:      "Madison  letter  from   Madison   that   TJ  recorded 

James    (Coll[ege])";   without   date,  but  in  SJTL  as  received  522  June  1787,  alon# 

written   before    29    Mch.    (see    Blair  to  with    Blair's     and     a     (missing-)     letter 

TJ,  28  Mch.  1787;  Gary  to  TJ,  21  Mch,  from   Wilson    Miles    Gary    of    28    Mch. 

1787).   This   is   evidently   the   undated  1787. 

To  William  Short 

DEAR  SIR  Aix  Mar.  29.  1787. 

Mine  of  the  27th.  acknowleged  the  receipt  of  your  favors  of  the 
12th.  and  14th.  to  which  I  must  now  add  that  of  the  22d.  which 
came  to  hand  yesterday.  Be  so  good  as  to  give  M.  de  Crevecoeur 
two  maps  and  a  copy  of  my  book  which  I  promised  him.  I  am  not 
certain  whether  I  left  the  new  leaves  so  that  you  can  find  them.  If 
I  did,  I  wish  them  to  accompany  the  book.  I  think  the  engraver's 
charges  reasonable.  The  packet  from  the  Swedish  Ambassador  is 
too  large  to  come  on  by  post  and  probably  not  of  pressing  im- 
portance. With  respect  to  the  seeds  from  London,  that  Mde.  de 
Tess6  may  not  form  high  expectations  from  them  it  is  necessary 
to  observe  to  her  that  they  are  only  of  three  or  four  kinds.  There 
is  a  great  quantity  of  each,  having  been  written  for  on  the  request 
of  M.  de  Malesherbes,  who  plants  whole  forests  of  every  kind.  Mde, 
de  Tesse  will  be  so  good  as  to  take  of  each  as  much  as  she  pleases, 
and  the  residue  after  she  is  supplied  I  directed  Petit  to  send  to  M.  de 
Malesherbe's  hotel.  It  was  proper  to  accompany  the  medals  with 
a  letter  to  Mr.  Jay,  and  I  think  it  would  be  of  advantage  to  you  to 
write  to  him  on  any  other  good  occasions.  With  respect  to  the 
partition  of  your  time  bet-ween  Paris  and  St.  Germain's,  I  should 
suppose  it  controuled  by  no  circumstance  but  your  own  inclination. 
If  you  take  the  trouble  once  a  week  to  see  whether  any  thing  has 
arisen  which  you  can  dispatch  yourself,  or  which  would  require 
a  communication  to  me,  it  will  certainly  suf&ce.  If  Colo.  Smith 
comes  to  Paris,  tell  him.  how  much  I  shall  accuse  fortune  for  having 
so  illy  timed  my  absence  from  thence,  and  that  this  is  spoken  from 
the  sincerity  of  my  heart.  I  regret  the  loss  of  any  opportunity  of 
discharging  some  of  the  debts  of  gratitude  and  inclination  which 
I  owe  him. — I  did  not  see  Mount  Cenis.  My  plan  was  to  have  gone 
to  Montbard  which  was  on  the  left  of  my  road,  and  then  to  have 
crossed  again  to  the  right  to  Mount  Cenis.  But  there  were  no  posts 

C  253  ] 

29    MARCH     1787 

on  these  roads,  the  obtaining  horses  was  difficult  and  precarious, 
and  a  constant  storm  of  wind,  hail,  snow,  and  rain  offered  me  little 
occasion  of  seeing  any  thing.  I  referred  it  therefore  to  some  future 
excursion  from  Fontainebleau.  The  groupe  of  which  M.  de  Laye 
spoke  to  you  carries  the  perfection  of  the  chissel  to  a  degree  of 
which  I  had  no  conception.  It  is  the  only  thing  in  sculpture  which 
I  have  seen  on  my  journey  worthy  of  notice.  In  painting  I  have  seen 
good  things  at  Lyons  only.  In  Architecture  nothing  any  where  ex- 
cept the  remains  of  antiquity.  These  are  more  in  number,  and  less 
injured  by  time  than  I  expected,  and  have  been  to  me  a  great  treat. 
Those  at  Nismes,  both  in  dignity  and  preservation,  stand  first. 
There  is  however  at  Aries  an  Amphitheatre  as  large  as  that  of 
Nismes,  the  external  walls  of  which  from  the  top  of  the  arches  down- 
wards is  well  preserved.  Another  circumstance  contrary  to  my 
expectation  is  the  change  of  language.  I  had  thought  the  Provengale 
only  a  dialect  of  the  French;  on  the  contrary  the  French  may  rather 
be  considered  as  a  dialect  of  the  Provengale.  That  is  to  say,  the 
Latin  is  the  original.  Tuscan1  and  Spanish  are  degeneracies  in  the 
first  degree.  Piedmontese  (as  I  suppose)  in  the  2d.  Provengale  in 
the  3d.  and  Parisian  French  in  the  4th.  But  the  Provengale  stands 
nearer  to  the  Tuscan  than  it  does  to  the  French,  and  it  is  my  Italian 
which  enables  me  to  understand  the  people  here,  more  than  my 
French.  This  language,  in  different  shades  occupies  all  the  country 
South  of  the  Loire.  Formerly  it  took  precedence  of  the  French 
under  the  name  of  la  langue  Romans.  The  ballads  of  it's  Trouba- 
dours were  the  delight  of  the  several  courts  of  Europe,  and  it  is 
from  thence  that  the  novels  of  the  English  are  called  Romances. 
Every  letter  is  pronounced,  the  articulation  is  distinct,  no  nasal 
sounds  disfigure  it,  and  on  the  whole  it  stands  close  to  the  Italian 
and  Spanish  in  point  of  beauty.  I  think  it  a  general  misfortune  that 
historical  circumstances  gave  a  final  prevalence  to  the  French  in- 
stead of  the  Provengale  language.  It  loses  it's  ground  slowly,  and 
will  ultimately  disappear  because  there  are  few  books  written  in  it, 
and  because  it  is  thought  more  polite  to  speak  the  language  of  the 
Capital.  Yet  those  who  learn  that  language  here,  pronounce  it  as 
the  Italians  do.  We  were  last  night  treated  with  Alexis  and  Justine, 
and  Mazet,  in  which  the  most  celebrated  actress  from  Marseilles 
caine  to  bear  a  part  for  the  advantage  of  her  friend  whose  benefit 
night  it  was.  She  is  in  the  stile  of  Mde.  Dugazon,  has  ear,  voice, 
taste  and  action.  She  is  moreover  young  and  handsome:  and  has 
an  advantage  over  Mde.  Dugazon  and  some  other  of  the  cele- 


SO    MARCH    1787 

brated  ones  of  Paris,  in  being  clear  of  that  dreadful  wheeze  or 
rather  whistle  in  respiration  which  resembles  the  agonizing  strug- 
gles for  breath  in  a  dying  person. — I  thank  you  for  your  information 
of  the  health  of  my  daughter*  My  respects  to  the  family  of  Chaville 
are  always  to  be  understood  if  not  expressed.  To  Mr.  and  Mde.  de 
la  Fayette  also,  Messrs.  Mazzei,  Pio  and  Crevecoeur,  I  wish  to  be 
presented.  Be  assured  as  to  yourself  that  no  person  can  more  sin- 
cerely wish  your  prosperity  and  happiness,  nor  entertain  warmer 
sentiments  of  esteem  than  Dear  Sir  your  affectionate  humble 

RC   (ViW);  TPs  signature  has  been  jolois,   a   delicious   morsel   of   sculpture, 

cut  away;  endorsed:  *  Jefferson  March  29  by    Michael    Ang^elo     Slodtz"     (TJ    to 

[received]  April  5  1787."  Madame    de    Tesse*,    2O    Mch.    1787), 

The  GROUPE  OF  WHICH  M.  DE  LAYE  which  evidently  has  disappeared. 
SPOKE  (see  Short  to  TJ,  22  Mch.  1787) 

was  the   Diana  and  Endymion   **at  the  1  This  word  interlined  in  substitution 

Chateau  de  Laye  Epinaye  in  the  Beau-  for  "Italian,"  deleted. 

From  John  Bondfield 

SIR  Bordeaux  30  March  1787 

I  have  the  honor  to  transmit  you  inclosed  Bill  of  Loading  for 
Sixty  three  Cases  of  Arms  shipt  on  board  the  Sally  Captain  Gilkin- 
son  for  Virginia.  The  Ship  sails  to  morrow  and  is  a  good  Vessel 
and  will  I  hope  arrive  safe. 

By  the  Ship  I  transmit  the  Inspectors  Certificate  with  the  In- 
voices received  from,  the  Manufactory  and  the  Bill  of  Loading  to 
His  Excellency  the  Governor  of  Virginia.  I  shall  have  a  reimburs- 
ment  to  make  to  you  as  the  Duties  inward  will  be  repaid  me  in 
Virtue  of  the  Passport  on  their  Shipment. 

I  have  been  some  Days  in  expectation  of  seeing  you  at  Bordeaux, 
Mr,  Grand  having  wrote  Mr.  feger  of  your  intentions  to  pay  us  a 
Visit.  With  due  Respect  I  have  the  honor  to  be  Sir  your  most 
obedient  Humble  servant,  JOHN  BONDFIELD 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en- 
Provence.  The  copy  of  the  bill  of  lading-  sent  to  TJ  has  not  been  found,  but  that 
sent  to  the  governor  of  Virginia  and  Bondfield's  letter  in  which  it  was  enclosed 
are  in  "VI. 

From  Francis  Eppes 

DR.  SIR  Eppington  March  3O.  1787. 

I  wrote  you  last  fall  and  sent  to  the  care  of  Messrs.  Fulwer 

[255  ] 

30   MARCH    1787 

Skipwith  and  Co.  a  box  containing  about  a  bushel  of  the  cones  and 
berries  of  the  Holly.  The  Ceeder  berries  accompanies  this  which 
will  be  convey'd  in  a  vessle  belonging  to  Messrs.  Shore  &  McCon- 
nico  of  Petersburg  bound  to  Havedegrass.  Every  method  in  my 
power  has  been  tryd  to  procure  the  Murtle  berries.  Many  Gentle- 
men in  the  lower  country  have  promis'd  to  send  me  about  a  bushel, 
however  as  yet  none  have  arrivd.  As  soon  as  they  do  they  shall  be 
forwarded  by  the  first  safe  opportunity.  I  was  at  Monticello  in 
September.  It  was  then  too  early  to  determin  with  certainty  what 
quantity  of  Tobacco  woud  be  made,  however  I  think  the  crop  will 
not  exceed  fifty  hhds.  including  what  will  be  made  in  Bedford.  I 
have  not  herd  from  the  plantations  or  Colo.  Lewis  since  I  left  them 
in  September  for  which  reason  its  out  of  my  power  to  give  you  any 
satisfaction  respecting  them,  tho'  supose  Colo.  Lewis  has  given  you 
every  information  you  wish  as  well  as  transmitted  you  the  accounts 
for  the  last  year,  as  he  at  present  has  the  whole  management  of 
your  affairs.  You  may  assure  your  self  my  not  acting  does  not 
proceed  from  any  disrespect  to  you  or  an  inclination  to  save  my 
self  trouble  but  from  a  thorow  conviction  that  a  business  like  yours 
can  be  managed  to  much  greater  advantage  by  one  person  on  the 
spot  than  by  any  two  men  in  this  country  seperated  as  far  as  Colo. 
Lewis  and  my  self.  Added  to  this  I  know  you  as  well  my  self  have 
full  confidence  in  Colo.  Lewis's  integrity  and  good  management. 

Polly  is  very  well  and  will  sail  by  the  first  good  opportunity.  We 
have  some  expectations  that  she  will  go  under  the  protection  of 
the  French  Consol  and  his  Lady  who  we  hear  intend  for  Europe 
this  Spring.  A  Friend  of  Mine  has  Writen  to  the  Consol  on  the 
subject  and  I  expect  an  answer  every  moment.  She  is  in  high  health 
and  I  hope  will  be  able  to  bare  the  Fatigues  of  the  voyage  very 
well.  We  are  all  well  and  unite  in  our  wishes  for  your  health  and 
happyness.  I  have  inclosd  you  a  letter  from  Mr.  Beall  of  Wmburg. 
which  will  inform  you  of  the  fate  of  the  claret  you  were  so  obliging 
as  to  send  us.  The  two  boxes  shipped  by  Mr.  Bondfield  are  arrived. 
One  we  have  got  at  home,  the  other  we  shall  shortly  have  as  its  in 
possession  of  a  Friend  of  mine.  I  am  Dr.  Sir  with  much  esteem 
Your  Friend  &  Sevt,  FRANS.  EPPES 

RC  (ViU);  addressed  and  endorsed,  to  Mr.  Jno.  Bondfield  of  Bordeaux  and 

Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  27  May  the  goods  were  stored  with  Messrs.  Coop- 

1787  at  Bordeaux.  Enclosure:   Samuel  ers  of  Portsmouth";  that  some  of  the 

Beall  to  Daniel  McCullum,  Williams-  cargo  had  been  sent  from  Portsmouth  by 

burg,  3  Dec.  1786,  informing  him  that  Bondfield  for  him  to  sell;  and  that  he 

the  "Vessel  that  is  said  to  have  brought  would  write  at  once  to  obtain  informa- 

the  Claret  for  Mr.  Eppes,  discharged  tion  about  the  claret  (MHi). 
omder  the  care  of  Mr.  Bonfield,  Nephew         The  FRIEND  who  wrote  to  the  French 


30    MARCH     1787 

CONSOL  (Martin  Oster)  evidently  did  an  intentional  separation  from  Oster 
not  know  that  Mrs.  Oster  was  g-oing-  to  (see  Blair  to  TJ,  28  Mch.  1787;  Ban- 
France  alone  and  that  her  voyage  -was  ister  to  TJ,  6  May  1787). 

From  Ferdinand  Grand 

MONSIEUR  [ca.  30  Mch.  1787] 

JPai  a  repondre  aux  lettres  que  vous  m'av6z  fait  Phonneur  de 
m'ecrire  le  28  du  pass6  et  le  15  du  courant.  J'ai  pris  notte  des  dis- 
positions dont  vous  me  chargez  par  la  premiere,  en  consequence  de 
laquelle  j'ai  deja  accepte  la  traitte  de  £550O.  que  M.  Carmichael 
a  fait  sur  moi  pour  compte  des  Etats  unis. 

«Tai  rembourse  Messrs.  Finguerlin  et  Scherer  des  £1500.  que 
vous  en  avez  recues.  Je  n'ai  pas  encore  avis  du  payement  de  £4OO 
dont  vous  les  avez  prie"s. 

Quant  a  Messrs.  Vandenyver  freres  &  Ce.  sur  la  demande  que 
je  leur  ai  f  aite  et  de  la  somme  que  vous  nVaviez  charg6  de  recevoir 
d'eux  et  qui  est  de  £17500.  a  ce  quails  m'ont  dit,  ils  desirent  d'en 
avoir  un  ordre  de  votre  part  pour  me  livrer  cet  argent.  Veuillez 
done  me  le  transmettre,  et  j7y  joindrai  mon  regu  de  la  somme. 

Les  Stances  des  Bureaux  de  la  grande  assemblee  continuent.  Ils 
s'occupent  maintenant  de  la  troisieme  section  qui  a  pour  objet  les 
Domaines  et  les  forests  du  Roy.  La  4e.  et  dernier e  concernera  Tad- 
ministration  des  finances  et  le  credit.  Les  Memoires  remis  de  la 
part  du  Roy  aux  Notables  seront  publics  aujourdhui. 

JPespere,  Monsieur,  que  vous  £tes  toujours  ^galement  content 
de  votre  sante,  et  que  vous  le  serez  des  Douches  d'Aix,  ainsi  que 
du  progrfcs  de  votre  voyage.  Si  je  puis  en  aucune  manidre  contribuer 
a  son  agr^ment,  je  vous  reitSre  ma  priere  de  vouloir  bien  disposer 
librement  de  tout  ce  qui  peut  d^pendre  de  moi  a  cet  6gard. 

Je  suis  avec  respect  Monsieur  Votre  tres  humble  et  tr£s  obeissant- 
Serviteur,  GRAND 

RC    (DLC);  undated;  at  foot  of  first  evidently  a  letter  notifying-  him  that  he 

page:    "Monsieur  Th.  Jefferson   a  Mar-  had  on  that  day  drawn  on  Grand  in  the 

seilles";    endorsed.   Recorded   in   SJL   as  amount    of     1,5OO    livres    in    favor    of 

received  6  Apr.  1787  at  Marseilles.  JVTESSRS.   FIMGUERLIN  ET  SCHERER  (Ac- 

TJPs    letter    to    Grand    of    LE    15    r>u  count  Book  under  15  Mch.  1787). 
COURANT  has  not  been  found,  but  it  was 

From  Madame  de  Tesse 

a  Paris  ce  3O  mars. 

Vous  m'aves  fait  parcourir  hier  bien  des  siScles,  Monsieur,  par 
la  peinture  des  differ  ens  rnouvemens  qui  vous  agitent  &  la  vue  des 


3  0    MARCH     1787 

antiques  Romaines  du  midi  de  la  France.  Elles^  m'ont  semblg 
d6crites  pour  la  premiere  fois  parcequ'elles  m'inspiroient  une  im- 
pression nouvelle.  Je  me  suis  trouvge  en  Socigtg  avec  hom&re, 
Licurgue  et  Solon,  parcourant  les  vestiges  de  la  grandeur  Egyp- 
tienne,  j'ai  vft  Cic€ron  s'indigner  de  ce  que  le  tombeau  d'archimfede 
6toit  ignor^  a  Syracuse,  je  me  suis  6lanc£e  dans  les  sifccles  k  venir, 
et  j'ai  distingu^  la  jeunesse  am6ricaine  lisant  avec  ardeur  et 
admiration  tout  ce  qu'on  aura  Recueilli  de  vos  voyages.  Lorsque 
la  Richesse  de  son  sol  et  Pexcellence  de  son  gouvernement  auront 
portg  PAm6rique  Septentrionale  au  plus  haut  d&gr&  de  Splendeur, 
que  le  midi  suivra  son  £xemple,  que  vous  aur€s  donn6  des  soins  & 
la  moitig  du  globe,  on  cherchera  peutgtre  les  vestiges  de  Paris 
comme  on  fait  aujourdlmy  ceux  de  Pantique  Babylone,  et  les 
memoires  de  Mr.  Jefferson  conduiront  les  voyageurs  avides  des 
antiquites  Romaines  et  Francoises  qui  se  confondront  alors.  Telles 
sont,  Monsieur,  les  pens£es  qui  m'ont  remplie  toute  la  soir6e  dliier. 
Mr.  Mazz€i  m'6tant  venu  voir,  je  lui  ai  lu  votre  lettre  comme  on 
lisoit  sans  doute  celle  des  apdtres  dans  Passembl£e  des  premiers 
Chretiens,  pour  m'assurer  que  je  sentois  la  valeur  de  chacune  de 
vos  impressions.  Tout  ce  qui  porte  une  petite  empreinte  de  culte 
apelle  naturellement  Mr.  Mazz6i. 

Mr.  Short  passe  beaucoup  de  terns  £  St.  Germain,  mais  il  fait 
des  courses  £  Paris  et  ne  manque  pas  de  me  venir  voir  pour  me 
persuader  qu'il  y  demeure.  Je  lui  ai  caus£  il  y  a  trois  jours  une 
plaisante  importunity.  II  y  a  SL  peu  prds  quinze  jours  que,  d6sirant 
quelque  chose  d'angleterre,  j'gcrivis  k  Mr.  barthelemi,  charge  des 
affaires  de  France.  Le  douzifcme  jour  apr^s  je  Regus  par  la  diligence 
la  chose  demand€e.  Cela  me  fit  nattre  Tidge  de  m'adresser  il  Mr. 
barthelemi  pour  vaincre,  pardonn£s  moi  1'expression,  1'indolence 
de  votre  correspondant  am^ricain  ^L  Londres.  Ses  yeux  tou jours 
fixes  sur  la  Tamise  ne  peuvent  s'en  detacher  un  instant,  c'est  en 
vain  que  Mr.  Short  Pa  pri6  de  mettre  ^.  la  diligence  la  caisse  de 
graines  arriv6es  de  la  Virginie.  Cette  malheureuse  caisse  attend 
toujours  qu'on  exp6die  un  vaisseau  pour  le  Havre.  J'ai  demands  £ 
Mr,  Short  une  lettre  pour  ce  digne  commergant  et  Pai  adress£e  a 
Mr.  barthelemi  qui  ira  le  trouver  et  le  d^terminera  It  prendre  la 
voie  de  terre.  J*espere  que  vous  ne  taxer^s  point  ma  d6marche 
d'indiscr^tion,  parcequ'elle  est  sans  inconvenient  et  qu'en  attendant 
votre  Rgponse  pour  la  faire,  les  graines  huileuses  souffriroient 
davantage  et  nous  perdrions  quinze  jours  tr£s  pr^cieux  au  printems. 

Les  discussions  continuent  dans  Passemblee  des  Notables,  mais 
il  n'y  a  Rien  encore  d'arr^tg.  Les  gabelles  ont  occupg  longtems  et 

T258  1 

30    MARCH     1787 

s6rieusement  ces  messieurs.  L'int6r6t  du  peuple,  et  celui  des  finances 
du  Roy,  est  difficile  et  important  k  concilier  dans  un  objet  qui  com- 
pose une  masse  de  Revemi  aussi  considerable.  On  a  propos6  hier 
Fali€nation  des  doniaines  et  des  Reformes  sur  la  Regie  des  bois 
appartenant  £  la  couronne.  L'impdt  territorial  et  Fexamen  de  F6tat 
R€el  des  Finances  sont  Remis  £  la  quatriSme  section  et  nous  com- 
mengons  seulement  la  troisiSme,  Je  me  Reconnois  tr£s  incapable 
de  decider  quel  est  le  genre  d'assembl^e  le  plus  propre  £  discuter 
les  int6r£ts  du  Roy  et  du  peuple,  mais  je  prononce  hardiment  qu'il 
faudroit  que  celle  c'y  prouva  au  Roy  Pidentit6  de  ses  inter£ts,  car 
c'est  sans  contredit  le  bien  le  plus  utile  qu'on  puisse  se  proposer 
pour  le  present  et  pour  Favenir.  Au  Reste,  Monsieur,  vous  m'auri£s 
vue  tout  £  coup  d6sint£ressee  sur  les  objets  qui  fixent  Pattention 
du  public  si  vous  eti6s  Restg  £  Paris,  La  poitrine  de  Mr.  de  la 
Fayette  a  ete  menac£e  et  Pest  encore  un  peu.  «Tai  d6vin£  qu'il  tra- 
vailloit  trop  et  je  m'en  suis  assur^e.  JPai  craint  qu'on  ne  put  le 
soumettre  au  R6gime  convenable.  J'ai  craint  que  ce  printems  ne 
d6cida  en  lui  une  maladie  bien  dangereuse  &  son  tge.  Je  suis  femme 
et   en   consequence   Tint^r^t   public   s'est   affaiss^,    accabl^   devant 
Pinteret  particulier.  Je  n'ai  plus  vu  dans  Passembl€e  qu'une  source 
de  calamit6s,  et  pendant  huit  jours  je  n'ai  form6  d'autre  voeu  que 
de  la  voir  finir.  Mr.  de  la  Fayette  a  consent!  de  prendre  le  sommeil 
qui  lui  est  n6cessaire,  il  ne  maigrit  plus,  tousse  peu  et  la  douleur 
de  poitrine  est  fort  affaiblie.  J'ai  done  Repris  courage  et  je  suis 
Redevenue  citoienne,  £  mesure  que  mes  allarmes  se  sont  dissip^es. 
L'application  que  Mr.  de  la  Fayette  donne  aux  affaires  lui  a  fait 
Retrancher  toute  correspondence  de  soci6te.  II  ne  m'€crit  pas  meme 
de  ses  nouvelles.  Je  n'en  Regois  que  de  son  secretaire.  II  est  bon 
que  vous  en  soi6s  instruit  pour  ne  pas  Paccuser  d'une  negligence 
dont  il  sera  incapable  envers  vous  dans  tous  les  tems  de  sa  vie. 
Les  marseillois   vous  rapelleront  plustdt  les  troubadours  que  les 
Phoc£ens,  et  je  doute  qu'une  seule  femme  dans  cette  ville  de  com- 
merce et  de  dissipations  vous  RamSne  &  Pid6e  de  Me.  de  Tott. 
Elle  vous  a  rendu  compte  de  Pimpression  qu'elle  avoit  Regue  par 
le  tableau  de  marius;  je  n'ai  point  lu  sa  lettre,  mais  je  sais  qu'elle 
exprime  mal  sa  pens6e  si  elle  ne  porte  pas  Pempreinte  d'un  attache- 
ment  sincere  et  d'une  tendre  Reconnoissance  pour  vos  bont6s.  Mr. 
de  Tesse  me  charge  de  vous  presenter  ses  hommages.  Recev6s  avec 
votre  bienveillance  ordinaire  celui  de  la  v£n6ration  profonde,  de 
tous  les  sentimens  avec  lesquels  j'ai  Phonneur  d'etre,  Monsieur, 
votre  tr£s  humble  et  tr^s  ob€issante  servante, 



31   MARCH    1787 

Je  soigne  moi  m&ne  dans  ma  chambre  deux  Dionea  qui  poussent 
&  merveille.  Les  autres  sont  I  Chlville  sous  la  conduite  de  mon 

RC   (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  ing  Short  to   allow  his  time  between 

SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-  Paris  and  St.  Germain  to  be  "controuled 

Provence.  by  no  circumstance  but  your  own  ia- 

Almost  at  the  moment  Madame  de  clination"  and  he  was  also  anticipating: 

TessS  wrote  her  amused  comment  about  Madame  de  TessS  about  the  TROUBA- 

Short's  spending  BEAUCOUP  DE  -raMS  A  DOURS  (TJ  to  Short,  29  Mch.  1787;  for 

ST.  GERMAIN— that  is,  near  the  young  a  note  on  Short's  love  affair,  see  Malone, 

Duchesse    de    la   Rochefoucauld    with  Jefferson  and  the  Rights  of  Afan,  p,  149- 

whom  he  had  a  love  affair  that  became  50). 
serious  around  1790-1792— TJ  was  tell- 

From  Elizabeth  Wayles  Eppes 

[31  March  1787] 

I  never  was  more  anxious  to  hear  from  you  than  at  present,  in 
hopes  of  your  countermanding  your  orders  with  regard  to  dear 
Polly.  We  have  made  use  of  every  stratagem  to  prevail  on  her  to 
consent  to  visit  you  without  effect.  She  is  more  averse  to  it  than 
I  could  have  supposed;  either  of  my  children  would  with  pleasure 
take  her  place  for  the  number  of  good  things  she  is  promised. 
However,  Mr.  Eppes  has  two  or  three  different  prospects  of  con- 
veying her,  to  your  satisfaction,  I  hope,  if  we  do  not  hear  from  you. 

MS  not  found;  tert  is  from  the  extract  be  a  part  of  the  letter  from  Mrs.  Eppes 

printed  in  Randolph,  Domestic  Life,  p.  dated  31  Mch.  1787  which  TJ  recorded 

124,  which  is  cited  there  as  having  been  in  SJL  as  received  27  May  at  Bordeaux, 

written  "Towards  the  close  of  the  month  along  with  the  letter  from  her  husband 

of  March,  1787."  This  must,  however,  of  SO  Mch.  1787. 

From  Mary  Jefferson 

DEAR  PAPA  [ca.  31  Mch.  1787] 

I  should  be  very  happy  to  see  you,  but  I  can  not  go  to  France, 
and  hope  that  you  and  sister  Patsy  are  well.  Your  affectionate 
daughter.  Adieu.  MARY  JEFFERSON 

MS  not  found.  Text  is  from  Randolph,  proved,  it  is  probable  that  the  present 

Domestic    Life,    p.    104,   where   it   is  letter  is  the  one  which  TJ  recorded  in 

printed  as  one  of  three  undated  letters  SJL  without  date  as  received  27  May 

f rom  Mary  Jefferson  (see  also  Mary  Jef-  1787    at   Bordeaux   with   letters    from 

ferson  to  TJ,  ca.  13  Sep.  1785  and  ca.  Francis  Eppes,  30  Mch.  1787,  and  Eliza- 

22  May  1786).  Though  it  cannot  be  beth  Wayles  Eppes,  31  Mch.  1787. 


From  Andre  Limozin 

Le  Havre ,  31  Mch.  1787.  Encloses  Captain  Joshua  Oldner's  bill  of 
lading  for  the  cttwelve  Cases  Catridge  Boxes  .  .  .  consigned  me  for  the 
use  of  the  State  of  Virginia"  and  shipped  on  the  Portsmouth  bound  for 
Norfolk.  She  is  ready  to  sail  with  the  <6very  First  Fair  wind,"  and  Limo- 
zin is  sending  another  bill  of  lading  by  her  to  the  governor  of  Virginia. 
His  next  letter  will  bring  the  note  of  expenses  for  these  cases.  "Captn. 
Oldner  Seems  [to]  me  to  be  a  very  cleaver  man;  he  intends  to  continue 
Havre  de  Grace  treade."  Limozin  recommends  him  to  TJ  and  if  he  has 
anything  to  send  to  Norfolk,  it  "must  be  ready  against  the  month  of 
July.  .  .  .  His  Ship  [is]  a  good  Strong  new  fast  sailing  Vessell,  which 
as  well  as  the  Master  deserves  all  preference  and  incouragement."  If 
TJ  is  surprised  because  he  speaks  so  much  in  behalf  of  a  master  not 
consigned  to  Limozin's  house,  it  is  because  "it  is  our  duty  to  do  Justice 
to  every  Body."  Encloses  also  a  letter  from  Mr.  Oster. 

RC  (MHi);  4  p.;  endorsed.  Recorded  (2)  The  letter  from  Oster  has  not  been 

in  SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at  Aix-  found  and  is  not  recorded  in  SJL  among: 

en-Provence.    Enclosures:     ( 1 )    Bill    of  the  letters  received  3  May  at  Aix-en-Pro- 

lading,  dated  31  Mch.  1787  and  signed  vence;  it  may  have  been  only  a  covering 

by  Joshua  Oldner,   for   "Twelve   Cases  address  under  Oster's  frank  for  one  or 

Merchandize,"  at  the  foot  of  which  Old-  more    of   the   letters   from   Virginia   re- 

ner  wrote:    "Contents  unKnown"    (Vi).  ceived  on  that  date. 

From  Adrien  Petit 

^  31  Mch.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at 
Aix-en-Provence.  Not  found.] 

To  Chastellux 

Marseilles  Apr.  4.  1787. 

I  must  return  you  many  thanks,  my  dear  friend,  for  your  kind 
attention  in  procuring  me  the  acquaintance  of  Monsr.  Bergasse, 
from  whom  I  have  received  many  civilities,  and,  what  is  more 
precious,  abundance  of  information.  To  you  and  to  him  also  I  am 
indebted  for  an  introduction  to  Monsr.  Audibert,  in  whom  I  saw 
enough  to  make  me  regret  that  I  could  not  see  more  of  him.  My 
journey  from  Paris  to  this  place  has  been  a  continued  feast  of  new 
objects,  and  new  ideas.  To  make  the  most  of  the  little  time  I  have 
for  so  long  a  circuit,  I  have  been  obliged  to  keep  myself  rather 
out  of  the  way  of  good  dinners  and  good  company.  Had  they  been 
my  objects,  I  should  not  have  quitted  Paris.  I  have  courted  the 
society  of  gardeners,  vignerons,  coopers,  farmers  &c.  and  have 


4    APRIL    1787 

devoted  every  moment  of  every  day   almost,   to  the  ^  business  of 
enquiry.  M.  de  Bergasse  however  united  for  me  all  objects,  a  good 
dinner,   good  company,   and  information.   I  was  unlucky   in  not 
having  called  on  you  before  you  went  into  the  country,  as  I  should 
have  derived  from  you  much  useful  counsel  for  my  journey.  I  have 
still  a  favor  to  ask  of  you,  which  is,  a  letter  to  some  one  good  person 
at  Tours  in  Touraine,  where  I  shall  make  a  short  stay  of  a  day  or 
two  on  my  return  about  the  latter  part  of  May  or  beginning  of  June. 
The  article  Coquilles  in  the  Questions  Encyclopediques  de  Voltaire 
will  inform  you  what  is  my  object  there.  I  have  found  the  AbbSs 
in  general  most  useful   acquaintances.   They   are   unembarrassed 
with  families,  uninvolved  in  form  and  etiquette,  frequently  learned, 
and  always  obliging.  If  you  know  such  a  one  at  Tours  you  will 
oblige  me  infinitely  by  a  letter  to  him:  or  if  you  know  none  your- 
self, perhaps  some  of  your  friends  may.   I  will  only  beg   to  be 
announced  but  as  a  voyageur  etranger  simplement,  and  that  it  be 
addressed  &  Monsr.  Jefferson  &  Tours,  poste  restante.   This  de- 
ception keeps  me  clear  of  those  polite  obligations  to  which  I  might 
otherwise  be  engaged,  and  leaves  me  the  whole  of  the  little  time 
I  have  to  pursue  the  objects  that  always  delight  me. — I  have  been 
concerned  with  the  country  I  have  passed  thro  hitherto.  I  could 
not  help  comparing  it,  en  passant,  with  England,  and  found  the 
comparison  much  more  disadvantageous  to  the  latter  than  I  had 
expected.  I  shall  have  many  interrogations  to  ask  of  you.  These 
being  too  many  for  a  letter,  they  shall  therefore  be  reserved  to  some 
future  conversation,  when  I  can  have  the  pleasure  of  returning  you 
thanks  in  person  for  the  multiplied  instances  of  your  goodness  and 
partiality  to  me,  and  of  assuring  you  how  sincere  are  those  senti- 
ments of  esteem  and  friendship  with  which  I  have  the  honor  to 
be  Dear  Sir,  your  affectionate  friend  &  humble  servant, 


PrC  (MHi);  at  foot  of  first  page:   "M.  le  Marq.  de  Chastellux";  MS  faded. 
On  MONSR.  BERGASSE  and  TJ's  interest  in  COQXTDLIJES,  see  his  journal  of  his  trip 
through  Southern  France,  printed  tinder  date  of  1O  June  1787, 

From  Ralph  Izard 

DEAR  SIR  Charleston  4th,  April  1787. 

I  have  lately  been  favoured  with  your  Letter  of  18th.  Novr. 
which  went  to  New  York,  and  from  thence  came  to  me  here  by  the 
Post.  You  mention  the  Hague,  and  are  so  obliging  as  to  wish  me 


4    APRIL     1787 

there:  for  this  mark  of  your  friendship,  be  pleased  to  accept  of  my 
thanks.  Had  the  funds  of  the  United  States  allowed  them  to  make 
the  appointment  you  allude  to  last  year,  I  would  have  accepted 
of  it,  and  devoted  three  years  of  my  life  to  their  service.  At  present 
I  feel  much  disinclined  to  it,  and  most  heartily  wish  that  Mr. 
Madison  may  be  elected  whenever  the  Finances  of  Congress  will 
admit  of  it.  He  is  a  Member  of  the  Continental  Convention  which  is 
to  meet  in  Philadelphia  next  Month  for  the  purpose  of  revising  the 
articles  of  Confederation.  If  the  powers  of  Congress  can  be  so  far 
extended  as  to  give  efficacy  to  the  decisions  of  that  body,  the  meas- 
ure will  assuredly  contribute  to  the  security,  and  happiness,  of  the 
Continent.  At  present  our  affairs  are  by  no  means  in  a  desireable 
state.  I  agree  with  you  perfectly  in  opinion  respecting  the  propriety 
of  our  cultivating  the  closest,  and  most  intimate  connexion  with 
France.  We  have  already  derived  great  benefits  from  her,  and 
much  greater  may  still  be  expected.  We  are  under  considerable 
obligations  to  you  for  your  exertions  respecting  the  Commerce  of 
every  part  of  the  Continent,  and  I  am  confident  that  very  beneficial 
consequences  will  result  from  a  continuance  of  them.  The  copy  of 
the  Letter  from  M.  de  Calonne  to  you,  which  you  enclosed  me, 
shews  the  good  disposition  of  the  Ministry  towards  us.  Much  re- 
mains however  yet  to  be  done;  and  I  am  happy  to  think  that  what- 
ever extension  is  given  to  the  Commerce  of  America  may,  by  good 
management  be  made  beneficial  to  France.  I  should  be  very  glad 
if  their  Manufactories  could  supply  us  as  well,  and  as  cheap  as 
those  of  England  with  the  coarse  articles  which  are  absolutely 
necessary  in  this  Country.  I  mean  Negro  Cloth,  Blankets,  and 
implements  of  Husbandry.  When  I  was  in  Paris  I  procured  from 
London  a  yard  of  Negro  Cloth  called  there  White  Plains,  and  a 
broad  Hoe,  and  gave  them  to  M.  Abeille,  who  was  a  Member  of  a 
Society  for  the  promotion  of  Commerce.  The  Cloth  is  near  a  yard 
wide,  perfectly  white,  very  substantial,  and  comfortable  wear  for 
Negroes,  and  is  from  12  to  14Vfc  Pence  Sterling  pr.  Yard  by  the 
Piece.  The  Broad  Hoes  are  from  17  to  18  shillings,  and  6  pence 
a  Dozen,  and  very  good.  Blankets  4  Shillings,  and  3  pence  each. 
I  have  just  copied  these  articles  with  their  prices  from  an  Invoice 
lately  received  from  Messrs.  Mannings  &  Vaughan  in  London,  for 
the  use  of  my  Plantations:  they  were  all  remarkably  good.  M. 
Abeille  told  me  that  the  Manufacturers  of  France  would  soon  be 
able  to  supply  us  with  the  articles  I  have  mentioned,  as  good,  and 
as  cheap.  I  wish  this  could  be  done;  and  if  it  could  I  am  persuaded 


4    APRIL    1787 

that  four  fifths  of  the  Planters  in  this  State  would  deal  with  France 
in  preference  to  England.  You  say  that  France  could  consume  our 
whole  Crop  of  Rice.  This  might  easily  be  done  if  the  matter  were 
put  in  a  proper  train.  It  would  give  me  much  pleasure  to  see  it,  and 
returns  made  entirely  in  the  Manufactures,  "Wines  &c.  of  France. 
It  is  supposed  that  France  contains  24  Millions  of  Inhabitants.  If 
each  of  them  were  to  consume  two  pounds  of  Rice  in  a  year,  the 
amount  would  be  96,000  Barrels  of  500  lb.,  which  is  more  than 
our  annual  export  of  that  article  since  the  War.  I  have  seen  your 
Letter  to  Mr.  Jay,  in  which  you  mention  the  comparative  goodness 
of  our  Rice  with  that  of  Italy;  and  you  think  ours  is  not  sent  to 
Market  in  as  good  order  as  theirs.  In  this  I  am  persuaded  you  are 
mistaken.  When  I  was  in  Italy  I  visited  some  of  the  best  Rice 
Plantations  in  that  Country,  and  was  surprized  to  find  how  inferior 
their  management  of  the  grain  was  to  ours,  after  they  had  got  it 
into  the  Barn  Yard.  You  may  observe  how  much  whiter  our  Rice 
is  than  theirs,  which  must  be  owing  to  that  circumstance.  Our  Rice 
is  more  broken  than  theirs,  which  is  occasioned  by  two  causes: 
they  clean  it  less  than  we  do,  and  their  grain  is  thicker  in  propor- 
tion to  its  length,  resembling  Barley,  which  makes  it  less  liable  to 
be  broken  by  the  Pestle.  I  have  seen  the  Grocers  in  Paris  employed 
in  picking  out  the  whole  grains  from  the  broken  ones.  This  is  a 
needless  trouble  as  one  is  just  as  good  as  the  other.  If  you  have 
observed  the  same  thing  perhaps  that  may  have  led  you  to  think 
that  our  Rice  was  not  in  as  good  order  as  the  Italian.  I  am  desirous 
of  trying  how  their  Rice  would  succeed  in  this  Country:  and  for 
that  reason  should  be  obliged  to  you  if  you  could  procure,  and  send 
me  any  quantity  of  the  seed  from  one  to  ten  Bushels.  It  might  easily 
be  shipped  for  this  Place  from  Marseilles;  and  the  best  seeds  should 
be  chosen.  I  was  in  hopes  that  you  might  have  been  able  to  have 
induced  the  Portugueze  to  receive  our  Rice  on  the  same  terms  they 
did  before  the  "War.  Lisbon  used  to  take  from  us  annually  2O,OOO 
Barrels,  and  now  there  is  none  sent  there,  which  is  a  considerable 
disadvantage  to  us.  If  Honfleur  is  made  a  free  Port,  with  proper 
management  the  greatest  part  of  the  Rice  which  would  otherwise 
be  sent  to  Cowes,  might  be  drawn  thither.  It  might  be  made  a 
Depot  for  all  the  goods  of  Europe  consumed  by  America,  and  the 
Ships  of  this  Country,  and  of  France,  might  return  at  once  with 
whatever  they  wanted,  without  having  the  trouble  of  going  farther 
up  the  Channel.  This  would  be  a  stroke  at  the  carrying  Trade  of 
England,  and  diminish  in  a  considerable  degree  the  Nursery  of 


4    APRIL    1787 

their  Seamen.  France  would  unquestionably  be  benefitted  by  this. 
In  my  opinion  a  proper  judgment  of  her  prosperity  can  never  be 
formed  abstractedly.  That  of  England  must  be  her  Scale.  Upon  this 
Idea  my  opinion  was  formed  respecting  the  restrictions  on  our 
Trade  to  the  West  India  Islands.  If  they  were  entirely  removed 
from  those  of  France,  England  would  be  under  the  necessity  of 
following  the  example,  and  her  Seamen  would  be  diminished.  Her 
strength,  and  prosperity  depend  entirely  on  the  number  of  her 
Seamen;  but  France  has  internal  resources;  and  a  great  Marine  is 
only  necessary  to  her,  because  her  Rival  is  possessed  of  one.  Mr. 
Barrett's  proposals  are  not  very  tempting:  any  Merchant  in  France, 
Holland,  or  England  will  receive  consignments  upon  terms  more 
advantageous  to  the  shipper  in  this  Country.  I  am  well  acquainted 
with  the  character  and  solidity  of  Messrs,  le  Coulteux*  House, 
and  think  they  might  be  the  means  of  establishing  an  intercourse 
very  advantageous  to  the  two  Countries:  but  not  by  such  proposals 
as  are  contained  in  Mr.  Barrett's  letter.  Too  strict  an  adherence 
to  immediate  profit  will  not  effect  a  dissolution  of  old  connexions, 
and  long  established  prejudices.  At  the  same  time  the  present  situa- 
tion of  our  affairs  makes  it  necessary  for  an  European  Merchant 
to  be  very  circumspect  in  his  dealings  with  this  Country.  Though 
his  profits  may  at  first  be  small,  his  security  ought  to  be  good. 
The  War  bore  particularly  hard  upon  this  State,  most  of  us  have 
been  considerably  injured,  and  I  have  had  my  share  of  the  public 
calamity.  I  find  myself  about  £8,000  Sterlg.  in  debt,  with  an 
Estate  which  ought  not  to  feel  any  inconvenience  from  such  a  Sum. 
I  wish  however  to  pay  it  off,  and  to  have  but  one  Creditor.  If 
Messrs.  Le  Couteulx,  or  any  other  substantial  House  in  Paris 
would  pay  my  Bills  to  that  amount,  I  would  engage  to  remit  them 
annually  6OO  Barrels  of  Rice  of  500  French  pounds  weight  neat 
each,  till  the  whole  debt  should  be  paid,  and  5  per  Cent  interest  on 
each  Balance.  If  the  Bills  could  be  made  payable  in  London  I 
should  prefer  it,  because  they  always  command  a  better  price.  I 
would  give  security  to  three  times  the  amount  of  the  sum  borrowed, 
which  should  be  satisfactory  to  the  Agent  of  the  Lender.  I  wish  not 
to  give  you  any  trouble  about  this  matter;  but  if  you  could  effect 
it  without  much  difficulty  it  would  oblige  me,  and  be  of  service 
to  me. 

I  am  with  great  regard  Dear  Sir  Your  most  obt.  Servant, 


Have  you  received  the  Laws  of  this  State,  and  the  Newspapers 

4   APRIL    1787 

by  M.  Chatteaufort?  The  Printer  has  orders  to  send  the  Papers  for 
you  regularly  to  Mr.  Jay  as  you  desire,  and  he  tells  me  it  has 
been  done. 

RC  (DLC):  marked  "Copy"  at  head  of  text;  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as 
received  27  June  1787.  A  Dupl  was  enclosed  in  Lanchon  FreTes  &  Cie.  to  TJ  of 
4  July  1787  and  recorded  in  SJL  as  received  8  July  1787  (missing). 

From  the  Papal  Nuncio 

Paris  ce  4  Avril  1787 

L'ArchevSque  de  Rhodes  a  Fhonneur  de  faire  part  a  Monsieur 
Jefferson  qu'il  a  eu  hier  ses  premieres  Audiences  du  Roi,  de  la 
Reine,  et  de  la  Famille  Royale  en  qualitg  de  Nonce  Apostolique. 

RC  (DLC)  j  addressed  to  TJ  at  "Rue  neuve  de  Berri  pre"s  de  la  Grille  de  Chaillot 
en  son  H6tel";  endorsed  by  TJ:  "Rome,  Nuncio  of."  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received 
3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence. 

To  Philip  Mazzei 

DEAR  SIR  Marseilles  Apr.  4.  1787. 

I  have  had  the  pleasure  of  finding  your  friend  Soria  alive  and  one 
of  the  most  considerable  merchants  here.  I  delivered  him  your  letter 
and  he  has  shewn  me  all  the  attentions  which  the  state  of  his  mind 
would  permit.  A  few  days  before  my  arrival  his  only  son  had 
eloped  with  jewels  and  money  to  the  value  of  40,000  livres,  and 
I  believe  is  not  yet  heard  of.  He  speaks  of  you  with  friendship,  and 
will  be  happy  to  see  you  on  your  way  Southwardly.  He  has  prom- 
ised to  make  me  acquainted  with  a  well  informed  gardener  whom 
I  expect  to  find  among  the  most  precious  of  my  acquaintances. 
From  men  of  that  class  I  have  derived  the  most  satisfactory  in- 
formation in  the  course  of  my  journey  and  have  sought  their 
acquaintance  with  as  much  industry  as  I  have  avoided  that  of 
others  who  would  have  made  me  waste  my  time  on  good  dinners 
and  good  society.  For  these  objects  one  need  not  leave  Paris.  I 
find  here  several  interesting  articles  of  culture:  the  best  figs,  the 
best  grape  for  drying,  a  smaller  one  for  the  same  purpose  without 
a  seed,  from  Smyrna,  Olives,  capers,  Pistachio  nuts,  almonds.  All 
these  articles  may  suceed  on,  or  Southward  of  the  Chesape[ake.] 
From  hence  my  inclination  would  lead  me  no  further  Eastward  as 
I  am  to  see  little  more  than  a  rocky  coast.  But  I  am  encouraged 


4    APRIL     1787 

here  with  the  hopes  of  finding  something  useful  in  the  rice  fields 
of  Piedmont,  which  are  said  to  be  but  a  little  way  beyond  the  Alps. 
It  will  probably  be  the  middle  of  June  before  I  get  back  to  Paris. 
In  the  mean  time  I  wish  to  observe  [to]  you  that  if  this  absence, 
longer  than  you  had  calculate [d  it],  should  render  an  earlier  pe- 
cuniary supply  necessary,  lodge  a  line  for  me  at  Aix,  poste  restante, 
where  I  shall  find  it  about  the  last  of  this  month,  and  I  shall  with 
great  pleasure  do  what  may  be  needful  for  you.  Be  so  good  as  to 
present  me  respectfully  to  the  Maison  de  la  Rochefoucault,  and 
accept  yourself  very  sincere  assurances  of  esteem  and  regard  from 
Dear  Sir  Your  affectionate  friend  &  humble  servt, 


PrC  (DLC).  MS  faded;  illegible 
•words  have  been  supplied  in  brackets 
by  the  editors. 

YOUR     FRIEND     SORIAs      In     his     list     of 

names  and  addresses  in  the  rough  notes 
of  expenses  (CSmH)  appears  the  fol- 
lowing: name:  "Antonio  Soria.  Negociant 
a  Marseilles]."  In  his  of  6  May  1787 
TJ  enclosed  an  order  on  Grand  in  Maz- 
zei's  favor  for  a  PECUNIARY  SUPPLY; 
there  is  in  DLC  the  following-  statement 
of  his  account: 

"Philip   Mazssei   to  Th:J. 

1785.  Augr.   11  To  cash     600* 

Oct.  22.  To  do.         600*t      12OO« 

1786.  Mar.    4.  To  cash     SOO« 
June  16.  To  do.        300^ 

Sep.  21.  To  do.  36*t        636 

1787    Feb.      9.  To  cash       48* 

18.  To  do.         552 
Apr.    4.  [6  May] 

Order  on   Grand      6OO 

1785.  Nov.  15.  By  cash  in  full     1200* 

1786.  Oct.      4.  By  cash  in  full        636*" 

From  William  Short 

MY  DEAR  SIR  Paris  April  4.  1787 

I  returned  from  the  country  the  day  before  yesterday,  and  the 
evening  of  the  same  day  brought  here  yours  of  the  27th.  ulto.  I 
need  not  tell  you  how  much  pleasure  it  gave  me  to  see  that  you 
were  in  the  midst  of  constant  vivifying  sunshine.  Although  I  have 
little  faith  in  the  waters  of  Aix,  I  have  a  great  deal  in  its  climate. 
But  provided  you  receive  the  benefit  you  wished  for,  I  will  not  dis- 
pute about  the  cause  which  may  produce  so  desirable  an  effect.  I 
hope  you  will  let  me  know  in  your  next  whether  the  one  or  the 
other  has  shewn  any  influence  on  your  wrist. 

Your  observations  respecting  Mr.  de  Calonne's  letter,  as  well  as 
the  conduct  to  be  pursued  in  that  and  every  other  case,  I  am  sure 
are  the  most  just  that  can  be  made.  To  do  what  is  right,  is  the  only 
means  of  extricating  one's  self  from  every  difficulty — but  still  there 
is  a  previous  difficulty  which  sometimes  occurs,  and  that  is,  to 


4    APRIL     1787 

know  what  Is  right.  In  the  case  in  question  however  that  difficulty 
was  not  immense;  and  I  am  very  happy  to  see  that  my  idea  of  what 
was  proper,  corresponded  perfectly  with  yours.  I  took  no  further 
step  than  writing  the  letter  to  M.  de  Colonia.  M.  de  laf .  took  up 
the  subject  with  new  zeal.  He  was  aided  by  M.  M.  and  the  Duke 
of  Harcourt— this  together  with  M.  de  Calonne's  dispositions, 
which  are  certainly  favorable  to  commerce  in  general  and  that  of 
America  in  particular,  have  advanced  the  matter  so  far,  that  M. 
de  Lf .  told  me  to  day  it  might  be  considered  as  an  affair  finished. 

I  shall  attend  punctually  to  the  several  instructions  in  your 
letter  respecting  the  map.  I  have  not  yet  been  able  to  see  the 
person  who  is  striking  the  maps  for  the  Abbe"  Morellet,  but  there 
will  be  no  difficulty  in  having  the  200  additional  struck  on  thinner 
paper.  It  will  be  necessary  however  to  have  two  sheets  pasted 
together,  the  map  being  too  large  for  any  single  sheet  except  of 
the  thick  kind  which  you  saw.  Should  the  bank  paper  be  of  too 
small  a  format,  I  fear  it  will  be  difficult  to  paste  two  sheets  of  that 
thin  kind.  Of  this  however  I  shall  make  the  proper  enquiry* — You 
desire  me  to  write  again  to  Mr.  Ogilvy.  You  will  have  seen  Sir  by 
my  letter  of  the  22d.  in  what  situation  that  affair  was.  Since  that 
Mde.  de  Tesse,  who  had  lost  all  confidence  in  my  London  corre- 
spondent, insisted  I  should  give  her  a  letter  for  Mr.  Ogilvy  with 
an  order  to  deliver  the  box  to  the  Chargg  des  affaires  of  France  at 
London  to  whom  she  inclosed  it.  I  have  this  evening  received  a 
letter  from  Ogilvy  which  shews  that  my  late  letter  to  Mr.  Carnes 
as  well  as  that  for  him,  were  too  late.  He  tells  me  that  he  has  sent 
the  box  of  seeds  by  a  vessel  bound  to  Dunkirk  addressed  to  a 
merchant  whose  address  he  forwards  to  me.  I  shall  write  to  the 
merchant  on  this  subject  by  to-morrow's  post. 

Mde.  de  Tesse  was  here  this  evening  to  see  the  procession.  The 
day  was  very  unfavorable  and  of  course  peu  de  monde.  Mde.  de 
Corny  wrote  me  yesterday  her  intention  of  coming  by  your  permis- 
sion les  jours  de  Longchamp.  I  answered  her  that  it  was  my  inten- 
tion tTa-voir  pass6  chez  elle  de  lui  f aire  ma  cour,  et  en  m£me  terns 
de  la  rapeller  qu'elle  m'avoit  fait  esperer  que  j'aurais  le  plaisir  de 
la  voir  ici  les  jours  de  Longchamps  &c.  &c.  Yet  she  did  not  come, 
for  what  reason  I  cannot  say.  I  shall  call  on  her  to  morrow  to  en- 
quire about  it.— I  received  a  message  from  M.  de  Langeac  yester- 
day evening  desiring  to  know  if  he  might  be  allowed  to  come  and 
bring  his  sister  the  Marchioness  of  Chambaraud  to  see  the  proces- 
sion. I  was  at  a  loss  what  answer  to  make,  yet  made  such  an  one 


4    APRIL     1787 

as  authorized  his  coming.  On  my  return  from  Mde.  de  Tesse's, 
where  I  dined,  I  found  him  in  one  of  the  rooms  above.  His  sister 
was  not  with  him,  but  there  were  three  other  women  whom  I  did 
not  know.  He  told  me  his  sister  had  understood  there  was  to  be 
company  here  to  day  and  therefore  did  not  come  but  desired  she 
might  be  permitted  to  have  that  pleasure  to  morrow.  Whether  she 
will  come  or  not  I  cannot  say— df  she  does  I  shall  not  know  how 
to  send  her  up  stairs,  and  yet  I  know  not  how  she  and  Mde.  de 
Corny  may  be  as  to  convenances. 

Mde.  de  Tess6  Insisted  on  my  giving  her  your  address  that  she 
might  send  you  two  pamphlets,  which  she  intended  to  have  coun- 
tersigned, I  told  her  I  would  send  them  to  you  if  she  thought  proper, 
but  she  would  not  hear  of  it;  urging  that  she  was  dans  Tetat  de 
payer  8  ou  £tt  and  that  the  postage  would  be  too  considerable,  for 
the  value  of  the  things  sent. 

Lest  you  should  not  yet  have  found  out  who  is  President  of 
Congress,  it  may  not  be  improper  to  tell  you  that  that  body  formed 
itself  not  till  the  early  part  of  Febry.  and  chose  Genl.  St.  Clair 
their  President.  I  observe  that  Mr.  Madison,  and  Hawkins  of  No. 
Carolina  arrived  at  N.  York  and  took  their  seats  about  the  same 

The  Assemblee  des  notables  have  separated  for  the  Easter  holi- 
days. The  pamphlets  which  Mde.  de  Tesse  sends  you  will  let  you 
see  in  what  state  matters  are  here,  with  respect  to  them.  It  is 
thought  the  result  will  be  that  the  Controller  general  will  have 
his  112  millions  which  he  asks  in  addition,  but  that  the  nation  at 
large  will  be  indemnified  for  this  additional  burthen  by  the  new 
regulations  which  will  be  established  as  to  1.  provincial  assemblies, 
2.  public  oeconomy,  3.  more  equal  distribution  of  impositions,  4. 
the  liberation  of  the  commerce  of  grain,  and  the  abolition  of  the 
shackles  of  internal  commerce  by  the  reculement  des  barrieres^ 
and  5thly.  by  other  improvements,  such  as  the  abolition  of  the 
corvee,  the  checking  of  abuses  in  domanial  administration  &c. — I 
send  you  inclosed  seven  letters  being  all  that  have  arrived  since  the 
last  which  Petit  forwarded  to  you. — Before  this  reaches  you,  you 
will  probably  have  seen  Marseilles.  I  shall  like  much  to  see  what 
you  think  of  it,  that  I  may  know  whether  my  predilection  for  it 
is  well  founded.  Should  you  be  at  Montpelier  I  hope  you  will  not 
find  it  as  Rousseau.  He  says  in  one  of  his  letters  which  has  just 
fallen  accidentally  into  my  hands,  'on  re  garde  les  etrangers  a 
Montpelier  precis£ment  comme  une  espece  d'animaux  faits  expr£s 


5    APRIL    1787 

most  people  think,  that  a  person  cannot  be  in  two  places  at  one 
time.  Yet  is  there  no  error  more  palpable  than  this.  You  know,  for 
example,  that  you  have  been  in  Paris  and  it's  neighborhood,  con- 
stantly since  I  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you  there:  yet  I  declare 
you  have  been  with  me  above  half  my  journey.  I  could  repeat  to 
you  long  conversations,  word  for  word,  and  on  a  variety  of  sub- 
jects. When  I  find  you  fatigued  with  conversation  and  sighing  for 
your  pallet  and  pencil,  I  permit  you  to  return  to  Paris  a  while, 
and3  amuse  myself  with  philosophizing  on  the  objects  which  occur. 
The  plan  of  my  journey,  as  well  as  of  my  life,  being  to  take  things 
by  the  smooth  handle,  few  occur  which  have  not  something  tolera- 
ble4 to  offer  me.  [The  Auberge]  for  instance  in  which  I  am  obliged 
to  take  refuge  at  night,  presents  in  the  first  moment  nothing  but 
noise,  dirt,  and  disorder.  But  the  auberge  is  not  to  be5  too  much 
abused.  True,  it  has  not  the  charming  gardens  of  Chaville  with- 
out, nor  it's  decorations,  nor  it's  charming  society  within.  I  do  not 
seek  therefore  for  the  good  things  which  it  has  not,  but  those  which 
it  has.  *A  traveller,  sais  I,  retired  at  night  to  his  chamber  in  an 
Inn,  all  his  effects  contained  in  a  single  trunk,6  all  his  cares  cir- 
cumscribed by  the  walls  of  his  apartment,  unknown  to  all,  un- 
heeded,   and   undisturbed,   writes,   reads,   thinks,    sleeps,    just   in 
the  moments  when  nature  and  the  movements  of  his  body  and  mind 
require.  Charmed  with  the  tranquillity  of  his  little  cell,7  he  finds 
how  few  are  our  real  wants,  how  cheap  a  thing  is  happiness,  how 
expensive  a  one  pride.  He  views  with  pity  the  wretched  rich,  whom 
the  laws  of  the  world  have  submitted  to  the  cumbrous  trappings  of 
rank:   he  sees  him  labouring  through  the  journey  of  life  like  an 
ass  oppressed8  under  ingots  of  gold,  little  of  which  goes  to  feed, 
to  clothe,  or  to  cover  himself;  the  rest  gobbled  up  by  harpies  of 
various  description  with  which  he  has  surrounded  himself.  These, 
and  not  himself,  are  it's  real  masters.  He  wonders  that  a  think- 
ing mind  can  be  so  subdued  by  opinion,   and  that  he  does  not 
run  away  from  his  own  crouded  house,  and  take  refuge  in  the 
chamber  of  an  Inn.'  Indeed  I  wonder   so  too,  unless  he  has    a 
Chaville  to  retire  to,  and  a  family  composed  like  that  of  Chaville, 
where  quiet  and  friendship  can  both  be  indulged.9  But  between  the 
society  of  real  friends,  and  the  tranquillity  of  solitude  the  mind 
finds  no  middle  ground. — Thus  reconciled  to  my  Auberge  by  night, 
I  was  still  persecuted10  by  day  with  the  cruel  whip  of  the  postillion. 
How  to  find  a  smooth  handle  to  this  tremendous  instrument?  At 
length  however  I  found  it  in  the  callous  nerves  of  the  horse,  to 


5    APRIL    1787 

which  these  terrible  stripes  may  afford  but  a  gentle  and  perhaps  a 
pleasing  irritation;  like  a  pinch  of11  snuff  to  an  old  snuff-taker. 

Sometimes  I  amuse  myself  with  physical  researches.  Those  enor- 
mous boots,  for  instance,  in  which  the  postillion  is  incased  like  an 
Egyptian  mummy,  have  cost  me  more  pondering  than  the  laws  of 
planetary  motion  did  to  Newton.  I  have  searched  their  solution 
in  his  physical,  and  in  his  moral  constitution.  I  fancied  myself  in 
conversation  with  one  of  Newton's  countrymen,   and   asked  him 
what  he  thought  could  be  the  reason  of  their  wearing  those  boots? 
'Sir,  says  he,  it  is  because  a  Frenchman's  heels  are  so  light,  that, 
without  this  ballast,  he  would  turn  keel  up.*  clf  so,  Sir,  sais  I,  it 
proves  at  least  that  he  has  more  gravity  in  his  head  than  your  nation 
is  generally  willing  to  allow  him.'  I  should  go  on,  Madam,  detailing 
to  you  my  dreams  and  speculations;  but  that  my  present  situation 
is  most  unfriendly  to  speculation.  Four  thousand  three  hundred 
and  fifty  market-women    (I  have  counted   them   one   by  one)12 
brawling,  squabbling,  and  jabbering  Patois,  three  hundred  asses 
braying  and  bewailing  to  each  other,  and  to  the  world,  their  cruel 
oppressions,  four  files  of  mule-carts  passing  in  constant  succession, 
with  as  many  bells  to  every  mule  as  can  be  hung  about  him,  all 
this  in  the  street  under  my  window,  and  the  weather  too  hot  to 
shut  it.  Judge  whether  in  such  a  situation  it  is  easy  to  hang  one's 
ideas  together.  Besides,  writing  from  a  colony  of  your  own  country, 
you  would  rather  I  should  say  less  of  myself  and  more  of  that.  But, 
just  dropped  among  them,  how  can  I  pretend  to  judge  them  with 
justice?13  Of  beauty,  you  will  say,  one  may  judge  on  a  single  coup 
d'oeil.  Of  beauty  then,  Madam,  they  have  a  good  share,  as  far  as 
the  public  walks,  the  Spectacles,  and  the  assembled  of  Mademlle. 
Conil  enable  me  to  decide.  But  it  is  not  a  legitimate   Graecian 
beauty.  It  is  not  such  as  yours.  The  reason  I  suppose  is  that  yours 
is  genuine,  brought  from  the  spot;  [where] as  theirs  has  been  made 
here,  and  like  all  fabricated  wares  is  sophisticated  with  foreign 
mixture.  Perhaps  you  would  rather  I  should  write  you  news?  Les 
Amandes  sont  de  22.*,  Cacao  19s,  Caff6  31.,  Cotton,  huile,  riz  21.*,  savon  42.*,  terebenthine  17.s  &c,  &c.14  This  is  not 
in  the  stile  of  Paris  news;  but  I  write  from  Marseilles,  and  it  is 
the  news  of  the  place.  I  could  continue  it  thro'  the  whole  table  of 
prices  current;  but  that  I  am  sure  you  have  enough,   and  have 
already  in  your  heart  wished  an  end  to  my  letter.  I  shall  therefore 
annex  but  one  preliminary  condition;   which  is  a  permission  to 
express  here  my  respectful  attachment  to  Madame  and  Monsieur 

[272  } 

6    APRIL     1787 

de  Tess6,  and  to  assure  yourself  of  those  sentiments  of  perfect15 
friendship  &  affection  with  which  I  have  the  honor  to  be  sincerely 
&  constantly,  Madam,  your  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servant, 


PrC  (MHi);  MS  faded.  Tr  (DLC); 
in  TJ's  hand,  differing:  somewhat  in 
phraseology  as  Indicated  below.  The  ex- 
act date  at  which  TJ  made  this  copy,  or 
the  purpose  for  which  it  was  made,  is 
not  certain,  but  it  is  to  be  noted  that  the 
paper  on  which  Tr  is  written  bears  the 
watermark  "R  BARNARD  1809"  and 
that  this  paper  is  evidently  the  same  as 
that  on  which  TJ  made  a  similar  copy 
of  his  letter  of  20  Mch.  1787  to  Madame 
de  Tesse.  Both  copies  of  these  letters 
were  therefore  made  sometime  between 
1809  and  1826  for  an  undetermined 
purpose  and  both  were  evidently  writ- 
ten at  the  same  time.  In  both  cases  also 
TJ  sougrht  to  improve"  his  text  when 
he  came  to  make  the  Tr,  as  the  follow- 
ing- notes  indicate,  though  the  changes 
here  are  less  extensive  than  the  corre- 
sponding alterations  in  the  letter  to 
Madame  de  Tesse". 

i  This  word  interlined  in  Tr  in  sub- 
stitution for  a  deleted  name  (it  appears 
to  read  "David's")  that  TJ  had  erred 
in  copying  from  PrC. 

2  MS  faded;  this  and  other  words  in 
brackets     (supplied)    have    been    taken 
from  Tr. 

3  Tr  adds  at  this  points  e*in  the  mean 

4  Tr  reads  instead:   "good." 

5  Instead  of  preceding1  four  words,  Tr 
reads:   "has  been." 

o  Tr  reads   instead:    ''portmanteau." 

7  Preceding  four  words  are  not  in  Tr. 

s  The  words  "labouring  through  the 
journey  of  life  like  an  ass  oppressed"  are 
not  in  Tr. 

s»  Tr  reads  instead:  <cunited." 

10  In   making    Tr,   TJ    erred    at   this 
point  by  first  writing:  "persuaded";   he 
then  corrected  this  to  read  as  above. 

11  Tr  reads  "Scotch  snuff." 

12  Preceding  three   words   are  not  in 

13  Tr  reads:  ".  .  .  to  judge  the  legiti- 
macy of  their  descent?** 

14  This   sentence  is   altered  in  Tr  to 
read  as  follows:  "Any  thing  to  obey  you — 
Oil  is  1O.  sols  the  lb.,  almonds  2.^  [sic], 
Cacao  19  s.,  Caffe.  31.s,  rice  21.*t  &c." 

is  This  word  is  not  in  Tr. 

From  William  Macarty 

SIR  Lorient  6th.  april  1787. 

Continual  delays  and  disappointments  in  my  Business  and  Re- 
mittances from  america  has  Involved  me  in  Difficulties  with  Some 
of  my  Creditors  who  harrass  me  continually  to  prevent  the  bad 
Consequences,  that  might  attend  their  pursuit.  Messrs.  Girardot 
Haller  &  Ce.  of  Paris  my  principal  Creditors,  have  made  applica- 
tion to  Monsieur  Le  Barron  de  Breteuil  for  an  arret  de  Surseance 
for  one  year. 

Permit  me,  to  request  you,  to  represent  my  unhappy  Situation, 
to  the  Minister.  Your  kind  influence  will  be  of  great  Service  in 
obtaining  the  arret  de  Surseance  which  will  enable  me  to  do  Justice 
to  every  one,  and  preserve  me  from  Ruin.  I  am  with  great  Respect 
Sir  your  most  Humble  and  obedient  Servant, 


RC    (DLC);   endorsed.   Recorded  in   SJL   as    received   3    May    1787    at   Aix-en- 

[273  ] 

From  Rigoley  d'Ogny 

MONSIEUR  Paris  6-  Avril  178?- 

Cest  avec  grand  plaisir,  Monsieur,  que  je  vous  ai  fait  remettre 
en  franchise  du  port  maritime  et  de  terre  le  paquet  qui  vous  avait 
6t6  adressg  de  Newyorck  par  la  voye  des  Paquebots  frangais  qui 
contenait  principalement  des  Gazettes  et  que  vous  avi6s  refuse 
comme  trop  taxe.  Permett6s  moi  de  projBter  d'une  occasion  ou  vous 
Sentgs  vous  mSme  un  des  inconv&iiens  qu'il  y  a  que  la  France 
n'ait  pas  encore  pft  conclure  aucun  traitg  relatif  &  Sa  Correspond- 
ance  avec  les  Etats  unis  de  PAm6rique,  pour  vous  engager  a  re- 
prendre  la  N6g6ciation  que  favais  6t6  autorisg  &  faire  avec  M, 
Francklin  dfes  1784. 

Aprfcs  plusieurs  Conferences  nous  convinmes  d'un  Projet  de 
traiti  qu'il  se  chargea  d'envoyer;  depuis  ce  terns  la,  j'ai  cherchg 
inutilement  tous  les  moyens  de  suivre  1'effet  de  cette  nggociation 
sans  pouvoir  y  parvenir. 

La  r€gularit€  du  d6part  des  Paquebots  fran^ais  par  lesquels 
s'6coule  beaucoup  de  lettres  arrivantes  en  France  des  Pays  Etrang- 
ers,  que  je  laisse  passer  actuellement  franches  aux  treize  Etats 
unis,  doit  leur  faire  sentir  la  nScessitg  d'un  Trait6,  parcequ'il  ne 
serait  pas  juste  que  la  France  pay§t  ces  Sortes  de  lettres  &  TEtranger 
sans  en  gtre  remboursg  par  les  treize  Etats  unis. 

Dans  le  cas  ou  vous  croiries  pouvoir  reprendre  cette  nggociation, 
j'aurai  Thonneur  de  vous  envoyer  une  Copie  de  ce  Projet  de  trait6 
et  de  vous  demander  un  moment  de  conversation  pour  en  raisonner 
avec  vous.  JPen  serai  d'autant  plus  flatte  que  ce  sera  pour  moi  une 
occasion  de  vous  offrir  les  assurances  du  Sincere  et  respectueux 
attachement  avec  lequel  j'ai  Thonneur  d'etre,  Monsieur,  Votre  trds 
humble  et  tres  ob6issant  serviteur,  RIGOLEY  D'OGNY 

RC  (DLC);  in  a  clerk's  hand,  signed  TJ  on  21  June  178 Y;  see  also  Short  to 

by  D'Ogny;  endorsed.  Tr  (DNA:  PCC,  TJ,  6  Apr.  and  TJ  to  D'Ogny,  3  May 

No.  1O7,  n).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  re-  1787.  Rigoley,  Baron  d'Ogny,  was  In- 

ceived  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence.  tendant  General  des  Postes  aux  Lettres. 

This  letter  was  forwarded  to  Jay  by 

From  William  Short 

DEAR  SIR  Paris  April  6.  1787 

At  length  Longchamp  is  at  an  end.  The  company  have  just  left 
me  and  I  retire  from  the  bustle  of  the  procession  to  the  calmer 
pleasure  of  writing  to  you.  My  apprehensions  as  to  convenances 


6    APRIL     1787 

between  some  of  the  ladies  were  without  ground.  Mde.  de  Corny 
and  the  Marchioness  de  Chambaraud  were  previously  acquainted. 
At  least  they  had  a  great  deal  of  conversation  and  talked  of  having 
met  at  some  supper  lately.  I  waited  on  Mde.  de  Corny  yesterday. 
The  bad  weather  prevented  her  coming  the  first  day,  some  en- 
gagement yesterday,  and  thus  she  has  only  seen  the  procession 
to-day,  although  she  seems  to  enjoy  it  in  an  eminent  degree.  Count 
Langeac  brought  only  one  of  the  three  ladies  of  the  first  day,  with 
him  yesterday  and  to-day.  It  is  the  Countess  de  Neuilly  and  further 
I  know  not, — The  weather  was  more  favorable  yesterday  than 
to-day  and  of  course  there  was  a  more  numerous  concourse.  The 
Alley  of  the  procession  was  changed  this  year  from  the  accustomed 
one  to  that  which  leads  from  Madrid  to  la  Muette.  This  was  oc- 
casioned by  the  advice  of  a  writer  in  the  journal  of  Paris.  The 
public  have  been  thus  informed  of  the  advantage  of  a  change  from 
a  narrow  sandy  path  to  a  wide  avenue,  and  as  the  public  when 
informed,  do  what  is  right,  they  have  not  failed  in  this  instance. 
You  see  sir  that  the  liberty  of  the  press  does  good  every  where.  It 
is  true  that  here  the  liberty  is  quoad  hoc. 

I  have  desired  Barrois  who  superintends  the  striking  of  the 
map  for  the  Abb£  Morellet  to  have  struck  for  you  2OO,  on  the  same 
kind  of  paper  with  that  which  he  employs  for  the  Abb6  Morellet. 
He  thinks  there  will  be  difficulty  as  to  the  bank  paper  but  will  ex- 
amine into  the  matter.  I  have  begged  him  to  finish  his  use  of  the 
plate  as  soon  as  possible  that  I  may  send  it  to  London.  At  the  Abb£ 
Morellet's  request  I  have  sent  him  to-day  two  of  your  maps  and  by 
your  order  two  to  M.  Desmarets  and  two  to  M.  de  Crdvecoeur.  I 
should  have  sent  him  at  the  same  time  a  copy  of  your  book  as  you 
desire,  but  have  not  been  able  to  find  where  you  kept  them.  Will 
you  be  so  good  as  let  me  know  it  that  I  may  comply  with  your 
request,  and  thus  oblige  at  the  same  time  M.  de  Crevecoeur? 

I  have  recieved  two  letters  from  Mr.  Dumas  to  be  forwarded  to 
Mr.  Jay,  inclosing  a  number  of  Leyden  gazettes.  He  desires  me 
to  continue  extracting  from  them  such  things  as  may  be  useful  to 
you  on  your  return.  He  says  the  affair  at  Amsterdam  must  rest 
In  statu  quo  until  you  recieve  your  answer  from  America  which 
you  expected  in  four  months. — He  is  exceedingly  alarmed  at  the 

apprehensions  of  B 's  being  sent  to  the  Hague.  He  goes  fully 

into  the  matter  with  Mr.  Jay  to  shew  him  how  impolitic  it  would 
be  and  how  disagreeable  to  France.  He  declares  that  he  could  have 
nothing  in  common  with  him  at  the  Hague,  without  losing  the 


6    APRIL     1787 

confidence  of  his  best  friends.  He  does  not  mention  his  name  in 
the  letter  to  Mr.  Jay,  but  alludes  to  what  he  had  said  of  him  on  a 
former  occasion.  He  begs  I  will  let  him  know  if  I  conjecture  who 
the  person  is  after  leaving  not  the  possibility  of  a  doubt  on  the 
subject  and  desires  the  closest  secrecy  on  my  part.  It  appears  clearly 
that  he  is  really  alarmed. 

Yours  of  the  29th.  arrived  here  last  evening.  I  was  much  pleased 
to  see  that  you  approved  of  my  having  written  to  Mr.  Jay;  as  I  had 
doubts  on  the  subject  myself,  arising  from  my  perfect  unacquaint- 
ance  with  whatever  relates  to  matter  of  rank  or  etiquette.  I  will 
make  use  of  the  medals  to  be  sent  by  the  May  packet  to  write  him 
again. — Colo,  Smith  has  not  yet  arrived,  and  I  have  heard  nothing 
from  him  lately. 

You  will  recieve  Sir  with  this  letter  two  others,  one  of  which  you 
will  be  surprized  to  see  opened.  I  will  explain  to  you  the  cause  of 
it.  When  the  newspapers  arrived  by  the  late  packet  it  was  observed 
that  the  tax  had  been  altered,  but  instead  of  a  diminution  they  had 
struck  out  40. ft  and  put  in  its  room  sixty  odd.  Petit  before  recieving 
them  went  to  enquire  into  the  reason  of  the  augmentation.  The 
Baron  D'Oigny  (from  whom  the  letter  is,  which  I  have  opened) 
with  his  usual  civility  and  politeness,  said  he  would  have  the  affair 
regulated  and  immediately  sent  me  the  papers  and  letters,  desiring 
only  that  he  might  retain  for  some  days  the  enveloppe  which  had 
the  post  mark  on  it.  When  his  letter  arrived  to-day  Petit  was  so  sure 
it  was  nothing  but  the  enveloppe  enclosed  to  you,  that  he  insisted  I 
would  open  the  letter  in  order  to  avoid  sending  you  an  useless 
paper.  On  the  contrary  I  find  it  is  a  letter  which  shews  a  continua- 
tion of  those  sentiments  which  the  Baron  D'Oigny  expressed  to 
me  previous  to  your  departure  last  year  for  England,  and  which 
make  me  regret  again  the  delay  with  which  the  instructions  from 
Congress  on  this  subject  are  attended. 

There  is  also  enclosed  an  announce  of  the  presentation  of  the 
Pope's  Nuncio.  The  porter  tells  me  it  was  brought  by  his  servant. 

Mrs.  Barrett  continues  in  a  low  state  of  health.  Her  spirits  seem 
much  affected.  M.  de  Crevecoeur  thinks  her  certainly  in  a  con- 
sumption. I  fear  that  the  ennui  of  Paris  may  at  length  be  attended 
with  serious  consequences  for  her— she  never  moves  out,  sees  no- 
body, and  in  fine  leads  a  life  proper  to  give  a  consumption  were  she 
clear  of  it.  She  desired  some  time  ago  I  would  let  her  know  how  she 
could  have  Miss  Jefferson  to  see  her;  observing  that  you  had  prom- 
ised to  mention  to  Mde.  FAbbesse,  that  she  had  your  permission 


7     APRIL     1787 

to  recieve  her.  I  told  her  that  if  you  had  done  that  I  supposed  there 
-would  be  no  difficulty.  When  I  was  at  the  convent  some  time  ago  I 
mentioned  this  circumstance  to  Miss  Patsy,  who  told  me  in  answer 
that  you  had  said  nothing  about  it  to  the  Abbesse.  I  never  see  Mr. 
or  Mrs.  Barrett  without  their  bringing  the  affair  on  the  tapis.  Al- 
though I  conjecture  your  failure  to  speak  to  the  Abbess  was  in- 
tentional, yet  I  have  supposed  it  as  well  not  to  tell  them  so. 

Blackden  is  still  here — he  told  me  this  morning  he  should  stay 
about  six  weeks  longer.  The  list  of  the  Americans  is  as  you  left  it, 
except  Carnes  gone  to  London  and  Smith  to  Toulouse.  I  know  of 
no  new  ones  arrived.  A  Mr.  Garnett  who  brought  some  letters  and 
left  a  card  for  you  two  or  three  weeks  past,  came  here  a  day  previ- 
ous to  his  departure  for  London  and  left  a  note  for  me  expressing 
his  mortification  at  not  being  able  to  see  me,  and  desiring  if  there 
should  be  any  commands  for  Mr.  Vaughan,  that  they  might  be 
sent  to  his  friend  Mr.  Milton,  still  at  Paris.  Be  so  good  as  let  me 
know  Sir  if  your  wrist  recieves  any  benefit  from  the  waters  or 
climate  of  Aix  and  rest  assured  of  the  warmest  and  sincerest  senti- 
ments of  friendship  with  which  I  am  &  ever  shall  be  Your,  &c., 


Petit  who  carried  your  letter  to  Miss  Jefferson  this  morning  tells 
me  that  she  was  in  perfect  health. 

RC     (E>LC).    PrC    (DLCs    Short   Pa-  May   1787;   the  latter  may  or  may  not 

pers).    Recorded    in    SJL    as    received    3  have  been  enclosed  in  Dumas  to  Short, 

May  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence.  Only  two  27  Mch.  1787,  q.v.  for  a  note  on  Dumas* 

of  the  enclosures  have  been  identified:        alarm    at  B 's    (Bingham's)    BEING 

(1)  D'Ogny  to  TJ,   6  Apr*   1787    and  SENT  TO  FRA.NCE.   In   referring  to  Du- 

(2)  the  Papal  Nuncio's  note  of  4,  Apr.  mas*   going-   FUU-Y   INTO  THE   MATTEH 
1787.   TJ   received   thirty-six  letters   at  WITH    MR.    JAY,    Short    is    alluding    to 
Aix-en-Provence  on  3  May  1787,  all  of  Dumas'  letter  to  Jay  of  27  Feb.— 2  Mch. 
them  having  been    forwarded  by   Short  1787   in  which    Dumas   had   inserted    a 
or  Petit  at  various  times,  private  and  confidential  note  concerning 

The  TWO  LETTERS  FROM:  DUMAS  TO  the   likelihood    that    a    person    of   Bing- 

BE  FORWARDED  TO   JAY  were  evidently  ham's  character  would  come  under  the 

those    of    23    Mch.    and    30    Mch.    1787  influence  of  the  British  minister  at  The 

which  were  sent  to  Jay  by  Short  on  -4  Hague. 

To  Martha  Jefferson 

MY  BEAR  PATSY  Toulon  April  7.  1787. 

I  received  yesterday  at  Marseilles  your  letter  of  March  25*  and 
I  received  it  with  pleasure  because  it  announced  to  me  that  you  were 
well.  Experience  learns  us  to  be  always  anxious  about  the  health 
of  those  whom  we  love.  I  have  not  been  able  to  write  to  you  so  often 

{277  } 

7    APRIL    1787 

as  I  expected,  because  I  am  generally  on  the  road;  and  when  I  stop 
any  where,  I  am  occupied  in  seeing  what  is  to  be  seen.  It  will  be 
some  time  now,  perhaps  three  weeks  before  I  shall  be  able  to  write 
to  you  again.  But  this  need  not  slacken  your  writing  to  me,  because 
you  have  leisure,  and  your  letters  come  regularly  to  me.  I  have 
received  letters  which  inform  me  that  our  dear  Polly  will  certainly 
corne  to  us  this  summer.  By  the  time  I  return  It  will  be  time  to 
expect  her*  When  she  arrives,  she  will  become  a  precious  charge 
on  your  hands.  The  difference  of  your  age,  and  your  common  loss 
of  a  mother,  will  put  that  office  on  you.  Teach  her  above  all  things 
to  be  good:   because  without  that  we  can  neither  be  valued  by 
others,  nor  set  any  value  on  ourselves.  Teach  her  to  be  always 
true.  No  vice  is  so  mean  as  the  want  of  truth,  and  at  the  same  time 
so  useless.  Teach  her  never  to  be  angry.  Anger  only  serves  to 
torment  ourselves,  to  divert  others,  and  alienate  their  esteem.  And 
teach  her  industry  and  application  to  useful  pursuits.  I  will  venture 
to  assure  you  that  if  you  inculcate  this  in  her  mind  you  will  make 
her  a  happy  being  in  herself,  a  most  inestimable  friend  to  you,  and 
precious  to  all  the  world.  In  teaching  her  these  dispositions  of  mind, 
you  will  be  more  fixed  in  them  yourself,  and  render  yourself  dear 
to  all  your  acquaintance.  Practice  them  then,  my  dear,  without 
ceasing.  If  ever  you  find  yourself  in  difficulty  and  doubt  how  to 
extricate  yourself,  do  what  is  right,  and  you  will  find  it  the  easiest 
way  of  getting  out  of  the  difficulty.  Do  it  for  the  additional  incite- 
ment of  increasing  the  happiness  of  him  who  loves  you  infinitely, 
and  who  is  my  dear  Patsy  your's  affectionately, 


RC  (NNP).  PrC  (ViU).  The  editors  specimen  of  letter-writing  style  in  1876 

are  indebted  to  John  Cook  Wyllie,  Cu-  in  J.  Willis  Westlake's  How   to  Write 

rator  of  Rare  Books  of  the  Alderman  Letters,    Philadelphia,    Sower,    Potts   & 

Library,  University  of  Virginia,  for  call-  Co.,  1876,  pages  95-6"   (communication 

ingr  to  their  attention  the  fact  that  the  to  the  editors,  8  July  1953), 
present  letter  "was  still  being  used  as  a 

From  Adrien  Petit 

{Paris,  7  Apr.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  May   1787  at 
Aix-en-Provence.  Not  found.] 


From  David  Ramsay 

DEAR  SIR  Charleston  April  7th*  1787* 

Your  favor  of  October  last  came  to  hand  last  February  with  the 
several  samples  of  rice  therein  referred  to.  The  time  of  its  arrival 
was  opportune.  Our  house  of  Assembly  was  then  sitting.  I  produced 
the  samples  of  rice  on  the  table  of  the  house  for  the  inspection  of 
the  members  who  were  planters.  I  shewed  your  letter  privately  to 
some  of  your  friends  who  concurred  with  me  in  opinion  that  it 
would  be  beneficial  to  the  public  and  not  indelicate  to  you  to  have 
it  inserted  in  our  State  gazette.  This  was  accordingly  done.  If  this 
does  not  meet  your  approbation  I  beg  your  pardon  for  making  your 
letter  public.  It  has  been  serviceable  to  our  planters  and  I  trust 
will  produce  no  effects  to  your  prejudice.  Instead  of  this  it  has  con- 
tributed to  impress  on  our  Country  Gentlemen  a  very  favorable 
opinion  of  you  for  your  particular  attention  to  their  interest. 

Political  necessity  has  once  more  compelled  the  Legislature  of 
this  State  to  enact  an  instalment  law  by  which  all  debts  contracted 
before  Jany.  1787  (with  a  few  exceptions)  are  only  recoverable 
by  three  equal  instalments  in  the  years  1788  1789  and  1790.  I 
fear  the  comments  that  will  be  made  on  this  act  in  Europe.  I  do 
not  pretend  to  justify  it.  I  only  say  that  the  calamities  of  the  war 
and  the  subsequent  successive  failure  of  crops  for  three  years  in 
some  degree  palliate  this  interference  of  the  legislature. 

I  hope  the  Dioneas  and  the  Magnolias  arrivd  safe.  They  were 
lodged  in  New:  York  with  Mr.  Otto.  The  season  was  such  as  Mr. 
Watson  chose  but  I  fear  it  was  too  late.  If  any  accident  befel  them 
I  shall  cheerfully  replace  them  this  ensuing  season. 

Our  governments  in  the  Southern  States  are  much  more  quiet 
than  in  the  northern  but  much  of  our  quiet  arises  from  the  temporis- 
ing of  the  legislatures  in  refusing  legal  protection  to  the  prosecution 
of  the  just  rights  of  creditors.  Our  eyes  now  are  all  fixed  on  the 
continental  convention  to  be  held  in  Philada.  in  May  next.  Unless 
they  make  an  efficient  federal  government  I  fear  that  the  end  of  the 
matter  will  be  an  American  monarch  or  rather  three  or  more  con- 
federacies. In  either  case  we  have  not  labored  in  vain  in  effecting 
the  late  revolution  for  such  arrangements  might  be  made  as  would 
secure  our  happiness* 

I  long  to  see  a  French  copy  of  my  book.  I  feel  myself  much 
honored  by  your  correspondence  and  esteem  every  line  from  your 


7    APRIL     1787 

pen  a  real  favor.  With  the  most  exalted  sentiments  of  respect  & 
esteem  I  am  yours  most  truly,  DAVID  RAMSAY 

RC  (DLC).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  6  July  1787. 

For  a  note  on  Ramsay's  publication  in  the  South  Carolina  Gazette  of  TJ's  letter 
OF  OCTOBER  LAST,  see  TJ  to  Ramsay,  27  Oct.  1786. 

To  William  Short 

DEAR  SIR  Toulon  Apr.  7.  1787. 

I  received  yesterday  at  Marseilles  your  favor  of  Mar.  26.  I  was 
just  then  setting  out  for  this  place,  and  therefore  deferred  answer- 
ing you  till  my  arrival  here.  I  now  inclose  you  a  letter  for  the  Count 
de  Montmorin,  which,  with  that  to  the  King,  be  pleased  to  deliver 
to  M.  de  Montmorin.  Is  the  letter  to  the  king  sealed  with  the  seal 
of  Congress?  If  it  is,  nothing  is  necessary  to  be  said  on  the  subject, 
If  it  is  not,  it  will  be  necessary  to  enter  into  this  explanation:  that 
some  time  ago  I  had  occasion  to  deliver  to  C.  de  Vergennes  a  letter 
from  Congress  to  the  king,  which  was  not  sealed  with  the  seal  of 
Congress;  that  C.  de  Vergennes  noticed  it  to  me,  and  I  wrote  to  Mr. 
Jay  to  inform  him  that  hereafter  the  seal  of  Congress  would  be 
expected  to  such  letters;  but  that  I  suppose  my  letter  might  not 
have  got  to  hand  when  this  one  came  away.  The  letter  to  the  king 
is  in  answer  to  one  he  wrote  Congress  in  July  last  on  the  birth  of 
the  princess.  I  have  apologized  in  mine  to  M.  de  Montmorin  for 
the  delay  of  the  answer,   Congress  not  having   assembled  to  do 
business  till  the  beginning  of  February.  General  St.  Clair  is  their 
president.  I  inclose  you  an  order  on  Mr.  Grand  for  120O  livres 
for  the  workman  who  makes  Genl.  Gates's  medal. — I  received  a 
letter  from  Mr.  Wythe  as  you  supposed.  It  was  dated  the  13th. 
Dec.  He  does  not  mention  Martin's  arrival.  He  had  received  the 
Tagliaferro  arms;  but  as  I  had  sent  them  by  two  or  three  oppor- 
tunities, it  does  not  prove  Martin's  arrival. 

Having  taken  40.  douches,  without  any  sensible  benefit,  I 
thought  it  useless  to  continue  them.  My  wrist  strengthens  slowly: 
it  is  to  time  I  look  as  the  surest  remedy,  and  that  I  believe  will 
restore  it  at  length.  I  set  out  tomorrow  for  Nice.  The  information 
received  at  Marseilles  encourages  me  in  my  researches  on  the  sub- 
ject of  rice,  and  that  I  shall  meet  with  rice  fields  and  the  machines 
for  cleaning  it  just  beyond  the  Alps.  Unless  they  call  me  into  the 
neighborhood  of  Turin  I  shall  not  go  that  far,  having  no  object 
further  eastward  except  the  rice.  Hitherto  my  journey  has  been 
a  continued  feast  on  objects  of  agriculture,  new  to  me,  and,  some 

t  280] 

9    APRIL     1787 

of  them  at  least,  susceptible  of  adoption  in  America.  Nothing  can 
be  ruder  or  more  savage  than  the  country  I  am  in,  as  it  must  have 
come  from  the  hands  of  nature;  and  nothing  more  rich  and  varie- 
gated in  the  productions  with  which  art  has  covered  it.  Marseilles 
is  a  charming  place.  All  life  and  activity,  and  a  useful  activity  like 
London  and  Philadelphia.  As  I  shall  receive  no  more  of  your  letters 
till  I  get  back  to  Aix  you  will  hear  from  me  less  often:  probably  not 
at  all  while  beyond  the  Alps.  When  I  get  back  to  Nice  I  shall  be 
able  to  calculate  to  a  day  my  return  to  Aix,  and  of  course  the  term 
after  which  it  will  be  proper  to  send  my  letters  to  another  stage. 
Remember  me  to  enquiring  friends,  and  be  assured  of  the  sincere 
esteem  with  which  I  am  Dear  Sir  your  affectionate  friend  &  servant, 


ES.  Not  being  sure  of  M.  de  Montmorin's  address,  I  have  left 
it  blank.  Be  so  good  as  to  inform  yourself  of  it,  and  to  address  the 

RC  (Georg-e  W,  Glick,  New  York  presentation  of  the  report  on  the  Con- 
City,  1948);  endorsed:  "Jefferson  1787  sular  Convention.  That  letter  was  car- 
April  7,  [received]  15.**  PrC  (DLC).  ried  to  America  by  Randall,  and  TJ  may 
Enclosures:  (1)  TJ  to  Montmorin,  Tou-  have  suggested  to  Randall  that  he  ex- 
Ion,  6  Apr.  1787  (missing-);  see  note  to  press  to  Jay  the  fact  that  VERGENNES 
Jay  to  TJ,  9  Feb.  1787.  (52)  Draft  on  NOTICED  the  omission  of  the  seal  and 
Grand  (missing),  that  the  seal  would  thenceforth  be  ex- 

I  WROTE  TO  MR.  JAY  TO  INFORM  HTM  pected.  But  TJ  knew  as  early  as  6  Dec. 

THAT  HEREAFTER  THE  SEAL  OF  CON-  1786  that  his  letter  of  8  July  had  been 

GRESS  WOULD  BE  EXPECTED:  No  such  received  by  Jay  (see  Vol.  1O:  455). 

letter  has  been  found,  and  it  is  probable  The  inference  to  be  drawn  is  that  TJ's 

that  none  was  written.  The  only  letter  remarks  to  Short  on  this  matter  consti- 

from  TJ  to  Jay  in  the  latter  part  of  tute  a  diplomatic  "explanation"  and  not 

1786  that  mentions  delivery  of  a  docu-  necessarily  a  recital  of  facts  (the  letter 

ment  to  Vergrennes  is  that  of  8  July  was  actually  sealed;  see  Short  to  TJ, 

1786,  q.v.,  in  which  TJ  discusses  the  24  Apr.  1787). 

From  Martha  Jefferson 

MY  DEAR  PAPA  Panthemont,  April  9th,  1787. 

I  am  very  glad  that  the  beginning  of  your  voyage  has  been  so 
pleasing,  and  I  hope  that  the  rest  will  not  be  less  so,  as  it  is  a  great 
consolation  for  me,  being  deprived  of  the  pleasure  of  seeing-  you, 
to  know  at  least  that  you  are  happy.  I  hope  your  resolution  of  re- 
turning in  the  end  of  April  is  always  the  same.  I  do  not  doubt  but 
what  Mr.  Short  has  written  you  word  that  my  sister  sets  off  with 
Fulwar  Skipwith  in  the  month  of  May,  and  she  will  be  here  in 
July.  Then,  indeed,  shall  I  be  the  happiest  of  mortals;  united  to 
what  I  have  the  dearest  in  the  world,  nothing  more  will  be  requisite 


9    APRIL     1787 

to  render  ray  happiness  complete.  I  am  not  so  industrious  as  you  or 
I  would  wish,  but  I  hope  that  in  taking  pains  I  very  soon  shall  be. 
I  have  already  begun  to  study  more*  I  have  not  heard  any  news  of 
my  harpsichord;  it  will  be  really  very  disagreeable  if  it  is  not  here 
before  your  arrival.  I  am  learning  a  very  pretty  thing  now,  but  it  is 
very  hard.  I  have  drawn  several  little  flowers,  all  alone,  that  the 
master  even  has  not  seen;  indeed,  he  advised  me  to  draw  as  much 
alone  as  possible,  for  that  is  of  more  use  than  all  I  could  do  with 
him.  I  shall  take  up  my  Livy,  as  you  desire  it.  I  shall  begin  it  again, 
as  I  have  lost  the  thread  of  the  history.  As  for  the  hysterics,  you 
may  be  quiet  on  that  head,  as  I  am  not  lazy  enough  to  fear  them. 
Mrs.  Barett  has  wanted  me  out,  but  Mr.  Short  told  her  that  you 
had  forgotten  to  tell  Madame  L'Abbesse  to  let  me  go  out  with  her. 
There  was  a  gentleman,  a  few  days  ago,  that  killed  himself  because 
he  thought  that  his  wife  did  not  love  him.  They  had  been  married 
ten  years.  I  believe  that  if  every  husband  in  Paris  was  to  do  as 
much,  there  would  be  nothing  but  widows  left.  I  shall  speak  to 
Madame  Thaubeneu  about  dining  at  the  Abbess's  table.  As  for 
needlework,  the  only  kind  that  I  could  learn  here  would  be  em- 
broidery, indeed  netting  also;  but  I  could  not  do  much  of  those  in 
America,  because  of  the  impossibility  of  having  proper  silks;  how- 
ever, they  will  not  be  totally  useless.  You  say  your  expectations  for 
me  are  high,  yet  not  higher  than  I  can  attain.  Then  be  assured, 
my  dear  papa,  that  you  shall  be  satisfied  in  that,  as  well  as  in  any 
thing  else  that  lies  in  my  power;  for  what  I  hold  most  precious  is 
your  satisfaction,  indeed  I  should  be  miserable  without  it.  You 
wrote  me  a  long  letter,  as  I  asked  you;  however,  it  would  have  been 
much  more  so  without  so  wide  a  margin.  Adieu,  my  dear  papa. 
Be  assured  of  the  tenderest  affection  of  your  loving  daughter, 


Pray  answer  me  very  soon— a  long  letter,  without  a  margin.  I  will 
try  to  follow  the  advice  they  contain  with  the  most  scrupulous 

MS  not  found;  text  is  from  the  printing:  in  Randolph,  Domestic  Life,  p.  117-18* 
Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence.  Patsy's  remark  about 
THE  HYSTEBICS  alludes  to  a  sentence  of  T*Ps  letter  of  28  Mch.  1787. 

From  Jacques  Nicolas  Mayeux 

Rozoy-sur-Serre,  9  Apr.  1787.  States  that  he  had  petitioned  the 
Prince  of  Luxembourg  on  15  Apr.  1783  to  reimburse  him  for  his 
services  at  sea;  had  no  reply;  on  15  Mch.  last,  he  again  applied  to  the 


1  1    APRIL     1787 

Prince*  who  replied  that  his  claim  for  services  on  the  ship,  Ulndien,  was 
not  the  Prince's  responsibility;  that  he  had  paid  for  such  services  up  to 
the  time  of  sailing-;  that  the  ship  -was  chartered  by  the  state  of  South 
Carolina,  Capt.  Gillon  being  in  full  charge;  that  the  claim  should  be 
presented  to  TJ;  and  that  he  had  already  urged  TJ  to  pay  the  soldiers 
and  sailors  the  wages  due  them  and  their  shares  of  the  prizes  of  which 
Capt.  Gillon  has  given  no  account.  The  petitioner  claims  payment  for 
3OO  livres  ( lOs,  per  day)  for  pay  while  he  was  at  sea  on  the  ship, 
Ulndien^  having  received  nothing  for  twenty  months7  service  during 
1781  and  1782,  together  with  his  share  of  the  prize  money  for  three 
ships  and  their  cargoes;  begs  TJ,  in  accordance  with  the  King's  proc- 
lamation of  4  Aug.  1786,  to  recover  for  him  the  money  he  won  by  en- 
dangering his  life. 

RC  (ViWC);  2  p.;  in  French;  at  head  of  text:  "Prises  et  Captures  sur  mer."  Tr 
(DNA:  PCC,  No.  107,  n).  Not  recorded  in  SJL;  copy  enclosed  in  TJ  to  Jay,  21 
June  1787. 

From  A.  E.  van  Braam  Houckgeest 

Charleston^  S.  C.,  10  Apr.  1787.  In  March  of  1786,  he  sent  from 
Charleston,  on  his  brig,  AmitiS^  Capt.  Peray,  among  other  things,  three 
leather  bundles  and  a  small  cask  of  snuff  from  Brazil  which  he  bought 
in  Charleston,  not  knowing  that  it  was  contraband  in  France;  on  arriving 
at  Bordeaux  the  captain  had  all  of  the  cargo  unloaded,  thereby  proving 
that  he  had  no  intention  of  smuggling.  The  snuff  was  seized;  efforts 
were  made  by  his  agents,  without  success,  to  recover  it  for  re-export; 
but  the  farmers-general  merely  cancelled  the  fine  and  notified  him  that 
he  could  recover  the  snuff  only  through  TJ's  intervention;  applies  to 
TJ  to  recover  the  snuff  or  to  see  that  he  is  reimbursed  for  his  loss. 

RC  (DL«C);  2  p.;  in  French;  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  6  July  1787. 
See  David  Ramsay  to  TJ,  16  Apr.  1787,  in  which  this  letter  was  enclosed;  and 
TJ  to  Ramsay,  8  Aug.  1787. 

To  Lafayette 

Nice,  April  11,  1787. 

Your  head,  my  dear  friend,  is  full  of  Notable  things;  and  being 
better  employed,  therefore,  I  do  not  expect  letters  from  you.  I  am 
constantly  roving  about,  to  see  what  I  have  never  seen  before  and 
shall  never  see  again.  In  the  great  cities,  I  go  to  see  what  travellers 
think  alone  worthy  of  being  seen;  but  I  make  a  job  of  it,  and  gen- 
erally gulp  it  all  down  in  a  day.  On  the  other  hand,  I  am  never 
satiated  with  rambling  through  the  fields  and  farms,  examining 
the  culture  and  cultivators,  with  a  degree  of  curiosity  which  makes 
some  take  me  to  be  a  fool,  and  others  to  be  much  wiser  than  I  am. 

£283  } 

1  1    APRIL    1787 

I  have  been  pleased  to  find  among  the  people  a  less  degree  of  physi- 
cal misery  than  I  had  expected.  They  are  generally  well  clothed,  and 
have  a  plenty  of  food,  not  animal  indeed,  but  vegetable,  which  is 
as  wholesome.  Perhaps  they  are  over  worked,  the  excess  of  the 
rent  required  by  the  landlord,  obliging  them  to  too  many  hours  of 
labor,  in  order  to  produce  that,  and  wherewith  to  feed  and  clothe 
themselves.  The  soil  of  Champagne  and  Burgundy  I  have  found 
more  universally  good  than  I  had  expected,  and  as  I  could  not  help 
making  a  comparison  with  England,  I  found  that  comparison  more 
unfavorable  to  the  latter  than  is  generally  admitted.  The  soil,  the 
climate,  and  the  productions  are  superior  to  those  of  England,  and 
the  husbandry  as  good,  except  in  one  point;  that  of  manure.  In 
England,  long  leases  for  twenty-one  years,  or  three  lives,  to  wit, 
that  of  the  farmer,  his  wife,  and  son,  renewed  by  the  son  as  soon 
as  he  comes  to  the  possession,  for  his  own  life,  his  wife's  and  eldest 
child's,  and  so  on,  render  the  farms  there  almost  hereditary,  make 
it  worth  the  farmer's  while  to  manure  the  lands  highly,  and  give  the 
landlord  an  opportunity  of  occasionally  making  his  rent  keep  pace 
with  the  improved  state  of  the  lands.  Here  the  leases  are  either 
during  pleasure,  or  for  three,  six,  or  nine  years,  which  does  not 
give  the  farmer  time  to  repay  himself  for  the  expensive  operation 
of  well  manuring,  and  therefore,  he  manures  ill,  or  not  at  all.  I 
suppose,  that  could  the  practice  of  leasing  for  three  lives  be  intro- 
duced in  the  whole  kingdom,  it  would,  within  the  term  of  your  life, 
increase  agricultural  productions  fifty  per  cent;  or  -were  any  one 
proprietor  to  do  it  with  his  own  lands,  it  would  increase  his  rents 
fifty  per  cent,  in  the  course  of  twenty-five  years.  But  I  am  told  the 
laws  do  not  permit  it.  The  laws  then,  in  this  particular,  are  unwise 
and  unjust,  and  ought  to  give  that  permission.  In  the  southern 
provinces,  where  the  soil  is  poor,  the  climate  hot  and  dry,  and  there 
are  few  animals,  they  would  learn  the  art,  found  so  precious  in 
England,  of  making  vegetable  manure,  and  thus  improving  these 
provinces  in  the  article  in  which  nature  has  been  least  kind  to 
them.  Indeed,  these  provinces  afford  a  singular  spectacle.  Calcu- 
lating on  the  poverty  of  their  soil,  and  their  climate  by  its  latitude 
only,  they  should  have  been  the  poorest  in  France.  On  the  contrary, 
they  are  the  richest,  from  one  fortuitous  circumstance.  Spurs  or 
ramifications  of  high  mountains,  making  down  from  the  Alps,  and 
as  it  were,  reticulating  these  provinces,  give  to  the  vallies  the  pro- 
tection of  a  particular  inclosure  to  each,  and  the  benefit  of  a  general 
stagnation  of  the  northern  winds  produced  by  the  whole  of  them, 


1  1    APRIL     1787 

and  thus  countervail  the  advantage  of  several  degrees  of  latitude. 
From  the  first  olive  fields  of  Pierrelate,  to  the  orangeries  of  Hieres, 
has  been  continued  rapture  to  me.  I  have  often  wished  for  you.  I 
think  you  have  not  made  this  journey.  It  is  a  pleasure  yon  have  to 
come,   and  an  improvement  to  be  added  to  the  many  you  have 
already  made.  It  will  be  a  great  comfort  to  [you  to  know,  from  your 
own  inspection,  the  condition  of  all  the  provinces  of  your  own  coun- 
try, and  it  will  be  interesting  to  them  at  some  future  day  to  be  known 
to  you.  This  is  perhaps  the  only  moment  of  your  life  in  which  you 
can  acquire  that  knolege.  And  to  do  it  most  effectually  you  must  be 
absolutely  incognito,  you  must  ferret  the  people  out  of  their  hovels 
as  I  have  done,  look  into  their  kettles,  eat  their  bread,  loll  on  their 
beds  under  pretence  of  resting  yourself,  but  in  fact  to  find  if  they 
are  soft.  You  will  feel  a  sublime  pleasure  in  the  course  of  this  in- 
vestigation, and  a  sublimer  one  hereafter  when  you  shall  be  able 
to  apply  your  knoiege  to  the  softening  of  their  beds,  or  the  throwing 
a  morsel  of  meat  into  the  kettle  of  vegetables.  You  will  not  wonder 
at  the  subjects  of  my  letter:  they  are  the  only  ones  which  have  been 
present  to  iny  mind  for  some  time  past,  and  the  waters  must  always 
be  what  are  the  fountain  from  which  they  flow.  According  to  this 
indeed  I  should  have  intermixed  from  beginning  to  end  warm  ex- 
pressions of  friendship  to  you:  but  according  to  the  ideas  of  our 
country  we  do  not  permit  ourselves  to  speak  even  truths  when 
they  may  have  the  air  of  flattery.  I  content  myself  therefore  with 
saying  once  for  all  that  I  love  you,  your  wife  and  children.  Tell 
them  so  and  Adieu.  Your's  affectionately,          TH:  JEFFERSON]1 

PrC  (DLC);  fragment,  consisting  of  last  pagre  only,  without  indication  of  ad- 

i  That  part  of  the  text  within  brackets  (supplied)  represents  the  whole  of  the 
fragmentary  PrC;  all  of  the  remainder  of  the  text  is  printed  from  TJR,  n,  1O4-6. 

From  Louis  Guillaume  Otto 

MONSIEUR  A  Newyork  le  11  Avril  1787. 

J'ai  re£u  la  lettre  que  Vous  m^aves  fait  Phonneur  de  m'ecrire  le 
14.  Janvr.  dernier.  Je  desire  plus  que  personne  que  le  nouveau 
reglement  pour  les  paquebots  se  soutienne;  il  me  fournira  sou  vent 
Toccasion  de  m'entretenir  avec  Vous  et  de  recevoir  de  Vos  nouvelles. 

Le  petit  resum6  des  nouvelles  de  PEurope,  que  Vous  voules  bien 
m'addresser,  m'est  infiniment  precieux.  II  sert  si  fixer  mes  idees  sur 
plusieurs  objets,  que  les  Gazetiers  Anglois  se  plaisent  a  representer 

{285  } 

1  1    APRIL     1787 

sous  un  faux  jour-  Je  suis  egalement  reconnoissant  des  brochures 
dont  Vous  avgs  charg6  le  Col.  Franks;  quoique  ces  sortes  de  pub- 
lications n'aient  qu'un  interet  momentane,  elles  ont  du  prix  pour 
un  homme  qui  est  loin  de  sa  patrie. 

Vos  Concitoyens,  Monsieur,  sont  aussi  sur  le  point  d'avoir  leur 
assemblee  des  notables.  Elle  doit  se  former  en  May  prochain  a 
Philade.  Les  yeux  de  toute  PAmerique  sont  fix6s  sur  ce  nouveau 
CongrSs,  compost  des  homines  les  plus  distingugs  par  leurs  con- 
noissances  politiques,  leur  poids  et  leur  integrity.  Les  observateurs 
les  moins  prevenus  n'esperent  pas  cependant  de  voir  finir  tous  les 
emb arras,  mais  ils  se  flattent  facilement  que  cette  nouvelle  as- 
semble gen6rale  fournira  une  occasion  de  discuter  £  fonds  les 
inter^ts  de  Funion  et  d'examiner  jusqu'S.  quel  point  les  peuples 
doivent  se  depouiller  de  leur  Iibert6.  Le  sacrifice  sera  certainement 
trfcs  grand,  mais  les  circonstances  le  rendent  indispensable.  Vous 
connoiss£s  mieux  que  moi,  Monsieur,  les  avantages  et  les  incon- 
veniens  de  la  confederation  actuelle  et  je  me  borne  &  Vous  exposer 
1'opinion  du  public  eclairg. 

L'assemblee  de  Newyork  vient  d'emanciper  les  Vermontois  et 
Ton  doit  s'attendre  &  voir  arriver  bientdt  en  Congr^s  les  representans 
d'un  quatorzieme  Etat.  Les  anciens  Proprietaires  ont  fait  leur 
possible  pour  f aire  echouer  le  Bill  qui  declare  Tindependance  de 
Vermont,  mais  on  a  cru  devoir  sacrifier  leur  inter&t  au  repos  public. 
Vous  trouver6s  S.  ce  sujet  dans  les  gazettes  un  discours  du  CoL 
Hamilton  qui  a  et£  generalement  approuv£. 

Le  Dr.  Ramsay  a  public  la  lettre  que  Vous  lui  av6s  ecrite  au 
sujet  des  ris  de  la  Caroline.  Cette  piece  a  fait  beaucoup  de  sensation; 
le  dernier  paragraphe  doit  en  faire  surtout  dans  le  coeur  d'un 
Francois.  Vous  ne  sauries  prendre  trop  de  peine,  Monsieur,  pour 
conserver  parmi  Vos  Compatriotes  le  veritable  esprit  de  Falliance. 

JPai  Fhonneur  d'etre  avec  un  respectueux  attachement  Monsieur, 
de  Votre  Excellence,  le  trfcs  humble  et  tr§s  obeissant  serviteur, 


RC    (DLC);    endorsed.    Recorded   In  The  DISGOTJBS  DU  COL.  KLAJMILTON  on 

SJL  as   received    11   June   1787.   For   a  the  independence   of  Vermont  is  to  be 

note   on   Ramsay's   publication    of   TJ's  found   in   Hamilton,   Works,    ed.   H.    C. 

letter  AU  SUJET  JDES  RIS,  see  TJ  to  Ram-  Lodge,  vui,  42-62. 
say,  27  Oct.  1786. 


To  William  Short 

DEAR  SIR  Nice  April  12.  1787. 

At  Marseilles  they  told  me  I  should  encounter  the  ricefeilds  of 
Piedmont  soon  after  crossing  the  Alps.  Here  they  tell  me  there  are 
none  nearer  than  Vercelli  and  Novarra,  which  is  carrying  me  almost 
to  Milan.  I  fear  that  this  circumstance  will  occasion  me  a  greater 
delay  than  I  had  calculated  on.  However  I  am  embarked  in  the 
project  and  shall  go  through  with  it.  Tomorrow  I  set  out  on  my 
passage  over  the  Alps,  being  to  pursue  it  93  miles  to  Coni  on  mules, 
as  the  snows  are  not  yet  enough  melted  to  admit  carriages  to  pass. 
I  leave  mine  here  therefore,  proposing  to  return  by  water  from 
Genoa.  I  think  it  will  be  three  weeks  before  I  get  back  to  Nice. — 
I  find  this  climate  quite  as  superb  as  it  has  been  represented. 
Hieres  is  the  only  place  in  France  which  may  be  compared  with  it. 
The  climates  are  equal.  In  favor  of  this  place  are  the  circumstances 
of  gay  and  dissipated  society,  a  handsome  city,  good  accomodations 
and  some  commerce.  In  favor  of  Hieres  are  environs  of  delicious  and 
extensive  plains,  a  society  more  contracted  and  therefore  more  capa- 
ble of  esteem,  and  the  neighborhood  of  Toulon,  Marseilles  and 
other  places  to  which  excursions  may  be  made.  Placing  Marseilles 
in  comparison  with  Hieres,  it  has  extensive  society,  a  good  theatre, 
freedom  from  military  controul,  and  the  most  animated  commerce. 
But  it's  winter  climate  far  inferior. — I  am  now  in  the  act  of  putting 
my  baggage  into  portable  form  for  my  bat-mule;  after  praying  you 
therefore  to  let  my  daughter  know  I  am  well  and  that  I  shall  not 
be  heard  of  again  in  three  weeks  I  take  my  leave  of  you  for  that 
time  with  assurances  of  the  sincere  esteem  with  which  I  am  Dear 
Sir  your  friend  &  servt.,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

RC  (ViU);  endorsed:  "Jefferson  April  12  [received]  21  1787."  Not  recorded  in 


To  the  Abbes  Arnoux  and  Chalut 

a  Nice  ce  12me.  Avril  1787. 

C'est  bien  le  terns,  mes  chers  Messieurs,  de  vous  faire  mes  re- 
mercimens  pour  toutes  les  honnetetes  dont  je  vous  suis  redevable. 
A  commencer  par  Madame  de  Laye,  elle  m'a  comblg  de  bontes,  de 
politesses,  et  de  toutes  sortes  detentions.  J'ai  fait  chez  elle  un 
sejour  de  trois  jours,  qui  ont  et6  remplis  d'agremens  et  d'instruo 
tions.  Monsieur  Tournillon,  Monsieur  de  Pizay,  Monsieur  le 


14    APRIL    1787 

Prevot  d'Ainay  se  sent  empresses  de  me  montrer  par  toutes  les 
honnetet^s  possibles  combien  ils  estiment  tout  ce  qui  vient  de 
votre  part.  Monsieur  Bernard  de  Marseilles  etoit  en  campagne. 
I$i  Monsieur  Sasserno  ne  cesse  de  me  donner  des  preuves  de  ses 
dispositions  a  m'etre  utile.  Enfin  je  vois  par  la  que  tout  le  monde 
vous  aime,  et  que  c'est  moi  qui  en  profite.  Je  vous  en  fais  mille  et 
mille  remercimens,  et  c'est  du  fond  de  mon  coeur  que  je  vous 
les  fais.  Mon  voyage  a  et6  jusqu'igi  on  ne  peut  plus  interessant. 
Demain  je  partirai  pour  les  rizieres  de  Piedmont.  C'est  par  elles 
que  je  finirai  mon  voyage  de  ce  cot6  ci.  Je  retournerai  aprds  par  le 
canal  de  Languedoc,  la  Garonne,  et  la  Loire  &  Paris,  ou  j'aurai 
rhonneur  de  vous  revoir  aux  premiers  jours  de  Juin,  de  vous  dire 
combien  je  suis  sensible  £  vos  amiti6s,  combien  elles  m'ont  et6 
utiles,  et  de  vous  prier  de  vouloir  bien  agreer  tous  les  sentimens  de 
reconnoissance,  d'estime,  et  de  respect,  avec  lesquels  j'ai  Fhonneur 
d'etre,  mes  chers  Messieurs,  votre  tr6s  humble  et  tres  obeissant 
serviteur,  TH:  JEFFERSON 

PrC  (DLC);  endorsed.  This  letter,  follows:  "M.  Tournillon  Paine*.  Conseil- 

written  the  day  before  TJ  began  his  ler  du  roy.  Notaire  rue  de  la  Barre.— 

journey  across  the  Alps  into  Italy,  is  M.  TAbbe  Charrier  de  la  Roche,  Prevot 

the  last  recorded  in  SJL  until  those  writ-  d'Ainay,  vicaire  general  a  Ainay  & 

ten  from  Aix-en-Provence  on  3  May.  Lyons.— M.  de  Pizay.  en  son  hotel  rue 

The  Abbe's  Arnoux  and  Chalut  had  Sala.  3.  Lyons.  .  .  .  M.  Bernard  de  1'Acad, 

evidently  given  TJ  letters  of  introduc-  de  Marseille,  directeur  joint  de  1'Ob- 

tion  to  TOUBNILLON  .  .  .  FIZA.Y  and  servatoire.  a  I'Observatoire  (de  M. 

others  named,  all  of  whom  appear  in  PAbbe"  Papon).  .  .  .  Nice.  M.  [Andr61 

T»Ts  list  of  names  and  addresses  in  his  Sasserno.  neg-ociant."  See  TJ  to  Short, 

rough  notes  of  expenses  (CSmH),  as  15  Mch.  1787. 

From  Francis  Hopkinson 

DEAR  SIR  Philada.  April  14th.  1787 

Your  Favour  of  the  23d.  Dec.  came  to  Hand  yesterday.  I  have 
but  just  Time  to  notice  the  several  Articles  you  mention  in  the 
order  they  stand.  The  first  respects  Madame  Champes.  I  have 
suffered  much  uneasiness  about  the  first  Packet  to  her,  which  I 
delivered  to  a  Gentleman  of  Bucks  County,  her  near  Neighbour, 
upon  his  Promise  to  procure  me  her  Receipt  for  the  Packet.  This 
however  hath  never  been  done.  It  has  been  often  promised  and  as 
often  forgot.  I  wrote  yesterday  to  Madame  Champes,  informing 
her  that  I  had  another  Packet  for  her,  which  I  would  deliver  only  to 
her  written  Order,  accompanied  with  her  Receipt  for  the  first.— 
The  Manner  of  preserving  the  Essence  L'Orient  is  the  very  method 
I  tried;  but  I  think  it  changes  the  Colour.  If  I  had  a  Day  or  two's 


14    APRIL     1787 

Notice  more  than  I  have  I  would  send  you  a  Sample — perhaps  I  shall 
as  it  is.  I  shall  have  the  Experiment  of  my  Spring-Block  tried  here 
this  Summer  and  will  inform  you  of  the  Result. — The  Gentleman  I 
spoke  to  has  not  sent  me  the  Nuts  from  Pittsburgh.  Now  I  know 
that  it  is  the  Illinois  nut  you  want,  I  shall  exert  myself  to  procure 
some  for  you.  I  sent  you  long  since  a  Packet  of  News-Papers,  in 
which  I  inclosed  the  foot  and  2  or  3  of  the  long  Feathers  of  the 
beautiful  Bird  I  mentioned.  I  hope  they  got  to  hand.  I  shall  soon 
begin  again  upon  the  Harmonica.  From  the  Experiments  I  have 
made,  I  have  no  Doubt  of  the  Success.  I  have  already  applied  Keys 
to  the  Glasses,  furnished  with  artificial  Fingers,  which  answered 
perfectly,  and  most  delightfully  in  a  great  Part  of  the  Scale.  Where 
they  did  not  succeed  so  well  -was  owing  to  the  Glass  not  being  truly 
mounted.  So  that  I  must,  I  find,  take  off  the  Glasses  from  the 
Spindel  and  mount  them  anew.  The  Pedal  to  the  Forte  Piano  is  a 
good  Thought.  The  Idea  is  taken  from  the  Pedal  Stop  of  a  Church 
Organ. — The  mint  is  not  yet  established  by  Congress.  Indeed  their 
Situation  is  such,  that  they  can  establish  nothing.  The  States  begin 
to  see  the  necessity  of  some  alterations  in  the  Terms  of  Confedera- 
tion, and  a  respectable  Delegation  from  most  of  the  States  are  to 
meet  here  next  Month  to  prepare  and  recommend  a  new  System  of 
Foederal  Union.  I  am  sorry  for  the  Misfortune  of  your  Wrist.  I 
hope  it  is  recovered  before  this.  The  next  Time  you  perform  this 
Maneuvre  I  would  recommend  your  left  Wrist  for  the  Experiment. 
You  will  find  it  much  more  convenient  than  the  Right  and  it  can 
be  every  bit  as  well  strained.  I  am  glad  you  approve  of  our  2d. 
Volume    of   Ph.    Transactions.    A    Gentleman    lately   from    Lon- 
don told  me  that  he  was  present  at  the  Royal  Society  when  our 
Volume  was  the  Subject  of  Notice.  That  particular  attention  was 
paid  to  my  Optical  Problem,  and  much  Surprise  exprest  that  the 
Circumstance  should  have  never  before  been  noticed.  The  Fact  was 
at  first  doubted,  but  Lord  Cavendish  made  the  Experiment  and 
declared  it  was  truly  stated.  It  may  probably  be  the  Subject  of 
future  Discussion. 

I  cannot  forward  your  News  Papers  now,  they  would  be  too 
bulky  for  Mr.  Paine's  Convenience.  I  send  you  however,  our  Maga- 
zines and  Monthly  Museum.  The  Proprietors  of  the  Magazine, 
have  engaged  me  to  undertake  the  Management  of  the  Work,  to 
which  they  are  by  no  Means  Competent  themselves.  The  month  of 
March  is  my  first  Exhibition.  In  the  Magazine  of  this  Month,  I 
shall  take  the  Liberty  of  giving  an  Extract  from  your  valuable 


14    APRIL    1787 

Notes  on  Virginia,  respecting  the  Comparative  Size  of  European 
and  American  Animals.  I  hope  this  will  not  displease  you.  I  hope 
further  that  you  will  give  me  Assistance  now  and  then.  I  have  a 
very  curious  Drawing  and  account  of  the  Remains  of  an  ancient 
fortified  Town  on  the  Muskingum  taken  by  an  officer  on  the  Spot 
It  seems  from  many  Circumstances  to  be  the  Vestiges  of  Art,  before 
this  Country  was  known  to  Europe.  This  is  an  interesting  Circum- 
stance in  the  History  of  the  World.  It  will  be  published  in  the  May 
Magazine.  I  have  invented  this  Winter  a  cheap,  convenient  and 
useful  Appendage  to  a  common  Candlestick,  which  keeps  the  Flame 
from  being  flared  by  the  Wind  in  Summer  or  the  Fire  in  Winter, 
and  makes  it  give  a  pleasant  and  steady  Light  to  read  or  write  by. 
I  shall  give  a  Description  and  Drawing  in  next  month's  Magazine. 

I  have  just  come  from  Dr.  Franklin.  He  is  well.  I  saw  Mr.  Rit- 
tenhouse's  Family  yesterday— all  well — Kitty  much  pleased  with 
her  little  Book,  but  lamented  that  she  had  no  Letter  with  it.  My 
Mother  desires  to  be  affectionately  remembered  to  Miss  Jefferson. 

Adieu  and  believe  ever  sincerely  your's,  F.  HOPKINSON 

Dr.  Griffiths  is  well,  but  I  have  not  yet  had  an  opportunity  of 
giving  the  Enquiries  of  Monr.  Bidon  and  his  able  Friends. 

RC    (DLC);   endorsed.   Recorded  in  Notes   on   Virginia*   and  in  the  March 

SJX  as  received  11  June  1787.  1787  issue  of  the  American  Museum,  I, 

For  a  discussion  of  Hopkinson's  OPTI-  206-8,  he  presented  "Thoughts  on 
CAL  PROBLEM,  see  Hastings,  Hopkin-  American  Genius"  in  which  he  stated 
son,  p.  361-2.  The  inscription  in  Hop-  that  "The  learned  Jefferson,  in  his  ex- 
fcinson's  copy  of  Notes  on  Virginia  cellent  *notes  on  Virginia,'  has  refuted 
should  have  made  him  more  sensitive  to  this  thesis  [of  Buffon  and  other  natural- 
TJ's  probable  attitude  toward  the  pub-  ists  concerning-  the  degeneracy  of  life  in 
lication  of  an  EXTRACT  .  .  .  RESPECTING  America],  with  the  urbanity  of  a  g-entle- 
THE  COMPARATIVE  SIZE  OF  EUROPEAN  man,  and  the  accuracy  of  a  scholar,  sup- 
AND  AMERICAN  ANIMALS;  that  inscrip-  ported  by  the  sound  reasoning  of  a 
tion  read,  in  part:  "Unwilling-  to  expose  philosopher.  His  observations,  particu- 
them  to  the  public  eye,  he  asks  the  favor  larly  on  the  writing's  of  the  abb6  Raynal, 
of  Mr.  Hopkinson  to  put  them  into  the  and  the  count  de  Buffon  .  .  .  deserve 
hands  of  no  person  on  whose  care  and  republic  ation."  This  same  issue  con- 
fidelity  he  cannot  rely,  to  guard  them  tained  TJ's  letter  to  Jay,  27  May  1786, 
against  publication."  Hopkinson  did  re-  and  Calonne's  letter  to  TJ,  22  Oct. 
print  the  Virginia  Act  for  Establishing  1786;  same,  p.  198-202. 
Religious  Freedom,  evidently  from 

From  Francis  Hopkinson 

Philada.  Apr.  14th  1787. 

The  enclosed  Phial  contains  some  of  my  Essence  L'Orient  but 
very  imperfectly  prepared.  I  heard  only  this  Morning  that  Mr. 


1  4    APRIL     1787 

Paine  would  set  off  Tomorrow.  I  had  to  buy  the  Fish  and  prepare 
the  Essence.  It  should  be  three  or  four  Days  in  settling  and  the 
water  then  poured  off  but  I  have  had  only  as  many  Hours  for  the 
Purpose,  so  that  great  allowances  must  be  made.  I  have  put  some 
volat  Spt*  Sal  Ammoniac  and  some  Spirit  of  Wine  in,  which  will 
preserve  it,  I  hope,  till  it  gets  to  hand.  All  I  want  to  know  is  whether 
the  Sample  I  send  is  of  the  right  kind.  If  it  should  be,  I  can  procure 
any  Quantity  of  it  in  the  season  that  is  April  May  and  June. 


RC  (DLC).  This  note  was  probably  enclosed  in  the  foregoing-.  The  entry  in 
for  11  June  1787  mentions  only  one  letter  of  14  Apr.  from  Hopkinson. 

From  Adrien  Petit 

[Paris ,  14  Apr.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  May  at  Aix-en- 
Provence.  Not  found.] 

From  Thomas  Mann  Randolph,  Jr. 

DEAR  SIR  Edinburgh  April  14th.  1787 

I  received  your  letter  containing  advice  with  respect  to  my  edu- 
cation, which  I  shall  allways  feel  the  advantage  of  having  obtaind 
and  which  I  shall  express  my  gratitude  for  by  the  only  method 
in  my  power,  implicitly  following  it.  I  have  allready  attended  a 
course  of  lectures  on  each  of  the  sciences  you  mentioned  except 
Botany  and  Anatomy,  which  are  to  engross  the  greater  part  of  my 
time  this  summer.  It  was  not  without  the  greatest  difficulty  and 
agitation  of  mind,  that  I  could  select  one  to  be  the  object  of  my 
future  and  allmost  sole  pursuit.  Indeed  as  on  it  my  success  in  life 
hereafter  must  entirely  depend,  to  determine  a  matter  of  such  im- 
portance without  a  struggle  would  argue  a  stupid  carelessness  and 
insensibility.  I  was  long  delighted  with  the  charms  of  Natural 
History,  but  found  at  last  that  altho  it  was  the  most  rational  and 
agreeable  amusement  in  which  hours  of  relaxation  could  be  em- 
ployed, yet  it  was  too  trivial  to  spend  a  whole  life  in  the  prosecution 
of.  Natural  Philosophy  appeared  more  deserving  of  a  particular 
attention,  the  exalted  nature  of  its  objects,  and  the  utility  which 
mankind  in  general  derive  from  their  investigation,  seemed  to  offer 
a  reward  equal  to  the  arduous  undertaking.  The  sublime  pleasure 
which  the  mind  feels  on  the  discovery  of  a  Mathematical  truth, 


14    APRIL    1787 

made  it  still  more  agreeable  from  its  intimate  connection  with  that 
delightful  tho  abstract  science  Ambition;  perhaps  I  ought  to  be 
ashamed  to  confess  it,  as  it  must  allways  be  mixed  in  some  degree 
with  vanity,  hindered  me  from  fixing  on  a  knowledge  of  either  of 
these,  as  the  sole  end  to  which  I  would  wish  to  attain.  Being  cer- 
tain that  Politics  was  a  science  which  would  lead  to  the  highest 
honours  in  a  free  state,  and  the  study  of  which  by  many  of  its 
members  would  be  of  the  greatest  utility  to  the  community  in  an 
infant  one,  I  resolved  to  apply  chiefly  to  it.  From  this  time  Montes- 
quieu and  Hume  have  been  my  principal  study.  The  course  of 
historical  reading  you  advised,  I  am  likewise  pursuing.  I  am  con- 
scious that  youthful  hopes  may  be  too  ardent,  and  that  my  ideas 
must  be  in  a  great  measure  visionary,  but  I  am  at  the  same  time 
convinced  that  Eloquence  even  in  a  very  middling  degree  is  re- 
spectable. My  desire  to  become  acquainted  with  the  political  consti- 
tution and  natural  productions  of  my  own  country,  must  I  am 
afraid  remain  some  time  unsatisfied,  as  I  have  yet  heard  of  no 
author  of  note  who  has  wrote  on  its  history  either  natural  or  civil. 
I  wait  with  impatience  for  the  publication  of  the  history  of  the  last 
war  by  Mr.  Gordon  of  Massachusets.  By  the  perusal  of  it  I  hope 
to  have  my  curiosity  in  some  degree  allayed.  I  must  trouble  you 
for  your  advice  on  a  particular  which  you  did  not  mention  in  your 
letter:  I  mean  the  propriety  of  studying  living  languages,  which 
has  been  questioned  by  so  many.  The  2  dead  languages  were  all 
I  acquired  the  least  idea  of  at  school,  except  the  French.  Having 
met  with  many  inaccurate  translations  from  there,  I  began  to  be 
afraid  that  the  like  mistakes  might  be  committed  with  respect  to 
the  meaning  of  the  original  author  in  others,  and  to  conceive  that 
it  was  an  essential  part  of  education  to  be  qualified  for  the  perusal 
of  books  in  the  principal  languages  of  Europe.  With  this  design 
I  immediately  applied  to  the  Italian,  encouraged   much  by  the 
account  of  the  elegance  of  the  poetical  compositions  in  it,  I  received 
from  those  who  understood  it.  Finding  even  the  rudiments  of  it 
not  so  difficult  as  I  expected,  I  have  determined  as  soon  as  I  shall 
be  capable  of  reading  it  with  ease,  to  undertake  the  Spanish,  pro- 
vided my  plan  meets  with  your  approbation.  This  correspondence 
concerning  myself  entirely,  must  be  so  tedious  and  uninteresting 
to  you,  that  was  I  not  certain  of  your  desire  for  the  propagation 
of  knowledge,  nothing  should  induce  me  to  trouble  you.  I  have 
taken  the  liberty  to  procure  the  seat  of  an  honorary  member  for  you 
in  a  society  instituted  here  for  the  encouragement  of  the  study  of 


14    APRIL    1787 

Natural  history  among  the  students  at  this  university.  I  should  not 
have  thought  the  honor  worth  your  acceptance,  was  not  the  list 
allready  adorned  wih  the  names  of  Black,  Priestley  and  Pennant. 
Mr.  Barton  will  deliver  the  Diploma.  As  my  Father  is  very  im- 
patient for  my  return,  I  shall  probably  spend  this  winter  in  Paris, 
and  set  out  the  next  summer. 

Sir  your  much  obliged  humble  Servt., 


RC  (MHi);  endorsed:  "Randolph  iNSTrruTED  HERE  [in  1782]  FOR  THE 

Thos.  M.  junr."  Recorded  in  SJL  as  re-  ENCOTJRAGEJVIENT  OF  THE  STUDY  OF 

ceived  25  May  1787  at  Bordeaux.  NATURAL  HISTORY  AMONG  THE  STXJ- 

The  DIPLOMA  delivered  by  M3i.  BAR-  DENTS,  is  in  MHi;  among:  those  who 

TON,  dated  at  Edinburgh,  22  Feb.  1787,  signed  were  Randolph  himself  and  Ben- 

and  signed  by  the  officers  of  the  SOCIETY  jamin  Smith  Barton* 

From  David  Rittenhouse 

DEAR  SIR  Philadelphia  April  14th.  1787 

About  the  latter  end  of  June  last  I  sent  you  the  2d.  Vol.  of  our 
Transactions,  directed  to  Mr,  Adams  at  London.  I  afterwards 
found  that  Mr.  Adams  was  at  that  time  Absent;  it  is  therefore 
probable  that  you  have  not  yet  recived  it.  Should  it  still  come  to 
hand  it  may  give  you  an  Opportunity  of  gratifying  some  freind. 
I  have  some  hopes  that  the  Society  will  publish  a  Small  Volume 
next  winter.  I  can't  however  pretend  to  contribute  much  towards  it 
as  the  Business  of  my  Office,  continually  encreasing,  not  only  oc- 
cupies my  time  intirely  at  present,  but  is  become  almost  insup- 
portable,— We  have  abundance  of  projectors  and  pretendors  to 
new  Discoveries,  and  many  applications  to  the  Legislature  for  ex- 
clusive priviledges,  some  of  them  ridiculous  enough.  The  self- 
moving  Boat,  the  Steam  Boat,  the  Mechanical  Miller,  the  improved 
Ring  Dial  for  finding  the  Variations  of  the  Needle.  The  Surveying 
Compass  to  serve  20  other  purposes,  And  a  project  for  finding  the 
Longitude  by  the  Variation  of  the  Magnetical  Needle.  Of  this  I 
shall  give  you  a  more  particular  Account,  The  Authors  first  scheme 
was  this.  He  supposes  two  invisible  Globes,  appendages  of  the 
Earth,  to  Govern  the  Needle  and  likewise  greatly  to  influence  the 
Tides,  one  having  70  or  80  Degrees  North  Declination  and  the 
other  almost  as  much  South,  and  he  has  Assigned  the  periods  of 
their  revolutions.  But  being  told  that  his  Globes  would  infallibly 
fall  to  the  Earth  unless  Supported  by  an  Iron  Spike  or  something 
of  that  nature,  he  has  discharged  them  and  contented  himself  with 

C293  ] 

15    APRIL     1787 

assigning  two  points,  one  near  each  pole.  Thro'  the  Northern 
one,  he  says,  pass  all  the  Magnetical  Meridians  in  the  Northern 
Hemisphere,  and  thro'  the  other  all  those  of  the  Southern  Hemi- 
sphere. He  has  determined  the  present  situation  and  periodical 
revolution  of  the  North  point  with  great  precission,  of  the  other 
he  speaks  more  doubtfully.  In  a  plausible  publication  he  proposes 
on  these  principles  to  find  the  Longitude  Generally  and  thinks  him- 
self intitled  to  a  public  reward.  I  promised  myself  the  pleasure  of 
spending  the  ensuing  Season  at  home,  having'  been  absent  three 
Summers  past.  My  Blessing  on  Miss  Patty.  I  hope  the  lameness  of 
your  wrist  will  not  long  make  writing  difficult. 

I  am,  dear  Sir,  with  the  greatest  esteem  Your  affectionate  friend 
&  Humble  Servant,  DAVD.  RITTEN HOUSE 

RC   (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  11  June  1787. 
On  tiie  PROJECT  FOR  FINDING  THE  LONGITUDE,  see  John   Churchman  to  TJ,  6 
June  1787. 

From  Francis  Hopkinson 

Philada.  April  15th.  1787. 

Mr.  Paine  not  setting  off  to  Day,  as  1  expected,  gives  me  an 
Opportunity  of  sending  another  Phial  of  Essence  L'Orient  which 
has  had  the  Advantage  of  standing  all  Night  to  depurate  and  is 
richer  than  that  I  gave  Mr.  Paine  yesterday.  Besides  this,  I  put 
some  Spirit  of  Wine  in  the  Phial  of  yesterday,  which  I  observe 
curdles  and  discolours  the  Essence.  In  this  there  is  nothing  but  a 
little  Volat.  Spirit  of  Sal  Ammoniac.  It's  Lustre  is  not  abated.  It 
looks  at  present  most  beautiful  and  will,  I  hope,  arrive  in  good 
Order  to  your  Hand.  I  have  just  heard  of  the  Arrival  of  Captain 
Gilpin  from  some  Port  of  France,  and  that  there  is  a  Packet  on 
board  for  me.  If  so  it  is  probably  from  you.  But  this  is  all  I  yet 
know  about  it. 

Yours  ever,  F.  HOPKINSON 

RC  (DLC).  Not  recorded  in  SJL,  but  probably  received  on   11  June   1787  with 
Hopkmson's  of  14  Apr.  1787. 

From  St.  John  de  Crevecoeur 

SlR  Paris  le  16  Avril  1787 

As   a  feeble  tho'  sincere   acknowledgement  for  your   excellent 
notes  on  Virginia,  as  well  as  for  your  kindness,  Permit  me  to  offer 


1  6    APRIL     1787 

you  The  Second  Edition  of  the  Amer:  Far.  Letters.  Spite  of  all  my 
Care,  a  great  number  of  Faults  are  to  be  found  in  it,  for  never  before 
had  I  seen  such  Profligate  careless  Men  as  the  Journeymen  Printers 
I  have  had  to  do  with.  "With  unfeigned  Respect  I  remain  Sir  Your 
most  humble  Servant,  ST.  JOHN  DE  CREVECOEUR 

RC  (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-Pro- 
vence.  The  three  volumes  that  accompanied  this  letter  (but  probably  were  not 
forwarded  by  Short  or  Petit)  were  the  Paris,  1787,  edition  of  Crevecoeur's  Les 
Lettres  d*u?i  Cultivateur  Americain. 

From  David  Ramsay 

Charleston^  S.C.,  16  Apr.  1787.  Encloses  a  letter  from  A.  E.  Van 
Braam  Houckgeest,  formerly  of  the  United  Netherlands  and  now  a  citi- 
zen and  "respectable  Gentleman  of  this  state."  Urges  TJ's  assistance  in 
his  behalf,  since  he  is  a  "Gentleman  of  reputation  much  esteemd  by  his 
lately  adopted  country." 

RC  (DLC);  2  p.;  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  6  July  1787.  Enclosure: 
Houckgreest  to  TJ,  1O  Apr.  1787. 

From  John  Sullivan 

DEAR  SIR  Durham  in  New  Hampshire  April  16th.  1787 

Upon  the  receipt  of  your  favor  of  the  7th.  of  January  1786  I 
found  that  every  thing  I  have  done  toward  procuring  for  you  the 
Skin  and  Skeleton  of  a  moose  would  not  answer  your  Expectations, 
the  bones  not  being  left  in  the  skin  or  proper  Care  taken  to  preserve 
and  dress  the  skin  with  the  hair  on  so  that  no  proper  resemblance 
of  the  Animal  could  be  had.  But  upon  receiving  your  Letter  I  im- 
mediately applied  to  Capt.  Colborn  of  Lebanon  on  Connecticut 
River  to  procure  me  one  and  Transport  him  to  my  House  with 
only  the  skins  opened  and  the  Entrails  taken  out,  and  such  thick 
parts  of  the  flesh  cut  off  as  would  not  injure  the  skin  or  skeleton. 
The  winter  proved  extraordinary,  much  snow  but  no  Crust  till 
the  Last  of  March,  at  which  time  a  Crust  happening  he  sallied  forth 
with  his  forces  and  with  Difficulty  killed  one  in  Vermont  State  and 
transported  his  Carcass  to  my  House  agreable  to  orders.  He  was 
no  less  than  14  Days  with  a  Team  in  The  Transportation.  I  send 
you  his  Receipt  inclosed  for  the  Cash  I  paid  him  upon  the  Arrival 
of  the  Animal  on  the  3d.  of  this  month.  The  remaining  flesh  began 
to  be  in  a  state  of  putrefaction.  Every  Engine  was  set  at  work  to 
preserve  the  Bones  and  Cleanse  them  from  the  remaining  flesh, 


16    APRIL    1787 

and  to  preserve  the  skins  with  the  hair  on,  with  the  hoofs  on  and 
Bones  of  Legs  and  thighs  in  the  skin  without  putrefaction,  and 
the  Jobb  was  both  Expensive  and  Difficult,  and  such  as  was  never 
before  attempted,  in  this  Quarter.  But  it  was  at  Last  Accomplished 
exactly  agreable  to  Your  Directions,  except  that  the  bones  of  the 
head  are  not  Left  in  the  skin  agreably  to  your  Directions,  as  it  was 
not  possible  to  preserve  them  in  that  Connection,  but  the  head  of 
the  skin  being  whole  and  well  dresst  it  may  be  Drawn  on  at  pleas- 
ure. The  Horns  of  the  Deer,  the  Elk  and  the  Caribou  I  also  send. 
They  are  not  the  horns  of  this  Moose  but  may  be  fixed  on  at 
pleasure.  The  horns  of  those  animals  are  not  in  perfection  at  this 
season  of  the  year.  The  skeleton  of  the  other  Animals  I  have  not 
procured  and  am  much  mortifyed  and  no  doubt  you  will  be  very 
greatly  surprized  at  the  Expence  of  what  I  now  send,  a  particular 
Account  of  which  will  come  by  Capt.  Saml.  Pierce  by  whom  I 
send  the  articles.  I  inclose  you  his  note  to  me  which  will  inform  you 
of  the  time  of  his  sailing  and  the  manner  in  which  he  means  to  con- 
vey them  to  you,  which  being  the  best  opportunity  that  offered  I 
have  adopted  it.  I  have  been  oblidged  to  make  a  Draught  on  you  in 
favor  of  my  brother  Judge  Sullivan  of  Boston  for  forty  five  pounds 
sterling  to  reimburse  the  money  I  have  advanced  and  will  be  the 
amount  of  the  Expence  attending  this  very  troublesome  affair.  The 
Skeletons  of  the  other  Animals,  though  they  might  be  procured 
with  Less  expence,  I  could  not  think  of  hazarding  it  "without  your 
consent.  These  animals  are  generally  taken  far  in  the  woods  and 
very  often,  as  was  the  Case  with  this,  Twenty  miles  from  any  road. 
A  way  must  of  course  be  cleared  through  the  wilderness  to  trans- 
port them  whole  and  hailed  by  hand,  to  some  common  road.  The 
flesh  of  them  which  is  considered  as  of  considerable  value  is  mostly 
Lost.  The  meat  of  a  moose  is  generally  Esteemed  equal  in  value 
to  that  of  a  Large  ox.  However  if  the  present  Expence  is  not  dis- 
couraging I  will  endeavour  to  procure  the  others  as  Cheap  as  pos- 
sible, and  although  they  must  fall  far  short  of  this  will  be  consid- 
erable. I  am  sorry  that  one  branch  of  one  of  the  Elks  horns  has  been 
Cut,  but  it  was  the  only  pair  I  could  procure  and  as  one  of  them  is 
entire  I  suppose  it  cannot  be  of  much  consequence.  I  am  most  re- 
spectfully Dr.  Sir  yr.  very  humble  Servt.,  JNO.  SULLIVAN 

RC    (DLC).  Recorded  in  SJL   as   re-  he  is  not  bound  for  France  but  will  be 

ceived  26   Sep.    1787.   Enclosures:    (1)  pleased  to  ship  the  box  by  packet  from 

Captain    Robert    Colburn's    receipt    to  Southampton    to    Le    Havre,    which    he 

Sullivan,  3  Apr.   1787    (missing).    (2)  thinks    is    the    "readiest    and    cheapest 

Samuel    Pearce    to    Sullivan,     12    Apr.  way";  that  he  would  be  glad  to   accept 

1787    (DLC),  informing-   Sullivan   that  the   bill   on    TJ    but   "at    present   he  is 


1  7    APRIL     1787 

quite  out"  of  cash;  and  that  if  Sullivan  enclosures  were  sent  to  TJ  with  Sulli- 

decides  to  send  the  box,  he  would  like  van's    of   29   May    1787,    q.v.    See    also 

to  "have  it  the  last  of  the  ensuing  week  Sullivan  to  TJ,  17,  26,  and  27  Apr,,  SO 

as  he  expects  to  sail   the  beginning  of  Apr.,  and  9  May  1787. 
the  week  after."  Covering1  letter  and  its 

From  Thomas  Brand  Hollis 

DEAR  SIR  Chesterfield  Street  April  17th.  1787. 

I  request  the  favor  of  your  benevolent  acceptance  of  the  memoirs 
of  the  late  excellent  Thomas  Hollis,  who  was  a  friend  to  the  rights 
of  America  and  of  mankind  in  general.  How  would  he  have  re- 
joiced to  have  seen  these  days  "Tyranny  defeated  and  the  seeds  of 
freedom  planted  in  another  world  for  which  he  could  scarcely  have 
hoped,"  tho  to  which  he  was  in  no  small  degree  instrumental  by 
dispersing  the  best  of  books  on  the  most  interesting  subjects. 

An  encouragement  for  others  to  do  the  like.  May  they  obtain  a 
place  in  your  library  which  I  shall  esteem  an  honor. 

A  translation  of  the  History  of  the  Hospital  of  St.  Elizabeth  just 
published  waits  on  you,  in  which  are  many  singular  notes  and  cir- 

I  am  Dear  Sir  with  great  esteem  your  most  humble  Sert., 


RC     (DL.C);    endorsed.    Recorded    in  1780,  were  not  forwarded  to  Bordeaux 

SJL  as  received   25   May    1787  at  Bor-  by  Short   (or  Petit),  but  were  retained 

deaux.  The  two  volumes  of  Memoirs  of  in  Paris  (see  TJ  to  Hollis,  2  July  1787; 

Thomas  Hollis,  edited  by  Francis  Black-  Sowerby,  No.  389). 
burne,    and   privately   printed,    London, 

From  Philip  Mazzei 

Paris,  17  Apr.  1787.  Mazzei  here  acknowledges  T«Ps  letter  of  4  Apr. 
and  thanks  him  for  offering  to  supply  him  with  money;  by  exercising 
rigid  economy  he  can  subsist  until  TJ  returns;  however,  if  TJ  wishes  to 
give  him  an  order  for  a  small  sum  he  will  hold  it  in  reserve  and  give  it 
back  to  TJ  on  his  return.  The  Prince  of  Cond67s  cook,  during  the 
Prince's  absence,  took  James  [Hemings]  as  a  pupil;  instructed  him 
for  one  day  in  town,  five  days  in  the  country,  and  four  after  their 
return  to  town.  James  says  that  he  learned  when  they  were  in  the  coun- 
try that  the  cost,  including  maintenance,  was  12  francs  a  day;  the  cook 
says  he  told  him  this  before  they  left  town;  Mazzei  knew  nothing  of  the 
arrangement  until  later.  Has  told  James  that  even  if  he  were  informed 
of  the  price  after  they  went  to  the  country,  he  is  not  to  be  excused  for 
continuing  the  four  days  after  their  return.  The  new  cook  will  take 
James  on  at  10O  francs  a  month  if  the  arrangement  is  by  the  year  or 


17    APRIL     1787 

at  200  francs  by  the  month.  The  Prince's  cook  is  willing  to  con- 
tinue on  the  old  basis  when  the  Prince  is  in  Paris,  and  will  arrange  to 
take  him  to  Burgundy  during  the  session  of  Parliament  there.  It  is 
Mazzei's  opinion  that  it  would  be  best  to  conclude  arrangements  with 
the  Prince's  cook  by  paying  him  the  five  louis  for  which  James'  unwari- 
ness  or  indiscretion  has  obligated  him.  Asks  TJ's  decision  on  the  matter. 
Mazzei  went  to  TJ's  house  some  time  ago  and,  as  a  result  of  the  conduct 
of  the  servants  who  had  been  given  notice,  he  ordered  them  all  to  be 
turned  out  at  the  end  of  the  month,  even  though  TJ  had  permitted 
them  to  stay  until  they  found  other  employment;  suggests  that  TJ  write 
Petit  to  send  them  away  at  once  if  he  has  not  already  done  so.  Is  sorry 
to  learn  of  the  knavery  of  young  Soria.  Even  though  TJ  finds  satis- 
factory gardeners  and  farmers  in  Provence,  he  will  find  better  ones 
around  Genoa  or  in  Tuscany.  They  will  talk  of  this  in  the  future.  The 
Marquis  (Lafayette)  has  a  chest  ailment  which  causes  Mazzei  con- 
cern; begs  TJ  to  write  him  seriously  not  to  neglect  his  health,  his  life 
is  too  precious,  Mazzei  has  finally  begun  to  print;  will  be  satisfied  if  he 
is  finished  in  August.  Asks  for  news  when  time  permits. 

RC  (DLC);  %  p.;  in  Italian;  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJTL  as  received  3  May  1787 
at  Air-en-Provence.  See  Partout  to  TJ,  Jan.  1787;  TJ  to  Mazzei,  6  May  1787. 

From  John  Sullivan 

[Durham,  N.H.,  17  Apr.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  26  Sep. 
1787  (not  found);  enclosed  in  Sullivan  to  TJ,  29  May  1787.  See 
Sullivan  to  TJ,  16  Apr.  1787;  TJ  to  Sullivan,  5  Oct.  1787.] 

From  John  Adams 

DEAR  SIR  London  18  Apr.  1787 

Mr.  Mortimer  the  Bearer  of  this  Letter,  is  a  Gentleman  of 
Letters,  and  although  little  known  to  me,  is  recommended  by  some 
of  my  Friends  as  a  worthy,  though  unfortunate  Man.  He  is  repre- 
sented to  be  a  Friend  to  Liberty,  and  Humanity,  and  as  such  I  beg 
leave  to  introduce  him  to  you,  and  to  ask  for  him  any  friendly 
Advice  or  Aid  you  may  be  able  to  afford  him  in  his  Views,  of 
litterary  Employment  as  a  Teacher  of  Languages,  or  otherwise, 
With  great  Regard  I  am,  my  dear  Sir  always  yours, 


-RCi,  iP^F^  endoraedi   "Adams  John  reed,  at  Nantes."  Recorded  in  SJTL  as  re- 
ceived 31  May  1787. 


From  Peter  Carr 

DEAR  UNCLE  Williamsburg,  April  18th.  '87 

Your  daughter  being  about  to  sail  to  France  gives  me  an  oppor- 
tunity of  informing  you  of  my  situation  and  studies  since  I  wrote 
last.  I  am  still  at  the  university  attending  the  professors  of  Nat.  and 
Mor.  philosophy,  Mathematicks  and  modern  languages;  and  Mr. 
Wythe  has  given  me  a  very  friendly  invitation  to  his  lectures  on 
law.  I  have  likewise  the  good  fortune  to  be  a  private  pupil,  and  am 
now  reading  with  him,  Herodotus,  Sophocles,  Cicero  and  some 
particular  parts  of  Horace.  Beside  the  advantage  of  his  literary 
instructions  he  adds  advice  and  lessons  of  morality,  which  are  not 
only  pleasing  and  instructive  now,  but  will  be   (I  hope)   of  real 
utility  in  future.  He  is  said  to  be  without  religion,  but  to  me  he 
appears  to  possess  the  most  rational  part  of  it,  and  fulfills  that 
great  command,  Do  unto  all  men  as  thou  wouldst  they  should  do 
unto  thee.  And  now  Sir  I  should  be  glad  of  your  advice  on  the 
subject  of  religion;  as  I  think  it  time  to  be  fixed  on  a  point  which 
has  had  so  many  advocates  and  opponents,  and  still  seems  to  be 
dubious.  I  should  wish  your  advice  as  to  the  books  I  should  read, 
and  in  what  order.  Mr.  Wythe  has  just  put  Lucretius  into  my 
hands,  whose  sect  and  opinions,  men  generally  think  dangerous, 
but  under  so  good  a  guide  I  fear  not  his  opinions  whatever  they  be, 
and  hope  rather  to  be  benefited,  than  as  some  scrupulous  people 
think,  contaminated  by  him.  I  find  nothing  as  disadvantageous  and 
troublesome  as  attending  too  many  things  at  once;  I  have  unfortu- 
nately attempted  it  this  year,  and  am  apprehensive  I  shall  have  a 
perfect  knowledge  of  none.  I  wish  for  a  plan  and  order  of  study 
from  you.  I  have  the  satisfaction  to  inform  you  that  my  brothers 
Sam  and  Dabney  are  in  good  situations,  the  first  in  Maryland  and 
the  second  at  an  accademy  in  P.  Edward  under  the  direction  of  a 
Mr.  Smith.  I  was  very  sorry  to  hear  from  Mr.  Maury  that  you 
thought  no  American  should  go  to  Europe  under  thirty;  I  have, 
and  ever  had  an  invincible  inclination  to  see  the  world,  and  am 
perfectly  convinced  (though  my  situation  is  as  good  as  any  in  this 
country)    that  to  see  something  of  the  world,  get  the  polish  of 
Europe,  and  mix  the  knowledge  of  books  with  that  of  men  must 
be  infinitely  superior  to  any  advantages  enjoyed  here.  My  health 
has  been  much  injured  by  the  air  here.  I  never  pass  a  summer  or 
fall  without  a  severe  bilious  fever.  Present  my  compliments  to  my 

[  299  ] 

19    APRIL     1787 

Cousin  Patsy  and  believe  me  to  be  with  due  respect  and  affection 
your  nephew,  PETER  CARR 

RC  (ViU);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3O  June  1787. 

From  Castries 

A  Versailles  le  19.  Avril  1787 

II  fut  arme"  a  Amsterdam,  Monsieur,  vers  la  fin  de  Pannee  1780, 
une  fr€gate  nomm£e  L'Indien  command€e  par  le  Capitaine  John 
Joyner  au  service  des  Etats  de  la  Caroline  du  Sud,  destin^e  &  coure 
sur  les  6nemis  des  Etats  Unis  de  TAmerique  Septentrionale,  et  sous 
la  conduite  du  Commodore  Gillon.  II  paroit  que  PEquipage  de  ce 
Bitiment  fut  engage*  a  Dunkerque;  II  existe  en  effet  au  Bureau  des 
classes  de  ce  Port  une  Liste  de  188.  homines  entr'autres  Matelots, 
Novices  et  Volontaires,  qui  tous  obtinrent  le  17.  Aoftt  de  ladlte 
annSe  des  permissions  pour  se  rendre  £.  Amsterdam  et  6tre  em- 
barque's  sur  ladite  frigate.  On  trouve  dans  ce  mSme  Bureau  un 
avis  aux  Volontaires  dont  je  joins  ici  copie,  qui  est  une  espece  de 
convention  arr6te"e  par  le  Capitaine  Joyner  avec  ces  Volontaires 
engage's.  II  y  a  tout  lieu  de  croire  que  Pexp^dition  eftt  lieu. 

Quelques  gens  de  cet  Equipage  rgclament  le  payement  des 
Salaires  qu'ils  ont  gagne"s  a  bord  de  ladite  frigate  L'Indien.  Un 
nomm6  Nicolas  Valentin  Fontaine,  entr'autres,  r£pete  ceux  de  21 
mois  de  services  sur  ce  B&timent.  Je  me  persuade  que  si  le  paye- 
ment des  gens  de  cet  Equipage  a  e*te"  differe*  jusqu'a  present,  ce  n:a 
pft  £tre  que  par  la  difficulte*  de  les  retrouver,  ou  peut  £tre  parce 
que  ceux  cy  n'auront  pas  scQ  comment  et  par  qui  se  le  procurer. 
Je  vous  prie,  Monsieur,  de  vouloir  bien  faire  prendre  des  ren- 
seignemens  a  ce  sujet,  a  TeflFet  de  faire  rendre  £  ces  malheureux 
la  justice  quails  peuvent  avoir  droit  de  r£clamer  et  qu'ils  ont  tout 
lieu  d'attendre  par  votre  entremise. 

J'ai  Phonneur  d'etre  tres  parfaitement,  Monsieur,  votre  tr^s 
humble  et  tr&s  ob^issant  serviteur,  LE  MAL.  DE  CASTRIES 

RC  (DLC)j  in  a  clerk's  hand,  signed  at  £3  sterling1  per  sailor;  to  give  officers 

by  Castries;  endorsed.  Tr  (DNA:  PCC,  and  sailors  to  the  number   of  5OO  half 

No,    1O7,   n).   Recorded   in    SJL    as    re-  the  value  of  prizes  taken;   and  to  show 

ceived  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-Provence.  good    treatment    to    those    behaving    as 

Enclosure:   "Avis  aux  Volontaires,"  un-  true  Americans;  in  return  for  which  the 

dated  but  evidently   issued   shortly   be-  signatories   to   the    "Avis"    acknowledge 

fore   or   soon    after    17   Augr,    178O,   by  themselves  to  be  volunteers  in  the  serv- 

which  Captain  Joyner  of  ISlndien  prom-  ice  of  South  Carolina  for  twelve  months 

ised  to  pay  each  man  his  road  expenses  and    promise    to    reach    Amsterdam    as 

to  Amsterdam  where  wagres  would  start  speedily  as  possible    (DLC:   TJ  Papers, 

{  300  ] 

1  9    APRIL     1787 

13 s  2312-3;  Tr  in  DNA:  PCC,  No.  1O7,  frigates  and  military  and  naval  stores, 
n;  containing1  the  names  of  24  persons,  arrived  in  France  in  1779.  In  May  178O 
beginning*  "Grinnell,  Lieutt.— Alexander  he  secured  the  frig-ate  through  the  Che- 
Moore—James  Hogan,"  &c.)-  Copies  of  valier  de  Luxembourg-;  assembled  a 
Castries7  letter  and  its  enclosure  were  crew;  bought,  on  credit  for  the  state,  a 
forwarded  in  TJ's  to  Jay  of  21  June  quantity  of  clothing  and  ammunition; 
1787.  and  after  innumerable  delays,  which  in- 
TJ  was  never  directly  concerned  with  curred  further  financial  complications, 
the  prolonged  negotiations  for  the  settle-  the  ship  left  the  Texel  in  August  1781. 
ment  of  claims  against  and  by  the  state  Later,  Gillon  joined  the  governor  of 
of  South  Carolina  in  connection  with  Cuba  in  an  expedition  against  the  Ba- 
the frigate  L'INTHEN,  renamed  the  South  hamas,  for  which  he  never  received  the 
Carolina*  but  during  his  residence  in  sum  promised  Mm.  In  December  1782 
France  he  did  at  various  times,  as  in  the  ship  was  captured  by  the  British, 
this  instance,  transmit  papers  relating  The  claims  against  the  state  of  South 
to  the  case  and  answered  queries  occa-  Carolina  occasioned  by  this  disastrous 
sioned  by  the  negotiations.  In  1778  the  venture  were  a  matter  of  litigation  until 
state  of  South  Carolina  made  Alexander  1854  (DAB,  under  Gillon;  IX  E.  H. 
Gillon  a  commodore  in  the  state  navy  Smith,  "Commodore  Alexander  Gillon 
and  elected  Joseph  Joyner,  William  and  the  Frigate  South  Carolina,"  S.C. 
Robertson,  and  John  McQueen  captains  Hist,  and  Geneal.  Mag.^  ix  [19O8],  189- 
of  frigates.  Gillon,  duly  authorized  by  219;  D.  E.  H.  Smith,  "The  Luxembourg 
the  state  to  sell  products  and  borrow  Claims,"  same,  x  [19O9],  92-115). 
money  abroad  for  the  purchase  of  three 

From  Benjamin  Franklin 

DEAR  SIR  Philada.  April  19.  1787 

I  have  lately  received  your  Favour  of  Dec.  23.  The  Diplomas  I 
hope  are  got  to  hand  before  this  time.  I  am  much  obliged  by  your 
taking  care  of  my  Encyclopedic.  Mr.  Hopkinson  will  account  with 
you  for  it. 

I  am  glad  to  learn  that  every  thing  is  quiet  in  Europe,  and  like  to 
continue  so.  I  hope  the  same  will  be  the  case  here;  tho'  Boutdefeus 
are  not  wanting  among  us,  who  by  inflammatory  Writings  in  the 
Papers  are  perpetually  endeavouring  to  set  us  together  by  the  Ears 
about  Taxes,  and  Certificates,  &c.  The  Insurgents  in  the  Massa- 
chusets  are  quelled:  and  I  believe  a  great  Majority  of  that  People 
approve  the  Measures  of  Government  in  reducing  them.  Yet  I  see 
that  in  the  late  Election  they  have  left  out  the  late  Governor  and 
chosen  Mr.  Hancock.  But  he  was  always  more  popular  than  Mr. 
Bowdoin,  had  resign'd  on  Account  of  his  Infirmities,  and  his 
Health  being  mended,  his  Friends  have  taken  Advantage  of  the 
Offence  given  by  Mr.  Bowdoin  to  the  Malcontents,  to  encrease  the 
Number  of  Votes  against  him.  His  refusing  the  Bill  for  reducing 
the  Governor's  Salary,  has  also,  I  imagine  hurt  his  Interest  at  this 
Election.  So  that  upon  the  whole  I  do  not  think  his  not  being  chosen 
any  Proof  of  general  Dissatisfaction  with  the  Measures  taken  to 
suppress  the  Rebellion,  or  with  the  Constitution. 


19    APRIL     1787 

Our  Federal  Constitution  is  generally  thought  defective  and  a 
Convention,  first  proposed  by  Virginia,  and  since  recommended  by 
Congress,  is  to  assemble  here  next  Month,  to  revise  it  and  propose 
Amendments.  The  Delegates  generally  appointed  as  far  as  I  have 
heard  of  them  are  Men  of  Character  for  Prudence  and  Ability,  so 
that  I  hope  Good  from  their  Meeting.  Indeed,  if  it  does  not  do  Good 
it  must  do  Harm,  as  it  will  show  that  we  have  not  Wisdom  enough 
among  us  to  govern  ourselves;  and  will  strengthen  the  Opinion  of 
some  Political  Writers,  that  popular  Governments  cannot  long  sup- 
port themselves. 

I  am  sorry  for  the  Death  of  M.  Peyronet  on  Account  of  Mr. 
Paine,  who  would  have  been  pleas'd  and  instructed  by  conferring 
with  that  ingenious  and  skilful  Artist  on  the  Subject  of  his  Bridge, 
and  it  was  my  Intention  to  introduce  him  to  Mr.  Peyronet's  Ac- 
quaintance. I  have  requested  the  Duke  de  Rochefoucauld  to  procure 
him  a  Sight  of  the  Models  and  Drafts  in  the  Repository  of  the  Ponts 
et  Chauss^es.  You  are  well  acquainted  with  Mr.  Paine's  Merit, 
and  need  no  Request  of  mine  to  serve  him  in  his  Views,  and  in- 
troduce him  where  it  may  be  proper,  and  of  Advantage  to  him. 

With  great  and  sincere  Esteem  I  have  the  honour  to  be  Your 
Excellency's  most  obedient  &  most  humble  Servant, 


RC  (DLC).  PrC  (DLC:  Franklin  Papers).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  11  June 

From  St.  Victour 

[Paris,  19  Apr.  1787.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at 
Aix-en-Provence.  Not  found;  but  see  TJ  to  St.  Victour,  &  May  1787.] 

From  Bellon 

Dieppe,  21  Apr.  1787.  Encloses  a  letter  just  received  from  Captain 
Thomson,  an  Englishman,  commanding  the  Mercury  'Venant  de  Rich- 
mond en  Virginia,  avec  une  cargaison  de  tabac  pour  la  ferme." 

RC    (DLC);    2   p.;    below  signature:  ably  one  of  the  Virginia  letters  received 

Interprete    Royal,    cy    devant    Employe  on     3     May—the     missing     letter     from 

dans    L-armee   de   Rochambeau,    od   J'ai  Banister  of  25  Dec.    1786,   one  of  Ran- 

Eu  L'Honneur  de  Connoitre  Son  Excel-  dolph's  two  letters  of  28  Jan.   1787,  or 

lency    a    Baltimore    in    Maryland";    en-  one    of    the    letters    from    Francis     and 

dorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL   as  received  3  Elizabeth  Wayles  Eppes  or  Mary  Jeffer- 

May      1787     at     Aix-en-Provence.     En-  son   (see  tinder  22  and  23  May   1786). 
closure  not  identified,  but  it  was  prob- 

C  302  } 

From  the  Abbes  Arnoux  and  Chalut 

Paris  23.  avril  1787. 

C'est  aux  sentiments  que  vous  inspirez  Monsieur,  que  vous  devez 
le  bon  accuil  dont  nous  remerciez.  L'estime  et  Pattachement  que 
nous  avons  pour  vous  nous  fera  saisir  toutes  les  occasions  qui  se 
presenteront  pour  faire  des  choses  qui  vous  soient  agreables. 

Si  vous  ne  connoissiez  la  france  que  par  les  provinces  que  vous 
avez  parcourues,  vous  auriez  une  meilleure  opinion  des  moeurs 
fran§oises;  vous  6tes  trop  eclair^  pour  attribuer  &  d'autres  causes 
qu'au  Gouvernement  les  vices  qui  vous  ont  choque.  Nous  sommes 
ce  que  les  loix  nous  ont  faits.  Plaignez  notre  vieille  nation  et 
£elicitez-vous  de  la  vertu,  de  la  jeunesse  de  la  vStre.  Nous  n'esperons 
pas  de  vous  ressembler  jamais,  Phistoire  de  tous  les  terns  nous  ote 
cet  espoir.  Nulle  nation  n'a  passS  de  la  corruption  a  la  vertu  et  a 
la  Iibert6.  Telle  est  notre  destinge. 

Nous  attendons  avec  impatience  votre  retour.  Vous  viendrez 
charge  de  bien  des  Connoissances  dans  les  arts  utiles,  que  vous 
enverrez  dans  votre  patrie  comme  un  hommage  de  votre  amour 
pour  elle.  Gardez-vous  bien  de  lui  donner  le  gout  des  arts  agreables. 
Laissez-nous  cet  aliment  de  corruption,  et  conservez  une  vertu  qui 
fera  seule  votre  bonheur. 

Quand  vous  serez  £  Paris  nous  causerons  de  La  retraite  de  M. 
de  Calonne,  de  I'assembl^e  des  notables  et  nous  vous  renouvellerons 
les  assurances  de  notre  estime  et  de  notre  amiti6  avec  Lesquelles 
nous  avons  1'honneur  d'Stre  Monsieur  vos  tres  humbles  et  trfes 
obeissants  Serviteurs,  L*ABB£  ARNOUX 


RC    (DLC);    endorsed.    Recorded    in  which    TJ    compiled    himself,    has    an 

SJL  as  received  3  May  1787  at  Aix-en-  occasional  error  in  it,  and  the  present 

Provence.    In   TJ's    Alphabetical    Index  entry  may  be  one.  There  is  no  entry  in 

to   SJL  there   is    an    entry  for   a   letter  SJL  itself  for  a  letter  from  Arnoux  of  3 

from  the  AbbS  Arnoux  to  TJ,  dated  3  May   1787;   in   the  Index  TJ  probably 

May  1787.  It  is  possible  that  Arnoux  did  transposed  the   date   of  receipt  for  the 

write  such  a  letter,  but  none  of  that  date  present  letter. 
has  been  found.  The  Alphabetical  Index, 

From  John  Banister,  Jr. 

DEAR  SIR  New-York  Apl.  23d.  1787 

Since  my  arrival  here  I  have  been  unable  to  pursue  my  journey 
to  Virginia  on  account  of  a  very  severe  indisposition  for  which  I 
am  in  a  great  measure  indebted  to  the  Captn.  of  the  packet.  The 

[  303  ] 

23    APRIL     1787 

people  here  like  the  rest  of  mankind  are  discontented  with,  and  cry 
out  against  the  Government,  whilst  it  only  rests  with  them  to  form 
such  a  one  as  may  render  them  respectable  and  happy.  No  farther 
powers  are  as  yet  given  to  Congress,  nor  is  their  a  prospect  that 
they  will  be  granted  soon.  Many  complaints  in  Virginia  of  the 
poverty  of  the  people,  and  to  render  the  evil  still  greater  they  have 
laid  duties  on  the  exportation  of  those  articles  which  are  most  likely 
to  bring  money  into  the  State.  In  consequence  of  this  the  Tobacco 
from  Carolina  no  longer  comes  to  Virginia  for  exportation.  There 
is  a  heavy  tonage  on  all  foreign  Shipping.  The  price  of  Tobacco 
is  from  twenty  to  twenty  two  and  six  pence,  the  prospects  for  crops 
are  at  present  very  good. 

Colo.  Archd.  Gary  dead,  this  is  all  the  news  I  have  been  able  to 
collect  from  Virginia.  In  the  course  of  next  month  there  will  be  a 
meeting  at  Philadelphia  of  deputies  sent  by  the  several  states  for 
the  purpose  of  forming  some  plan  by  which  the  chain  of  Union 
may  be  drawn  more  close  and  rendered  more  adequate  to  the 
purposes  of  federal  Government.  What  will  be  their  success  can- 
not as  yet  be  determined,  but  every  person  who  wishes  well  to  his 
country  must  be  interested  in  the  occasion.  The  prospect  which 
lies  before  us  is  perhaps  the  fairest  which  has  been  ever  spread 
before  any  set  of  men;  could  they  be  only  persuaded  to  adapt  their 
ideas  to  their  situation  and  not  think  it  really  worse  than  it  is. 

Your  seeds  have  been  delivered  to  the  members  of  Congress,  but 
they  have  never  had  it  in  their  power  to  send  them  on;  they  are  now 
under  my  care  and  as  I  set  out  tomorrow  will  not  be  delayed  much 
longer.  The  seeds  being  sealed  up  I  shall  take  none  of  the  Sulla 
seed  but  must  beg  the  favor  of  you  to  send  me  some  when  it  will 
be  most  convenient  to  you.  Those  for  South  Carolina  have  been 
sent  to  their  directions. 

I  am  requested  by  Mr.  Hilegas  who  lives  in  the  house  with  me 
to  present  you  with  his  best  wishes.  As  soon  as  I  arrive  in  Virginia 
I  will  write  you  fully  on  every  subject  which  I  think  may  interest 
you.  In  the  mean  time  I  am  with  the  greatest  respect  your  obliged 
friend  and  humble  Servt.,  Jisro.  BANISTER  Junr. 

RC  (MHI),  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  11  June  1787. 


From  David  S.  Franks 

DEAR  SIR  New  York  23d.  Apl.  1787 

After  a  very  disagreable  Passage  of  50  days  we  arrived  in  this 
City  and  I  take  the  earliest  Opportunity  of  informing  you  that  I  have 
delivered  the  Dispatches  entrusted  to  my  Care  to  Mr.  Jay  and  have 
also  acquitted  myself  of  the  Little  Commissions  and  orders  Your 
Excellency  honored  me  with  at  my  departure  from  Paris.  The 
Packages  and  Letters  are  all  forwarded  to  their  addresses  and  those 
recommended  to  my  particular  Attention  for  Philadelphia  I  sent  on 
by  a  Colo.  Melcher  who  has  promised  to  deliver  them  with  his  own 

Our  Voyage  from  Havre  was  of  itself  tedious  and  rendered  still 
more  so  by  the  inconvenience  of  the  Ship  and  the  unkind  manner 
with  which  we  were  treated;  the  Provisions  of  meat  were  good  but 
the  wine  was  execrable  and  not  a  single  thing  of  those  refreshments 
so  necessary  to  People  who  are  sick  at  Sea,  but  two  loaves  of  white 
Sugar  and  not  a  drop  of  white  or  sweet  wines  on  board.  Mr.  B. 
and  myself  suffered  more  for  the  want  of  them  than  ever  we  did 
for  the  want  of  any  thing  before.  Even  our  eggs,  Raisins  &c.  were 
expended  before  we  were  three  weeks  out.  I  mention  these  things 
as  they  appear  to  me  to  be  impediments  to  that  decided  preference 
which  it  is  wished  the  French  Packets  may  have  over  the  English; 
the  Lieutenants  eat  in  the  Cabin  at  the  first  table  and  think  they 
ought  to  have  the  Power  of  commanding  every  thing  in  it,  but  also 
over  the  Persons  of  the  Passengers.  This  occasions  continual  dis- 
putes and  makes  the  time  pass  extreamlly  irksome  to  those  who  are 
already  worn  down  with  fatigue  and  sickness.  There  is  a  second 
table  on  Board  at  which  (  as  on  board  the  f rench  frigates  )  the  Lieu- 
tenants might  preside  and  the  Captain  by  that  means  have  it  in  his 
Power  to  furnish  his  Passengers  more  abundantly.  At  present  he  is 
only  allowed  4  Livres  pr.  day  for  his  Lieutenants  for  which  he  can- 
not afford  to  give  them  such  things  as  he  ought  to  furnish  to  People 
who  pay  him  twenty  five  Louis  for  the  Passage.  In  short  Sir  the 
Affair  of  living,  on  board  the  french  packets,  is  so  badly  arranged 
that  I  am  fully  convinced  that  no1  man  who  has  once  crossed  the  water 
in  the  way  we  have  will  rather  than  do  it  again,  give  Fifty  Louis 
to  go  in  any  other  ship.  There  are  two  English  Packet  boats  now 
in  this  Harbor,  and  sorry  I  am  to  say  that  they  not  only  merit  a 
Preference  but  that  they  will  have  it  too.  I  wish  a  change  might  be 
effected,  and  this  may  be  easily  done  by  seperating  the  Lieutenants 
from  the  Passengers. 

C  305} 

23    APRIL    1787 

Mr.  Banister  has  been  very  unwell  since  his  arrival  and  I  am  con- 
vinced his  disorder  was  chiefly  owing  to  the  bad  wine  he  was 
obliged  to  drink  on  board.  He  will  set  out  in  a  day  or  two  for 

I  can  write  you  nothing  new  except  the  arrival  yesterday  of  an 
Eastindia  Vessell  which  sail'd  from  this  about  16  months  since. 
She  will  make  a  very  great  Voyage.  She  brings  an  Account  of  the 
death  of  the  famous  Colonel  Sears  of  this  City  of  a  fever  at  Canton. 
I  suppose  Mr.  Maddesson  will  write  you  on  the  political  situation 
of  America.  I  shall  therefore  only  say  that  every  body  here  seems 
much  displeased  with  it,  and  not  much  expected  from  the  Conven- 
tion which  is  to  meet  at  Philadelphia  the  12th.  of  next  month. 

I  take  the  Liberty  of  requesting  your  Excellency  to  deliver  the 
inclosed  Letter  and  at  the  same  time  to  present  my  most  affectionate 
Regards  to  all  the  Passy  family  and  to  Mr.  Short  with  my  respect- 
ful Compliments  to  Miss  Jefferson  and  to  believe  me  Dear  Sir 
Your  most  obedient  and  obliged  humble  Servt., 


RC   (DLC).  Recorded  in  SJL  as  re-  28  Apr.,  quoting  a  New  York  paper  of 

ceived    11    June    1787.   Enclosure   not  12  Apr.,  reported  on  the  packet's  arrival 

identified.  and  added:  "Colonel  Franks  the  Ameri- 

The  difficulties  that  Franks  had  ex-  can    consul     came    passenger     in     the 

perienced  on   embarking"   at   Le   Havre  packet.  He  informs  us  of  the  death  of 

(  see  Franks  to  TJ,  11  Feb.  1787)  were  that    eminent    and    patriotic    statesman 

not  calculated  to  soothe  his  feelings  or  the  Count  de  Vergennes,  prime  minister 

prepare   him   for   the    difficulties    of    a  of   France.    America   has    truly    lost   a 

long  voyag-e.  The   packet  had  left  Le  disinterested  friend  by  this  sad  event." 
Havre  on  17  Feb.  and  arrived  in  New 

York  on  Monday  morning,  9  Apr.  1787;  *  Thus  in  MS. 

the   Pa.  Journ.   and   Weekly  Adv.  for 

From  David  Hartley 

MY  DEAR  SIR  Golden  Square  April  23  1787 

By  the  favour  of  Coll.  Smith  I  trouble  you  with  this  line  of 
which  the  purpose  and  contents  are  only  to  entitle  me  to  your  re- 
membrance. I  sincerely  regret  when  I  had  first  the  pleasure  of  your 
acquaintance  that  the  time  allowed  me  to  profit  by  your  friendship 
was  so  short.  This,  for  private  and  personal  reasons  of  respect  and 
friendship  to  you — and  for  public  reasons,  because  I  know  your 
candour  and  good  dispositions  to  cultivate  friendship  and  union 
between  our  two  countries.  I  beg  of  you  to  believe  of  me  the  same 
dispositions  and  that  I  shall  constantly  persevere  in  them  thro  all 
changes  and  chances.  I  beg  to  have  the  pleasure  of  hearing  from 


23    APRIL     1787 

you.  I  wish  very  much  that  I  could  receive  by  any  channel  of  com- 
munication any  sort  of  news  and  particular  Congress  journals  from 
america.  Could  you  be  so  good  as  to  put  [me]  into  some  way  of  af- 
fecting this.  I  am  anxious  for  the  state  of  public  transactions  which 
may  interest  our  two  Countries.  I  am  Dear  Sir  Your  much  obliged 
friend  &  most  obedt.  Sert.,  D  HARTLEY 

RC   (DLC);  endorsed.  Recorded  in  SJL  as  received  25  May  1787  at  Bordeaux. 

From  James  Madison 

DEAR  SIR  April  23.  1787. 

Since  my  last  which  was  of  March  19.  I  have  had  the  pleasure 
of  yours  of  Deer.  16.  Jany.  30.  and  Feby.  7.  which  were  handed 
to  me  by  CoL  Franks.  Along  with  them  were  received  the  copying 
machine  and  other  articles  referred  to  in  them.  You  will  accept  my 
warmest  thanks  for  all  these  favors.  The  packet  for  the  Governor 
of  Virginia  under  the  same  cover  with  your  letter  of  Feby.  7.  has 
been  forwarded.  The  accident  to  your  wrist  was  first  made  known 
to  me  by  these  communications,  I  learnt  with  satisfaction  from 
Col.  Franks  that  the  pain  and  weakness  was  apparently  going  off, 
and  ardently  wish  that  your  projected  trip  to  the  South  of  France 
may  produce  a  radical  cure. 

The  vigorous  measures  finally  pursued  by  the  Government  of 
Massachusetts  against  the  insurgents >  had  the  intended  effect  of 
dispersing  them.  By  some  it  was  feared  that  they  would  re-embody 
on  the  return  of  favorable  weather.  As  yet  no  symptom  of  such  a 
design  has  appeared.  It  would  seem  that  they  mean  to  try  their 
strength  in  another  way;  that  is,  by  endeavoring  to  give  the  elec- 
tions such  a  turn  as  may  promote  their  views  under  the  auspices  of 
Constitutional  forms.  How  far  they  may  succeed  is  not  yet  reducible 
to  certainty.  That  a  great  change  will  be  effected  in  the  component 
members  of  the  government  is  certain,  but  the  degree  of  influence 
imputable  to  the  malcontents  can  not  be  well  known  till  some 
specimen  shall  be  given  of  the  temper  of  the  new  rulers.  Mr. 
Hancock  takes  the  place  of  Mr.  Bowdoin.  His  general  character 
forbids  a  suspicion  of  his  patriotic  principles;  but  as  he  is  an 
idolater  of  popularity,  it  is  to  be  feared  that  he  may  be  seduced 
by  this  foible  into  dishonorable  compliances.  A  great  proportion 
of  the  Senate  is  also  changed,  and  a  greater  proportion  of  the  other 
branch  it  is  expected  will  be  changed.  A  paper  emission  at  least  is 
apprehended  from  this  revolution  in  their  councils. 

{307  J 

23    APRIL     1787 

Congress  have  agreed  to  Mr.  Jays  report  on  the  treaty  of  peace 
and  to  an  address  which  accompanies  it.  Copies  of  both  will  no 
doubt  be  sent  you  from  his  department.  The  Legislature  of  this 
State  which  was  sitting  at  the  time  and  on  whose  account  the  acts 
of  Congress  were  hurried  through,  has  adjourned  till  Jany.  next 
without  deciding  on  them.  This  is  an  ominous  example  to  the 
other  states,  and  must  weaken  much  the  claim  on  Great  Britain 
of  an  execution  of  the  Treaty  on  her  part  as  promised  in  case  of 
proper  steps  being  taken  on  ours.  Virginia  we  foresee  will  be 
among  the  foremost  in  seizing  pretexts  for  evading  the  injunctions 
of  Congress.  S.  Carolina  is  not  less  infected  with  the  same  spirit. 
The  present  deliberations  of  Congress  turn  on  1.  the  sale  of  the 
western  lands,  2.  the  Government  of  the  Western  settlements 
within  the  federal  domain,  3.  the  final  settlement  of  the  Accounts 
between  the  Union  and  its  members,  4.  the  treaty*  [with]2  Spain. 

1.  Between  six  and  seven  hundred  thousand  acres  have  been 
surveyed  in  townships  under  the  land  ordinance,   and  are  to  be 
sold  forthwith.  The  place  where  Congress  sit  is  fixed  for  the  sale. 
Its  excentricity  and  remoteness  from  the  premises  will  I  apprehend 
give  disgust.  On  the  most  eligible  plan  of  selling  the  unsurveyed 
residue    Congress    are   much   divided;    the    Eastern    States    being 
strongly  attached  to  that  of  townships,  notwithstanding  the  ex- 
pence  incident  to  it;  the  Southern  being  equally  biassed  in  favor 
of  indiscriminate  locations,  notwithstanding  the  many  objections 
against  that  mode.  The  dispute  will  probably  terminate  in  some 
kind  of  compromise,  if  one  can  be  hit  upon. 

2.  The  Government  of  the  settlements  on  the  Illinois  and  Wa- 
bash  is  a  subject  very  perplexing  in  itself;  and  rendered  more  so  by 
our  ignorance  of  many  circumstances  on  which  a  right  judgment 
depends.  The  inhabitants  at  those  places,  claim  protection  against 
the  savages,  and  some  provision  for  both  criminal  and  Civil  justice. 
It  appears  also  that  land  jobbers  are  among  them  who  are  likely  to 
multiply  litigations  among  individuals,  and  by  collusive  purchases 
of  spurious  titles,  to  defraud  the  United  States, 

3.  The  settlement  of  the  public  accounts  has  long  been  pursued 
in  varied  shapes,  and  with  little  prospect  of  success.  The  idea  which 
has  long  been  urged  by  some  of  us,  seems  now  to  be  seriously 
embraced,  of  establishing  a  plenipotentiary  tribunal  for  the  final 
adjustment  of  the  mutual  claims  on  the  great  and  simple  principle 
of  equity.  An  ordinance  for  this  purpose  has  been  reported  by  the 
Treasury  board  and  has  made  some  progress  through  Congress, 


2  3     APRIL     1787 

It  is  likely  to  be  much  retarded  by  the  thinness  of  Congress,  as 
indeed  is  almost  every  other  matter  of  importance. 

4.  The  Spanish  negotiation  is  in  a  very  ticklish  situation.  You 
have  been  alr